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Title: The Twenties 1920 - 1929 Author: Hannah Thompson Last modified by: Hannah Thompson Created Date: 4/1/2011 11:35:36 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Twenties%201920%20-%201929


1
The Twenties1920 - 1929
  • Out of Many Chapter 23

2
Post-War Prosperity The Causes
  • Increased productivity
  • Manufacturing process made more efficient w/
    methods of mass production
  • Henry Ford the assembly line
  • Energy technologies
  • Increased use of oil electricity
  • Coal was still used for the RR home heating
  • Government Policy
  • Favored the growth of big business
  • Offered corporate tax cuts
  • Did almost nothing to enforce the antitrustlaws
    of the Progressive era

3
Welfare Capitalism
  • A paternalistic system of labor relations
    emphasizing management responsibility for
    employee well-being
  • Challenged the power appeal of trade unions
    collective bargaining
  • Examples
  • Company stock options
  • Insurance policies (accidents, old age, illness)
  • Establish recreation programs
  • Unable to address the problem of seasonal
    unemployment

4
Automobile
  • By the 1920s, had become a way of life
  • IN 21 out of 26 families who had cars did not
    have bathtubs w/ running water
  • You cant ride into town in a bathtub!
  • Symbol of the new age

5
WAYS THE AUTOCHANGES LIFEIN AMERICA
  • Creates many new small businesses
  • Garages, diners, gas stations, restaurants,
    motels, etc.
  • Tractors replaced animals on farms
  • SUBURBS flourished
  • Workers can now commute to cities dont need to
    live there
  • Whole families became more mobile
  • Sunday Drives

6
CHANGES TO INDUSTRY INTRODUCED BY HENRY FORD
  • ASSEMBLY LINE!
  • His greatest achievement
  • Divided operations into simple tasks that could
    be done by UNSKILLED LABOR (cheap)
  • AUTOMOBILE
  • Model T -now affordable to all (mass produced) -
    290
  • Ford built half of all autos in world between
    1908 1927
  • Kept his employees loyal by high pay (5) low
    hours (8)

7
Problems of Farmersin the 20s
  • Prices went down in 20 21 never recovered
  • Farmers are overproducing crops
  • Farmers had borrowed heavily during WWI to buy
    new land equipment so they could grow food to
    feed the troops
  • With prices down after the War, they could not
    pay off their debts

8
The New Mass Culture
  • Movies
  • Radio Broadcasting
  • Sports
  • Sports Popular Heroes
  • Journalism Advertising

9
THE MOVIES!
  • Industry moves from NY to LA
  • No talking!
  • Hired piano players to provide music during the
    movie
  • Subtitles
  • Stars
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • Douglas Fairbanks
  • Gloria Swanson
  • Talking pictures by 1927 (The Jazz Singer)

10
Popular Radio Shows Music
  • KDKA was the first
  • NBC CBS
  • First to sell on-air advertising
  • Music, sitcoms, etc.
  • Stimulated Americas demand for goods
  • Advertising industry booms!
  • By 1930s, over 800 stations broadcasting to over
    10 million radios (about 1/3 of US)

11
Golden Age of Sports
  • Thanks to radio motion pictures, sports like
    baseball boxing reached newheights
  • Babe Ruth (baseball)
  • Hitting hundreds of homeruns
  • Jack Dempsey (boxing)
  • Holding the heavyweight titlefor 7 years
  • College Football

12
JIM THORPE
  • Native American
  • Won Olympic Gold Medals in Pentathlon Decathlon
  • Played college professional football become
    President of NFL
  • Played Major League Baseball
  • Also had career in basketball.
  • Subsequently lost his Olympic titles when it was
    found he had played two seasons of minor league
    baseball prior to competing in the games
  • Medals restored, 30 years after his death (1983)

13
  • AMELIA EARHARDT
  • 1ST Woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, 1928
  • 1st woman to fly solo across Atlantic, 1932
  • Lost at sea, 1937

14
New Forms of Journalism
  • Tabloids became popular in the postwar years
  • New York Daily News
  • Folded in half made it easy to read on
    buses/subways/trains
  • Devoted much of its space to pictures
  • Emphasized sex, scandal, and sports
  • Discovered an audience of millions who had never
    read a newspaper before
  • Most popular feature was the gossip column
    (invented by Walter Winchell)

15
A CONSUMER ECONOMY
  • Defined as an economy that relies on a large
    amount of consumer spending
  • It led to
  • large profits for businesses
  • pushed up wages
  • and encouraged more spending
  • Is fueled by higher wages, clever advertising,
    new products, lower costs, and CREDIT
  • Advertising becomes HUGE!

16
CREDIT!
  • Installment Plan buying
  • Small down payment pay the rest off in periodic
    installments
  • Primary method for purchase of cars, radios,
    furniture, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, etc.

17
THE NEW MORALITY
  • Taking over the nation, challenged traditional
    ways of seeing thinking
  • Marriages
  • More emphasis on romance friendship
  • Automobile
  • Youth loved it because it gave them independence
  • Didnt have to socialize w/family found new
    forms of entertainment

18
Women in the Workforce
  • Single needed wages for themselves or family,
    breakaway from parental authority
  • Making allowed them to participate in the
    consumer market
  • More women attending college encouraged to
    pursue careers
  • Salesclerks, secretaries, or telephone operators

19
WOMEN OF THE 20S
  • Shortened (bobbed) hair, shorter skirts, silk
    stockings
  • Liquor, cigarettes
  • BUT, few really dressed more daringly
  • Most are NOT true flappers
  • New technology at home
  • Vaccum cleaners
  • Washing machines
  • Still faced discrimination outside of home
  • Flappers
  • At Home Away

20
Divorce
  • As a result of womens suffrage, state lawmakers
    were now forced to listen to feminists
  • Demanded changes in the divorce laws to permit
    women to escape abusive incompatible husbands
  • 1 in 8 marriages ended in divorce in 1920
  • Thanks to more liberal laws, increased to 1 in 6
    marriages by 1930

21
Education
  • Belief in the value of education becoming
    widespread
  • Combined with economic prosperity, more state
    govts enacted compulsory school laws
  • By the end of the decade, of high school grads
    doubled to over 25

22
CHANGES IN SOCIETY
  • 18TH Amendment - PROHIBITION
  • Rural pro Urban anti
  • Bootleggers Speakeasies
  • flourished
  • VOLSTEAD ACT
  • Purpose was to enforce Prohibition
  • BUT, it was never fully enforced
  • only 1500 agents nationwide
  • Even with 540,000 arrests, people still blatantly
    broke the law

23
PROHIBITION LEADS DIRECTLY TO GROWTH OF ORGANIZED
CRIME
  • Chicago
  • AL CAPONE
  • One of the most successful gangsters
  • Dominated organized crime
  • Bootlegged liquor
  • Eliot Ness
  • Brought down Caponefor tax evasion
  • Alcatraz

24
NATIVISM / RACISM
  • Rises during the 1920s due to the massive rise in
    immigration
  • Fear/prejudice of Germans Communists spreads to
    all immigrants
  • Immigrants from Southern Eastern Europe
  • From low economic levels
  • Posed a threat to jobs for Americans
  • KKK
  • a national force by this time
  • more nativist than racist

It implies that other countries were
sending their unwanted citizens to the United
States
What is the main idea of this cartoon?
25
SACCO VANZETTI TRIAL, 1921
  • Italian immigrants
  • Anarchists, atheists, draft dodgers
  • Accused of murder
  • Sketchy evidence but convicted
  • Executed 1927
  • IMPORTANCESymbolizes mistrust of immigrants in
    US

Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco (Dedham
courthouse, 1923)
26
EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT, 1921
  • QUOTAS are set on immigration
  • Discriminatory in manner applied since it
    eliminated much of immigration from Southern
    Eastern Europe
  • Only 3 of any ethnic group in the U.S. in 1892
    could be admitted in any year

The hardest quota cases were those that
separated families. When part of the family had
been born in a country with a quota still open,
while the other part had been born in a country
whose quoata was exhausted, the law let in the
first part and deported the other part. Mothers
were torn from children, husbands from wives. The
law came down like a sword between them. quoted
in Ellis Island Echoes from a Nations Past
27
NATIONAL ORIGINS ACT, 1924
  • Made immigrant restriction a permanent policy
  • Changed quota policy to only 2
  • Eventually changed it to only 150,000 immigrants
    per ethnic group
  • Exempted natives of the Western hemisphere from
    the quota system (Mexico South America)
  • Accounted for northwestern Europeans making up
    87 of quota

28
Ku Klux Klan
  • Most extreme expression of nativism
  • Northern branches directed their hostility not
    only against blacks, but also against Catholics,
    Jews, foreigners, and suspected Communists
  • Tactics
  • Dressed in white hoods to disguise their identity
  • Burn crosses
  • Apply vigilante justice
  • Whips, tar feathering, hangmans noose
  • Decline
  • At first, many tolerated the KKK because it
    upheld the standards of Christianity new
    morality by driving out bootleggers, gamblers,
    adulterers
  • 1923, fraud corruption were rife leader
    convicted of murder
  • Influence membership rapidly declined

29
FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Fundamentalism
  • A name derived from a series of pamphlets titled
    The Fundamentals
  • Believe that the Bible was literally true w/out
    error
  • Rejected Darwins Theory of Evolution
  • Human beings had developed from lower forms of
    life over the course of millions of years
  • Believed in Creationism
  • Belief that God created the world described it
    in the Bible

30
The Scopes Trial
  • Butler Act, 1925
  • Outlawed evolution education
  • Dayton, TN
  • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
  • Hired biology teacher, John T. Scopes
  • Scopes actually LOST the trial fined 100
  • BUT, Darrows attacks on William Jennings Bryan
    dealt a blow to the Fundamentalists

31
President Harding
  • Harding served one term in U.S. Senate before
    running for President in 1920
  • Hardings Philosophy
  • A Return to Normalcy
  • Means a return to normal life (like before WWI)
  • America First!
  • Forget foreign affairs rest, relax, enjoy life
    in America
  • Isolationism
  • U.S. will NOT join League of Nations

32
Scandals in Hardings Administration
  • Very corrupt administration
  • OHIO GANG
  • poker-playing friends who used their connections
    to sell govt pardons, immunities appointments
  • Immunity freedom from prosecution
  • WORST is TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL
  • Sec. Of Interior, Albert Fall, leased out for use
    by private individuals oil reserves that had been
    set aside for the U.S. Navy at Teapot Dome, WY

33
  • Harding feels betrayed by his friends
  • Depressed takes trip to AK (1923)
  • On return home, gets ill dies before scandals
    were made public
  • Albert Fall eventually convicted sent to prison

34
CALVIN COOLIDGE
  • Former Gov. of MA
  • Settled the Boston Police Strike
  • Silent Cal didnt talk much!
  • Cautious, calm, simple style very different
    from Harding
  • Slept 10 hours a night and took a 4 hour nap
    every day!

35
  • Philosophy on Government
  • The business of America is business.
  • Favored big business
  • It provided plenty of jobs and plenty of products
    at cheap prices
  • Business would keep the prosperity of the 1920s
    going
  • Governments job is to interfere with business as
    little as possible

36
Election of 1924
  • Coolidge Republican
  • Davis Democrat
  • Took 103 attempts to find a candidate
  • Democrats are divided between rural and urban
    issues (such as Prohibition and the KKK)
  • Led to easy victory for Coolidge
  • KEEP COOL WITH COOLIDGE!
  • Dont rock the boat keep business thriving
  • Also wins easily due to the low voter turnout.

37
Promoting Prosperity
  • Andrew Mellon, Sec. of Treasurys goals were to
  • Balance Budget
  • Reduce government debt
  • Cut taxes (down to 25 for wealthy)
  • Believed if taxes were lowered, businesses
    consumers would spend their extra money and keep
    the economy stimulated

38
  • Isolationism is foreign policy desired by most
    Americans after WWI.
  • Allies owe 10.3 billion to US but are not paying
    claim
  • US lost fewer people in war so U.S. should assume
    more of the debt
  • Argue high US tariffs hurting their economies
  • US says Allies got territory reparations but US
    gained nothing, so Allies should pay
  • Dawes Plan
  • American banks make loans to GER, GB FRA agree
    to take smaller payments pay their war debts
  • Renegotiated and reduced debts but US will never
    get fully paid back

39
Washington ConferenceTreaties
  • First major world disarmament conference
  • Proposed that countries should take a 10 yr
    moratorium (or pause) in making new warships
  • Each country would need to destroy already made
    warships, starting w/ US
  • 4, 5 9 power treaties made agreements about
    reducing navies, respecting territory owned by
    other countries in the Pacific and open trading
    policies (China)
  • MAJOR FAILURE no agreements to limit military
    land forces

40
KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT
  • A Treaty that attempted to outlaw war
  • France U.S. took the lead in getting it
    accomplished
  • 64 nations sign the treaty
  • Weaknesses
  • NO MEANS OF ENFORCEMENT (without aggression!)
  • Countries retained right to defend themselves
    against aggression

41
Harlem Renaissance
  • The Great Migration
  • escape the segregated society of the South
  • Find economic opportunities
  • Build better lives
  • Rebirth explosion of black culture
  • Showed new spirit of unity pride among blacks

42
Writers Authors
  • Langston Hughes
  • Writer/Poet
  • Wrote with a proud defiance bitter contempt for
    racism
  • Harlem Shadows
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Author
  • Portrayed rural African American culture
  • First to set African American females as central
    characters

43
Music Dance
  • JAZZ
  • New Orleans style
  • Mix of Dixieland bands ragtime
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Solo Trumpeter
  • Duke Ellington Band
  • Harlem, Cotton Club
  • Charleston is the new dance craze
  • BLUES
  • Themes of unfulfilled love, poverty, oppression
  • Evolved from African American spirituals
  • Bessie Smith

44
MARCUS GARVEY
  • Jamaican
  • Negro nationalism
  • Glorified the black culture traditions of the
    past
  • Leader of UNIA
  • Message of racial pride, independence and unity
  • Frustrated by continued violence discrimination
  • Return to Motherland Africa
  • Seen as threat by FBI
  • deported due to immigrant status

IMPORTANCE Despite the failure of Garveys
movement, he inspired millions of African
Americans with a sense of pride in their
heritage hope for the future.
45
ELECTION OF 1928
Herbert Hoover Alfred E. Smith Republican Demo
crat A Dry Country Quaker A Wet City
Catholic
  • Represents rural (country) agrarian interests
  • Favored Prohibition (dry)
  • Radio helped him (dignified, serious)
  • Slogan A chicken in every pot two cars in
    every garage!
  • Wins by landslide mainly due to the Republican
    prosperity of the 20s
  • Represents urban (city) industrial interests
  • Favors Prohibition, but admits that he drinks
    (wet)
  • Radio hurts him (a strong NY accent too much
    joking)
  • Hurt by Republican anti-Catholic smear tactics

46
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