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Types of Reproduction

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Types of Reproduction Types of Reproduction Asexual Asexual reproduction occurs when a new organism is produced from one parent. The genetic material of the new ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Types of Reproduction


1
Types of Reproduction
2
Types of ReproductionAsexual
Asexual reproduction occurs when a new organism
is produced from one parent. The genetic material
of the new organism is identical to the genetic
material of the parent. So the offspring and the
parent have all of the same traits.
Organisms that are smaller and less complex are
more likely to reproduce asexually. Single-celled
organisms like bacteria and protists reproduce
asexually. Many plants and fungi can reproduce
asexually as well. A few animals can reproduce
asexually.
This animation shows a cell reproducing asexually.
3
Asexual Types of ReproductionBudding
Three types of asexual reproduction are budding,
regeneration, and fission. Budding is the process
when a new organism begins to form on the side of
the parent and eventually breaks off. Budding is
most common in plants and fungi.
Hydra are part of the animal kingdom. Hydra
reproduce by budding. You can see the new little
hydra growing off the side of the larger, parent
hydra. Picture from http//devcell.bio.uci.edu/ima
ges/Hydra.jpg.
This picture shows a magnification of budding
yeast.
4
Asexual Types of ReproductionRegeneration
Regeneration is the ability to restore lost or
damaged tissues, organs, or limbs. It is most
common in animals that do not have a backbone
like worms and starfish. Sometimes, if an
organism loses a limb or if the organism is split
into two parts, both parts will regenerate the
missing pieces, creating two organisms from one.
Planaria regeneration. In the final picture, two
planaria worms are formed. Picture retrieved from
http//www.ub.edu/planaria/ January 20, 2010.
5
Asexual Types of ReproductionBinary Fission
Binary fission occurs when a single celled
organism splits into two cells. Bacteria and
protists reproduce by binary fission. First the
parent cell makes a copy of its genetic material
(the green, squiggly circle), then the cell
membrane pinches in and two new daughter cells
split apart. Because the cell copied its genetic
material, the two cells have the same traits.
6
Types of ReproductionSexual
Sexual Reproduction requires two parents. The
female parent provides an egg cell, and the male
parent provides a sperm cell. The egg cell and
the sperm cell combine to form a new
individual. The egg cell has genetic material
from the female parent and the sperm cell has
genetic material from the male parent. Therefore,
the offspring will have genetic material from
both parents. This is called genetic variation.
Sexual reproduction allows new individuals to
have genetic variation because they get a mix of
traits from two parents.
7
Sexual Types of Reproduction Plants - Pollination
Pollination is a form of sexual reproduction.
Pollination occurs in plants. Pollen is taken
from the male parts of one plant and delivered to
the female parts of another plant, usually by an
insect. The pollen then travels inside the flower
and fertilizes an egg. The egg will grow into a
seed which can become a new plant.
Pollination also allows for genetic variation
because the traits from two plants are mixed.
8
Sexual Reproduction in Animals
In animals, sexual reproduction encompasses the
fusion of two distinct gametes to form a zygote.
Gametes are produced by a type of cell division
called meiosis. The gametes are sex cells that
contain only one set of chromosomes, while the
zygote has two sets of chromosomes. In most
cases, the male gamete, called sperm, is mobile
and has a flagellum. The female gamete, the egg,
isNot mobile and is large compared to the male
gamete.
9
Sexual Reproduction in Animals
There are two mechanisms by which fertilization
can take Place. The first is external (eggs
fertilized outside of the body) The second is
internal (eggs fertilized within the female
reproductive tract.
10
Types of ReproductionSexual vs. Asexual
Take a look at the table below. It summarizes the
important differences between sexual and asexual
reproduction.
Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction
Number of Parents 2 parents 1 parent
Genetic Variation Lots of genetic variation (a mix of traits from 2 parents) No genetic variation (the same traits from only 1 parent)
11
Sexual Versus Asexual Reproduction
What are the advantages of sexual
reproduction? What are the advantages of
asexual reproduction?
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