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Totalitarian States

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Title: Totalitarian States


1
Totalitarian States
  • Russia, Italy, Germany

2
Cultural Pessimism in Art
  • Great Nations write their autobiographies in
    three manuscripts the book of their deeds, the
    book of their words, the book of their art. Not
    one of these books can be understood unless we
    read the two others but of the three, the only
    quite trustworthy one is the third
  • John Ruskin

3
Post Impressionism
  • Cezanne Large Bathers 1899-1902

4
Cubism
  • Les Demoiselles de Avignon 1907 Seated Woman
    1908

5
Picasso
  • Bottle of Pernod (Table in a Café)
    Harlequin 1915
  • 1912

6
Picasso
  • Girl Before the Mirror 1932

7
Italian Futurism 1909
  • Luigi Russolo Dynamism of a Car 1912-1913

8
Umberto Boccioni
  • Dynamism of a Cyclist 1913

9
  • The Charge of the Lancers 1915

10
Muscular Dynamism
11
Marcel Duchamp (1887 1968)
  • Nude Descending Staircase 1912

12
Duchamp and Dada
  • The Fountain 1917
  • L.H.O.O.Q. 1919

13
George Grosz (1893-1959)
  • A Winters Tale 1919 Grey Day 1921

14
Surrealism
  • Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory 1931

15
Marc Chagall
  • I and the Village 1911

16
Di Chirico
  • The Disturbing Muses 1925

17
Dali
  • Soft Construction With Boiled Beans
  • (Premonition of Civil War) 1936

18
Guernica 1936
19
Russia The First Totalitarian State1920 -1940
20
The Civil War 1918-1922
  • Bolsheviks
  • vs
  • Russians, nationalities, foreigners

21
March 1918 First Challenge for New Regime
  • Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party
  • Brest Litovsk signed Lenin had no choice this
    promise (along with Land and Bread) is what
    enabled him to defeat Kerensky
  • Civil war ensues immediately
  • Multiple Russian groups to the right of Lenin
  • Tsarist reactionaries
  • Liberals
  • Bourgeois businessmen
  • Zemstvo members
  • Cadets
  • Social Revolutionaries
  • Mensheviks

22
First institutions
  •  Oldest the party founded in 1903
  • Soviets of 1905 and 1917
  • Council of Peoples Commissars day of the
    Revolution
  • Cheka December 7, 1917 the first of the new
    regime
  • Red Army set up by Trotsky January 1918

First institu
23
Reasons Bolsheviks win
  • Anti-Bolshevik forces never unite
  • Red Army effective
  • Distribution of land to peasants
  • Red Terror
  • response to foreign intervention and civil war
  • aims at the physical extermination of all who
    oppose the new regime class was enough
  • Kronstadt sailors (1921) an example from the left
    results in a left wing repudiation of communism
    in western Europe

24
First Social PolicyWar Communism
  • Nationalization of some industries most still
    controlled by worker committees
  • Food production the largest problem less being
    produced (62 of land)
  • Govt. requisitions and military seizure
  • Kulaks hated in countryside.
  • Class war between country and the city workers
  • Resistance to war communism develops
  • Don river valley Kornilov and Deniken
  • Middle Volga Social Revolutionaries
  • Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan declare
    independence early 1918

25
The New Economic Policy 1921-1927
  • peasant resentment, drought, famine, ruin of
    productive facilities force rethinking
  • NEP conceived as compromise with capitalism, a
    strategic retreat
  • characteristics
  • state controls commanding heights of the
    economy state owns basic productive industries
  • private trading for profit allowed
  • trade between town and the country encouraged
    moves peasants beyond subsistence agriculture
  • middlemen sell things at market price
  • kulaks are favored
  • newly rich bourgeois class emerges

26
Evaluation Problems in Industry
and Agriculture remain
  • NEP eliminates worst problems of war and
    revolutionary period
  • BUT
  • as late as 1928, production levels in certain key
    industries still at 1913 levels

27
Stalins Answer The Five Year Plans
  • Centralized planning first introduced 10 years
    after the revolution
  • Bolsheviks not clear on what next? aspect of
    Marxist revolution
  • Engels had introduced the theoretical link
    between large cooperative model vs smaller
    competitive units
  • Rational planning had been introduced as World
    War I dragged on
  • Planned society has both theoretical and
    practical antecedents

28
First Five Year Plan 1928-1932
  • Goal strengthen the country economic
    self-sufficiency
  • Objective build up heavy industry, no loans from
     abroad agricultural revolution
    (collectivization to promote investment of
    capital in agriculture mechanization)
  • reverses Russian policy since Emancipation and
    Stolypin - 1929 revolution in the country by
    1939 collectivization complete
  • Fails to increase agricultural output frees up
    labor force for industry but millions die
  • despite famine of late 20s early 30s, Stalin
    still exports cereal to pay for industrial goods
    imported from the west
  • Gosplan central administrative agency-coordinates
    financing, production, wage scales, prices
    estimates generated at the lower levels and
    passed to the top
  • System intricate and inefficient lots of
    paperwork

29
Second Five Year Plan 1933-1937
  • worldwide depression impacts grain price and
    western industrial plant becomes too expensive to
    purchase
  • Stalin fears specifically the hostility of
    Germany and Japan and so 2nd 5 year plan even
    more committed to self sufficiency for military
    reasons
  • industrial growth in USSR 1928-1938 unmatched in
    Western experience

30
Specific Achievements
  • industrialization east of the Urals for the first
    time
  • trade with Asian peoples developed
  • iron and steel production quadruples
  • coal production increases 3.5X
  • 80 of industrial plants built
  • worlds largest producer of farm tractors and
    railway engines
  • with the opening of the interior frontiers
    railways carry 5x freight of 1913
  • gross industrial output 3rd to US and Germany

31
Evaluation Second Five Year Plan
  • in part Russia survives German occupation because
    of this eastern development
  • in part because the industrial output first
    equipped the Red Army

32
Third Five Year Plan
  • Problems
  • interrupted by World War II
  • Rates high because starting point so low
  • Quality shoddy
  • Efficiency low
  • Per capita production low
  • Social Costs
  • Kulaks and millions others lost their lives
  • Proliferation of gulags
  • Austerity with respect to food, housing, consumer
    goods
  • 1/3 national income reinvested in industry
  • propaganda plays a role in keeping people working
    hard for low wages future

33
Effects of Totalitarian Regime in Russia
  • Food rationing ended 1935
  • Living standards improved - better than 1927
  • No unemployment
  • No cycle of boom and depression
  • No oppression of women and children in early
    industrial period
  • Safety net minimum
  • No economic equality
  • No stock exchange
  • Stakhanovites (labor heroes) compete to increase
    productivity and raise personal wages

34
Totalitarian Art
35
The Elusive Ideal
36
Workers
37
The RealityRussias Totalitarian System
  • No free press
  • No free labor unions
  • No freedom of association
  • Art, literature, and science vehicles for
    propaganda
  • Purges

38
Italy the First Fascist State
39
Problems in Italy Prior to WWI
  • Parliamentary politics
  • Trasformismo
  • Widening the suffrage among a largely illiterate
    population
  • Anticlericalism/Papal Ban on Political
    Participation
  • Eased in 1907
  • Industrialization in the North
  • Poverty and Illiteracy in the South
  • Irredenta
  • Promises with regard to Albania
  • Anti-parliamentary ideology, nationalism,
    irrationalism
  • Futurism nihilism
  • Gabrielele dAnnunzio and Filippo Marinetti

40
Problems added by World War I
  • Terms of the Treaty of London
  • Italy would receive Austrian lands Tyrol,
    Trentino, Istria, Trieste
  • Colonies increased in Somaliland and Libya
  • Catholics and socialists (peace party) vs extreme
    nationalists (war party)
  • Opening second front costly
  • 600,000 lives
  • Caporetto another embarrassment
  • Peace failed to meet expectations
  • Italy received no mandates
  • Wilson refuses to recognize Treaty of London
  • Unemployed Soldiers

41
Problems of Postwar Italy
  • Wartime Debt
  • Depression and Unemployment
  • Social Unrest
  • Land seizures in countryside,refusal to pay
    rents, peasants burn crops - worry landowners
  • Strikes in industrial cities, plant seizure
    demands for worker control
  • Government Ineptitude
  • No addressing of problems
  • Shifting coalitions of liberal, moderates,
    Christian Socialists (Catholic) and Socialists
    joined by Mussolinis Fascists (35) in 1922

42
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
  • Professional revolutionary, socialist, journalist
  • Nationalist, corporal in war
  • Founder of Fascio di combattimento
  • First condemned war profiteers
  • Called for taxes on capital and profit
  • Later upholder of law, order, property

43
The Appeal
  • Nationalists like the rhetoric the symbols of
    power
  • Middle class pinched economically dont want
    anything to do with labor unions or socialists
  • propertied classes frightened willing to lend
    financial aid

44
Techniques
  • beatings, bullying, castor oil treatment for
    socialists, Christian socialist mayors
  • Mussolini declares loyalty to church and king
    (former anti-clerical republican)

45
March on Rome, October 1922
  • Blackshirts threaten government takeover
    Mussolini remains in Milan
  • Liberal coalition government (happy enough to use
    Mussolinis fascists to control the left) try to
    declare marshal law
  • King refuses
  • Cabinet resigns
  • Mussolini declared premier
  • Italy remains a constitutional monarchy with
    Mussolini at the head of a coalition government
    with one years emergency powers

46
Mussolini as Premier
  • 2/3 law solution to unstable coalition government
    where largest party rarely in the majority
  • 1924 fascists get over 60 of the seats thanks to
    electoral fraud
  • Matteoti, a socialist deputy is assassinated
    after blowing the whistle

47
Where the trains ran on time
  • Italian parliament bypassed
  • Press censorship
  • Labor unions destroyed no right to strike
  • All political parties except the Fascists
    eliminated

48
Personal style of Il Duce
  • Equestrian poses Vigorous action,
  • Military uniforms Strong Leader
  • Flaming hoops

49
Italian Fascism in the 20s
  • Criticized democracy - historically outmoded,
    accentuates class divisions, empty talk
  • Criticized liberalism, free trade, laissez faire
    capitalism inefficient, selfish
  • Criticised the Marxist materialism, class
    consciousness
  • Replaces these with national solidarity and state
    management of economic affairs under leader
  • Makes peace with the Catholic Church - Lateran
    Treaty of 1929

50
The Corporative State born of a need for
action
  • Economic life divided into 22 areas/corporations
  • Labor, industry, government to determine wages
    prices, working conditions, industry policies
  • National council to devise plan for Italy self
    sufficiency the goal
  • Government representatives more equal than others
  • Minister of corporations was the head of the
    structure
  • 1938 Chamber of Deputies replaced by the Chamber
    of Fasces and Corporations (economic parliament
    representing economic not geographic regions)
    members chosen by government not the people
  • corporative state state control of economy
    within a private enterprise system

51
The Challenge of the Depression
  • economic controls didnt help very much
  • public works projects launched
  • economic self sufficiency the goal
  • hydroelectric plants built since Italy had no
    coal
  • battle of the wheat
  • reclamation of swamp land
  • no fundamental change for peasants
  • extremes of wealth and poverty remain
  • Substituted psychological exhilaration and
    imperialist adventures

52
Palmer and Coltons Critique
  • Mussolini Corporative State
  • failed to provide either economic security or
    material well-being for which it had demanded the
    sacrifice of individual freedom.

53
Foreign Policy Record
  • 1934 attempted coup by Austrian Nazis who demand
    union with Germany
  • Mussolini mobilizes troops on the Austrian
    border stops Hitler for 4 years
  • 1935 war with Ethiopia to avenge the defeat at
    Adowa in 1896
  • League of Nations imposes sanctions but not on
    oil Britain unwilling to risk general war
    French admire Mussolini
  • 1936 Mussolini consolidates Italian African
    Empire despite Haile Selassies personal appeal
    League weakness exposed
  • 1936 50,000 Italian troops sent to fight on
    Francos side in Spanish Civil War Rome-Berlin
    Axis formed anti-Comintern Pact signed
  • 1938 Mussolini accepts Austrian Anscluss and
    attends Munich Conference
  • April 1939 Mussolini invades Albania
  • 1940 Mussolini invades France invades Greece and
    North Africa eastward push towards Suez from
    Libya
  • 1943 Allies conquer Sicily 21 year Fascist
    regime falls Mussolini establishes Italian
    Social Republic in Northern Italy Marshall
    Badaglio tries to make peace in August Germans
    occupy Italy.

54
Artists Perceptions

  • Futurist Portrait
  • DiegoRivera, 1933
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