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Practice%20of%20abstract%20reading,%20translation%20and%20writing

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Title: Practice%20of%20abstract%20reading,%20translation%20and%20writing


1
Practice of abstract reading, translation and
writing
  • Abstract reading and translation
  • Abstract writing

2
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg1 What Will 5G Be?
  • What will 5G be? What it will not be is an
    incremental advance on 4G. The previous four
    generations of cellular technology have each been
    a major paradigm shift that has broken backward
    compatibility. Indeed, 5G will need to be a
    paradigm shift that includes very high carrier
    frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base
    station and device densities, and unprecedented
    numbers of antennas. However, unlike the previous
    four generations, it will also be highly
    integrative tying any new 5G air interface and
    spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide
    universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user
    experience.

3
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg1 What Will 5G Be? (continued)
  • To support this, the core network will also have
    to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and
    intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be
    rethought and improved, and energy and cost
    efficiencies will become even more critical
    considerations. This paper discusses all of these
    topics, identifying key challenges for future
    research and preliminary 5G standardization
    activities, while providing a comprehensive
    overview of the current literature, and in
    particular of the papers appearing in this
    special issue.

4
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg1(ref) What Will 5G Be?
  • Words
  • Incremental
  • cellular technology
  • Paradigm
  • compatibility

5
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg2 Circuit Topologies, Modeling, Control
    Schemes, and Applications of Modular Multilevel
    Converters
  • Modular multilevel converters have several
    attractive features such as a modular structure,
    the capability of transformer-less operation,
    easy scalability in terms of voltage and current,
    low expense for redundancy and fault tolerant
    operation, high availability, utilization of
    standard components, and excellent quality of the
    output waveforms. These features have increased
    the interest of industry and research in this
    topology, resulting in the development of new
    circuit configurations, converter models, control
    schemes, and modulation strategies. This paper
    presents a review of the latest achievements of
    modular multilevel converters regarding the
    mentioned research topics, new applications, and
    future trends.

6
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg2(ref) Circuit Topologies, Modeling, Control
    Schemes, and Applications of Modular Multilevel
    Converters

7
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg3 Five disruptive technology directions for 5G
  • New research directions will lead to fundamental
    changes in the design of future fifth generation
    (5G) cellular networks. This article describes
    five technologies that could lead to both
    architectural and component disruptive design
    changes device-centric architectures, millimeter
    wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native
    support for machine-to-machine communications.
    The key ideas for each technology are described,
    along with their potential impact on 5G and the
    research challenges that remain.

8
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg3(ref) Five disruptive technology directions
    for 5G

9
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg4 Massive MIMO for next generation wireless
    systems
  • Multi-user MIMO offers big advantages over
    conventional point-to-point MIMO it works with
    cheap single-antenna terminals, a rich scattering
    environment is not required, and resource
    allocation is simplified because every active
    terminal utilizes all of the time-frequency bins.
    However, multi-user MIMO, as originally
    envisioned, with roughly equal numbers of service
    antennas and terminals and frequency-division
    duplex operation, is not a scalable technology.
    Massive MIMO (also known as large-scale antenna
    systems, very large MIMO, hyper MIMO,
    full-dimension MIMO, and ARGOS) makes a clean
    break with current practice through the use of a
    large excess of service antennas over active
    terminals and time-division duplex operation.

10
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg4 Massive MIMO for next generation wireless
    systems (continued)
  • Extra antennas help by focusing energy into ever
    smaller regions of space to bring huge
    improvements in throughput and radiated energy
    efficiency. Other benefits of massive MIMO
    include extensive use of inexpensive low-power
    components, reduced latency, simplification of
    the MAC layer, and robustness against intentional
    jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on
    the propagation environment providing
    asymptotically orthogonal channels to the
    terminals, but so far experiments have not
    disclosed any limitations in this regard.

11
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg4 Massive MIMO for next generation wireless
    systems (continued)
  • While massive MIMO renders many traditional
    research problems irrelevant, it uncovers
    entirely new problems that urgently need
    attention the challenge of making many low-cost
    low-precision components that work effectively
    together, acquisition and synchronization for
    newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra
    degrees of freedom provided by the excess of
    service antennas, reducing internal power
    consumption to achieve total energy efficiency
    reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios.
    This article presents an overview of the massive
    MIMO concept and contemporary research on the
    topic.

12
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg4(ref) Massive MIMO for next generation
    wireless systems
  • Words
  • Massive
  • MIMO
  • frequency-division duplex
  • time-division duplex
  • Scalable
  • MAC layer

13
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg5 Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric
    Detection Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and
    Face Recognition
  • To ensure the actual presence of a real
    legitimate trait in contrast to a fake
    self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed
    sample is a significant problem in biometric
    authentication, which requires the development of
    new and efficient protection measures. In this
    paper, we present a novel software-based fake
    detection method that can be used in multiple
    biometric systems to detect different types of
    fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the
    proposed system is to enhance the security of
    biometric recognition frameworks, by adding
    liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and
    non-intrusive manner, through the use of image
    quality assessment.

14
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg5 Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric
    Detection Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and
    Face Recognition(continued)
  • The proposed approach presents a very low degree
    of complexity, which makes it suitable for
    real-time applications, using 25 general image
    quality features extracted from one image (i.e.,
    the same acquired for authentication purposes) to
    distinguish between legitimate and impostor
    samples. The experimental results, obtained on
    publicly available data sets of fingerprint,
    iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method
    is highly competitive compared with other
    state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis
    of the general image quality of real biometric
    samples reveals highly valuable information that
    may be very efficiently used to discriminate them
    from fake traits.

15
Abstract reading and translation
  • Eg5(ref) Image Quality Assessment for Fake
    Biometric Detection Application to Iris,
    Fingerprint, and Face Recognition
  • Words
  • Image Quality Assessment
  • Fake Biometric Detection
  • legitimate trait
  • biometric authentication
  • fraudulent access attempts
  • Impostor
  • iris

16
Abstract writing
  • Eg1???????????
  • ????(Compressive sensing, CS) ????????????????????
    ??????????????,???????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????,?????????????????????????
    ????????,????????????????????????????????????,
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???,??????????????????,??????????????????

17
Abstract writing
  • Eg1???????????
  • ??
  • ???sparsity
  • ????compressibility
  • ?????non-adaptive
  • ??reconstruction
  • ??matching
  • ????prior information

18
Abstract writing
  • Eg1(ref) Research Advances on Structured
    Compressive Sensing
  • Compressive sensing (CS) is a newly developed
    theoretical framework for information acquisition
    and processing. Using the non-linear
    optimization methods, the signals can be
    recovered from fewer linear and non-adaptive
    measurements by taking advantage of the sparsity
    or compressibility inherent in real world
    signals. Structured compressive sensing is a new
    framework which can treat more general signal
    classes to achieve the accurate and effective
    reconstruction in practice by introducing the
    prior information matching with data acquisition
    hardware and complicated signal models to
    traditional compressive sensing.

19
Abstract writing
  • Eg1(ref) Research Advances on Structured
    Compressive Sensing
  • In this paper, the basic models and key
    techniques of structured compressive sensing are
    introduced in terms of the structured
    measurements, the structured dictionary
    representation and the structured signal
    reconstruction, which correspond to three basic
    aspects of compressive sensing, and the recent
    developments of structured compressive sensing
    are reviewed in detail. Finally, the current and
    future challenges of the structured compressive
    sensing are discussed.

20
Abstract writing
  • Eg2 5G ???????????????
  • ?5 ???????(5G) ???2020 ?????????????,
    ????????????. ????????????????, ???5G
    ????????????????????????????, ???????????????,
    ????????????7 ?5G ????????, ??????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????. ????????????5G
    ???????????????????.

21
Abstract writing
  • Eg2 5G ???????????????
  • ??
  • ???????massive multiple-input-multiple-output
    (MIMO)
  • ????????????filter-bank based multi-carrier
  • ?????full duplex
  • ?????ultra dense network (UDN),
  • ?????self-organizing network (SON)
  • ??????software defined networking (SDN)
  • ??????content distribution network (CDN)

22
Abstract writing
  • Eg2(ref) The 5G mobile communication the
    development trends and its emerging key
    techniques
  • 5G is a new generation mobile communication
    system that is to be commercialized in the year
    beyond 2020. Currently the development of 5G
    mobile communication system is on its earlier
    stage. In this article, the development
    requirements, technique features and possible
    approaches for the 5G are firstly addressed. The
    wireless transmission and networking techniques
    are introduced and remarked, which include
    massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO),
    filter-bank based multi-carrier, full duplex,
    ultra dense network (UDN), self-organizing
    network (SON), software defined networking (SDN),
    and content distribution network (CDN).
    Furthermore, the recent RD and promotion
    activities for 5G mobile communication system in
    China are summarized.
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