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Russia and Stalin Man of Steel

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Russia and Stalin Man of Steel 20+ Million Deaths = Starvation, Forced Labor Camps, Purges What role did Stalin play in the history of our country? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Russia and Stalin Man of Steel


1
Russia and Stalin Man of Steel
2
The Beginning of the Soviet Project
  • The Bolsheviks had consolidated power by early
    1920s.
  • Party membership did not exceeded 1 of the
    population
  • Some opposition still remained.
  • They viewed their revolution as internationally
    significant

3
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4
War Communism
  • Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) organized the Red Army
    to suppress both internal and foreign opposition.
  • White Russian opposition could not get properly
    organized.
  • The nation was run by Lenin from the top,
    undemocratically.
  • The government ran the banks, the transport
    system and heavy industry.
  • All opposition was repressed.
  • War Communism generated opposition.
  • Peasants resisted the requisition of grain
  • Strikes in 1920 and 1921
  • Baltic fleet mutiny in March 1921.

5
Russian revolutionaries and leaders Joseph
Stalin, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and Mikhail
Ivanovich Kalinin at the Congress of the Russian
Communist Party. (March 23, 1919)
6
The New Economic Plan (NEP)
  • Outlined by Lenin in March 1921
  • Private industry would be tolerated except for
    in
  • Banking
  • Heavy Industry
  • Transportation
  • International Commerce
  • Peasant farming for profit was legalized.
  • The countryside stabilized.

7
The Soviet Model
  • Third International (Comintern) held in Moscow
  • Established Soviet Union as model for
    revolutionary Marxism
  • Devised 21 rules for nations wanting to engage in
    Marxist revolution - required acknowledgement of
    Soviet leadership - use of name Communist Party
  • Sought to end democratic socialism
  • Created fear - drove some to right wing regimes.

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The Stalin/Trotsky Rivalry
  • After Lenins stroke in 1922 and his subsequent
    death in 1924, a power vacuum was left.
  • Two factions emerged
  • Trotsky Faction
  • Joseph Stalin (1879-1953), general secretary of
    the party, Faction.
  • Lenin had criticized both before his death, but
    especially Stalin.

10
Stalin Timeline
  • 1878 1953
  • Joseph Dzhugashvili
  • Gori, Georgia
  • Peasant Father Bootmaker
  • 1899 expelled from Seminary School
  • 1902 imprisoned exiled to Siberia
  • 1904 Escaped Siberia
  • 1905 met Lenin
  • 1911 editor of Pravda
  • 1917 Commissar of Nationalities
  • General Secretary of the Communist Party (1922)

11
Trotskys Position
  • Urged rapid industrialization financed by state
    control of farm production.
  • Collectivization of agriculture
  • The Soviet Union should encourage worldwide
    Socialist revolution

12
Stalins Rise
  • His position of general secretary allowed him to
    amass bureaucratic and administrative power.
  • Manipulated intraparty rivalries
  • Backed Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938) in his battle
    with Trotsky over rapid industrialization
  • Also opposed Trotskys position on worldwide
    revolution
  • He was thus able to eventually have Trotsky
    humiliated and exiled by 1929.

13
Russia Rapid Industrialization
  • the slowing down of economic production, leads
    Soviet Communist leader Joseph Stalin to abandon
    Lenins New Economic Policy (NEP) and reject free
    market operations
  • series of Five-Year Plans would rapidly increase
    government run heavy industries
  • The State Planning Commission or Gosplan oversaw
    every aspect the economy
  • economy grows 400 between 1928 and 1940

14
WE ARE FIFTY OR ONE HUNDRED YEARS BEHIND THE
ADVANCE COUNTRIES. WE MUST MAKE GOOD THIS
DISTANCE IN TEN YEARS - Stalin
15
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • Economic Growth Heavy Industry
  • 111 coal, 200 iron, 335 electric production

16
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • 25 million migrated to cities
  • Hired Foreign Engineers
  • Unemployment unknown
  • Women worked in factories

17
FIVE-YEAR PLANS
  • 1928-1937
  • - Production of capital goods and armaments
  • Quadrupled production of heavy machinery
  • Doubled oil production
  • Weapons increase tenfold or more
  • Real wages declined 43 b/w 1928-1940
  • Housing and consumer goods declined
  • Human cost?

18
Collectivization
  • Stalin forces Russian peasants to give up their
    private farms and work collectively on farms
    owned by the state collectives
  • Stalin felt this policy would end the hoarding of
    grain and produce enough domestic food and for
    foreign export
  • dekulakization the removal of any peasants,
    especially those who were well off, who resisted
    collectivization
  • millions of peasants are killed, imprisoned,
    exiled to Siberia or starve to death
  • religious leaders of many faiths are attacked and
    their places of worship closed
  • by 1937, 90 of the countrys grain is
    collectivized
  • 10 million people died

19
Consumer Shortages in the Russian Cities
  • shortages of the basics housing, food, and
    clothing
  • cities lacked proper transportation, sewer
    systems, paved streets and lighting
  • crime and disease widespread

20
TERROR
  • Secret Police (NKDV), Purge Trials (1936-1939)
    accused of disloyalty enemies
  • 1937-1938 Great Terror
  • Shot 1500 people a day
  • Eliminate opposition - - high Soviet leaders,
    civilian party members, major party leaders, army
    officers, diplomats, intellectuals, Old Bolsheviks

21
The Purges
  • Stalin, starting in 1933, gets rid of his enemies
    and opponents, both real and imagined in the
    Great Purges
  • the assassination of party chief Sergei Kirov
    leads to the first purges
  • Kirovs death still a mystery
  • Killed either by party opponents or perhaps by
    Stalin himself
  • Ex-high Soviet leader Bukharin along with other
    members of the Politburo are executed
  • millions of people (family members of government
    leaders, ordinary Soviet citizens, members of the
    military) are either executed or sent to labor
    camps
  • Stalins thirst for power and his paranoia caused
    the purges
  • Communist Party moves away from the philosophies
    of Lenin and other early Communist leaders

22
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23
GULAG
  • Soviet system of forced labor camps
  • Origins 1917 Revolution
  • Height during the reign of Stalin
  • White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (1931-33) 141 mile
    canal
  • 100,000 prisoners pickaxes, shovels, wheel
    barrels created in just 20 months SUCCESS?
  • Kolyma - harshest of all the camps means death
  • Arctic region harsh temperatures, insufficient
    rations, sleep, and clothing 12-16 hour work
    day

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28
GULAG
  • More people passed through the GULAG than the
    Nazi concentration camps yet, the GULAG is still
    not nearly as well know. WHY?
  • Nazi camps used to exterminate
  • GULAG weapon of ongoing political control over
    one country
  • trials 5 minutes sentences 8-10 years
  • Article 58 (1928) anti-Soviet activity
  • 25 political prisoners
  • Mining, rail construction, arms chemical
    factories, electricity plants, fish canning,
    airport, apartment, and sewage construction

29
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30
CULT OF PERSONALITY
  • Single leader
  • Revolutionary transformation
  • Treated as a benevolent "guide" for the nation
  • Transformation to a better future cannot occur
    without him
  • Superman
  • Propaganda
  • Hero Worship Uncle Joe

31
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33
Ideas are far more powerful than guns. We don't
allow our enemies to have guns, why should we
allow them to have ideas? - STALIN
34
20 Million Deaths Starvation, Forced Labor
Camps, Purges
35
STALIN TODAY
  • What role did Stalin play in the history of our
    country?
  • POSITIVE 53
  • NEGATIVE 33
  • Had difficulty answering the question 14
  • BBC World News Service
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