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The Solar System

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The Solar System Solar System the sun and all things orbiting around it, including the eight major planets, their satellites, and all the smaller pieces such as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Solar System


1
The Solar System
2
Solar System
  • the sun and all things orbiting around it,
    including the eight major planets, their
    satellites, and all the smaller pieces such as
    asteroids, meteoroids, and comets

Not to scale
Image taken from http//asm.arc.nasa.gov/Gallery
/images/generic/LG_Capableofeverything.jpg
3
Formation of the Solar System
  • Formed around 4.6 billion years ago

Solar Nebula Huge cloud of gas and dust that
collapsed into a flattened disk
1
Disk Sun formed at the center of the disk while
other objects (planets, moons, etc.) formed from
the whirling material of the disk
2
Solar System Much of the material was cleared
away. The Sun, planets, and other objects
remained
3
Images taken from http//astronomyonline.org/Sol
arSystem/SolarSystemFormation.asp
4
Planet
  • derived from a Greek word that means wanderer
  • a major object which orbits around a star
  • in our solar system, there are eight such objects
    which are traditionally called planets

5
Orbit
  • the path of an object in space as it travels
    around another object
  • planets orbit around the sun in an elliptical
    (flattened circle or oval) path proposed by
    Johannes Kepler ? Keplers 1st Law
  • due to the gravitational attraction, a planets
    (or other objects) speed increases as it
    approaches the sun
  • Planetary Motion

Not to scale
The Earth animation is not rotating in the
correct direction it should be rotating from
west to east
What do you think is the relationship between a
planets orbit and a year?
6
Mass vs. Weight
  • Mass
  • a measure of how much matter an object is made of
  • does not change, regardless of where something or
    someone is
  • Weight
  • the force of gravity on an object
  • equal to the mass of the body times the local
    acceleration of gravity

Why do you think the persons weight is less on
the moon?
The Earth animation is not rotating in the
correct direction it should be rotating from
west to east
Mass 59 kg
Mass 59 kg
Weight 96 N
Weight 579 N
http//www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.htm
l
7
Rotation vs. Revolution
  • Revolution
  • the motion of one body around another, such as
    Earth orbiting around the sun
  • also known as an orbital period
  • equivalent to one year
  • Earth revolves at a speed of around 107,000 km/hr
    or 67,000 mi/hr
  • Rotation
  • the movement or path of the earth or a heavenly
    body turning on its axis
  • equivalent to one day
  • Earth rotates at a speed of around 1,670 km/hr or
    1000 mi/hr

The Earth animation is not rotating in the
correct direction it should be rotating from
west to east
Sun
Tips for remembering rotation occurs in one day
day has three letters and rotation has three
syllables revolution occurs in one year year has
four letters and revolution has four syllables
8
Factors Influencing Planetary Characteristics
Impact Cratering a process that occurs when a
round pit is left behind on the surface of a
planet or other body in space after a smaller
object strikes the surface
Tectonics the process of change in a crust due to
the motion of hot material underneath
Animation taken from http//www.odsn.de/odsn/ser
vices/paleomap/animation.htm l
Volcanism the process of molten material moving
from a space bodys hot interior onto its surface
The Earth animation is not rotating in the
correct direction it should be rotating from
west to east
Weathering and Erosion Weathering - the breaking
down of rocks into smaller pieces mostly caused
by movements of water, wind, and ice Erosion
the process in which sediment is picked up and
moved from one place to another
9
Atmosphere
Radiant energy from the sun
  • the outer layer of gases of a large body in
    space, such as a planet or star
  • usually composed of layers
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • the trapping of radiant energy by the gases (CO2,
    CH4, H2O, among others) that compose the
    atmosphere
  • planetary conditions would be very different
    without it (i.e. the Earths temperature would
    be 60oF cooler ?we would not survive)

The Earth animation is not rotating in the
correct direction it should be rotating from
west to east
What do you notice about the amount of energy
entering the atmosphere, compared to the amount
leaving?
10
Image taken from http//www.ucar.edu/learn/1_1_1
.htm
11
Planet Classifications
  • Terrestrial Planets
  • (inner planets)
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
  • closest to the sun
  • composed primarily of rock and metal
  • have deep atmospheres (except Mercury), solid
    surfaces, no rings, few satellites
  • Gas Planets
  • (outer planets)
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  • composed primarily of hydrogen helium
  • have deep atmospheres, rings, many satellites
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