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VCE Sociology Education


Unit 2 Outcome 2 What is education for? The field of education is very broad in Australia It is something individuals engage with from the cradle to the grave Most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: VCE Sociology Education

VCE SociologyEducation
  • Unit 2 Outcome 2

What is education for?
  • The field of education is very broad in Australia
  • It is something individuals engage with from the
    cradle to the grave

  • Most children begin with kindergarten at around
    age 3
  • Primary education begins at 5
  • Compulsory schooling begins in primary school at
    age 6 and continues until the age of 15
  • Universities and Technical and Further Education
    (TAFE) are the two largest providers of
    post-compulsory education

  • Complete pg 3 of the booklet! Work and education

What is an education?
  • Education is the process of training peoples
    minds and abilities so that they acquire the
    knowledge and develop skills
  • It can be formal E.g. lessons, schools,
    instructions or informal E.g. social and
    survival skills learnt through copying

How is education different from schooling?
  • A school is a social institution responsible for
    providing education.
  • Social institutions involve behaviour that is
    shared by large numbers of people and is stable
    or continued for a long period of time. E.g.
    schools have students and teachers (large no. of
    people), were introduced into Australian society
    in 1779
  • Education can be formal and informal and can be
    lifelong E.g. It is believed that the pace of the
    modern world has increased dramatically due to
    globalisation so education and training need to
    be ongoing/lifelong

What are institutions?
  • Institutional frameworks underpin the values and
    norms of a society and can act as agents of
    social control
  • Examples include
  • Family (social institution)
  • Work (economic institution)
  • Government (political institution)
  • School (educational institution)
  • Church (religious institution)

What are values?
  • The ideas and qualities that are considered
    worthwhile, desirable, correct and good by a
  • Values underpin the norms of a society and
    determine behaviour
  • Dominant Australian values include
  • Democracy, individualism, tolerance, capitalism,
    welfare state, mutual obligation, secularism,
    personal achievement, egalitarianism (e.g.,
    equality), mateship, private property, a fair

What are norms?
  • The acceptable standards and specific guide for
    conduct. They are social expectations of what is
    correct or proper.
  • E.g., saying please, thank you, sorry, not
    farting in public, etc
  • We punish people who do not behave normally or
    who break the codes (this is called social
  • E.g., streakers or nude bathers
  • We learn what is normal by watching and mimicking
    (internalization) and by being taught

What impact does education have on our lives?
  • Educational institutions have a profound effect
    on our lives
  • They help to instill community and social values
    and norms which can help to foster and maintain a
    positive and cohesive social environment
  • In a capitalist society they aim to prepare
    people (youth) for the workplace. Higher levels
    of education are associated with increased
    employment opportunities and higher wages (skills
    and knowledge)

What is the Australian system of education based
  • In Australia we tend to think that education i.e.
    skills and knowledge should be available to all
  • Australia is a democracy
  • Australians need to be educated to a global
  • Australia is multicultural
  • Australia is a secular society (one in which
    religion and religious organisations have no
    official role in civil or political affairs)

What is the Australian system of education based
  • The Australian curriculum is linked to the
    British US educational systems
  • There is a growing awareness that the function of
    education within our society is changing
  • This has been recognised as a need to improve the
    facilities (E.g. classrooms, sporting grounds,
    computers), curriculum (E.g. Invidual state
    curriculum such as Victorian curriculum known as
    VELs to change to National Curriculum 2011) and
    assessment (E.g. Naplan, publishing school
    results ontrack)

The Australian Private and Public education system
  • Australia still has a Private and Public
    education system
  • Australias first schools tended to be either for
    the rich (tended to be academic E.g.The Kings
    School) or the poor (tended to be vocational or
    social training E.g. The Female Orphan school,
    The Native Institution)
  • 1872 Government started to establish free and
    compulsory education
  • 1964 Government started to provide funds for
    Private education
  • 2009 There is still debate about whether and how
    much Private schools are government funded

The Australian Private and Public education system
  • Public schools are government run schools. They
    are guided by the Education Department and must
    follow regulations and systems such as curriculum
    and reporting systems like VELS. They are free
    (although there are optional contributions and
    books to pay). They are secular (not connected
    with any religious group) and they are inclusive
    (they must accept any student who wishes to
    attend regardless of gender, religion or
    economics). They must attempt to cater to the
    needs of their diverse student population.

The Australian Private and Public education system
  • Private schools are also known as independent
    schools as they are not solely guided by the
    government. They charge fees and are not
    necessarily secular (most have religious
    affilations) and they can choose to be exclusive
    (they can choose not to accept a student based on
    economics, religion and gender) .They do not
    necessarily have to follow state guidelines for
    reporting and curriculum but will usually choose
    to teach VCE and VCAL as these are recognised as
    necessary for entry into the workplace.

Is Australia fair?
  • The Australian government has identified three
    dimensions of Australias multicultural policy
  • Cultural identity The right of all Australians,
    within carefully defined limits, to express and
    share their individual cultural heritage,
    including their language and religion
  • Social justice The right of all Australians to
    equality of treatment and opportunity, and the
    removal of barriers of race, ethnicity, culture,
    religion, language, gender or place of birth
  • Economic efficiency The need to maintain,
    develop and utilize effectively the skills and
    talents of all Australians, regardless of

Your education
  1. What subjects are you and your fellow students
    studying and why?
  2. What are the functions of a societys
    educational institution?
  3. Identify the social issues/problems currently in
    the media, such as private versus public schools,
    rural education, the right to culturally (or
    religiously) specific information, school
    ranking, vocational training programs.
  4. What really occurs in schools?
  5. What rights and responsibilities do students and
    teachers have?
  6. Is our education system fair?

Your ideal school community
  • Think about your own ideal school community
  • Membership who can be a part of the school
    community and who cant why?
  • Common activities
  • Uniforms, symbols, logos, mascots, emblems
  • Educational structures, governance, meetings and
    decision making processes
  • Identity and sense of belonging
  • Interests/purposes political, social, cultural,
  • Where would classes meet rooms, sports
    facilities, community centres, Internet
  • Language ethnic languages, jargon, slang
  • Shared history

Ways in which the education system has changed in
the last 30 years?
  • Schools Function
  • Provision of skills and knowledge
  • has changed with need to be globally
    competitive, technological changes (Internet and
    access to knowledge has increased), and
    environmental awareness
  • Socialisation of young people
  • has changed with the need to understand the
    diversity of cultures and religions. What are the
    morals and values that should be taught? The
    welfare role has also increased as parents
    work-life balance and community involvement has

Effect of political changes
  • Political factors
  • Democracy and democratic practice leading to
    awareness of inequalities in our education system
    (E.g. need for improved levels of literacy and
    numeracy National testing, NT intervention to
    increase educational access and eventually levels
    in Indigenous Communities)
  • Globalisation has influenced the idea that there
    is a need to fund a better educated society (E.g.
    Rudds education revolution which includes the
    building of new facilities such as Primary School
  • Policy changes (E.g. Increasing the school
    leaving age to 17, Working with children police

Effect of economic changes
  • Economic factors
  • Workplace changes more women in workforce, more
    part-time/casual jobs (No longer full-time job
    market for school leavers increase school
    leaving age)
  • Higher level of education higher paid job yet
    there is a greater division between rich and poor
    (E.g.. Is it worth investing in Private
    Education?, or selecting the best Public School?
    Do children of lower socio-economic status really
    have equal opportunities?)
  • Changing nature of employment means that
    educational institutions have difficulties in
    working out industries needs (E.g.. Vocational
    programs such as VCAL or academic programs such
    as VCE)

Effect of technological changes
  • Technological factors
  • Internet and global communication, mobile phones,
    transport (car, planes, etc)
  • E.g., people are moving around more for work -
    need for National Curriculum?
  • - need for languages other than English to be
  • - need for understanding of diversity and
  • - need for community and schools to find ways of
    dealing with the negative side of technology such
    as cyber-bulling, cyber-addiction

Effect of social changes
  • Social factors
  • The way students socialise and communicate
  • Divorce and single-parent families
  • Work/home division
  • Migration (and ethnic tensions/terrorism)
  • Feminism later marriages, out marriage (marrying
    out of ethnic/religious community) falling birth
  • Materialism and consumerism
  • Rural access and equality

Other social factors
  • Social trends Is it fashionable to be educated
    in Australia?
  • Does this generation have more choices?
  • Choosing or imitating Private schools, publishing
    school and student results, School reputations,
    altering/increasing curriculum (what should we
    teach?), social identity (how does society view
    VCE VCAL students?), What are you hoping to

Economic effects of globalisation
  • Changes to the structure of Australian workplaces
    have resulted in subtle changes to national
  • A local skills shortage has resulted in foreign
    labour via the 456 visa
  • Employees of multinational companies have faced
    redundancy following the world economic crisis
  • Low-skilled jobs have been moving off shore to
    developing countries promoting sweat-shop labour

Technological effects of globalisation
  • Information Technology includes
  • Computers, mobile phones, Internet, electronic
    documents, networks, iPods, PDAs, etc
  • The Internet has resulted in a significant shift
    in communications, allowing for the establishment
    of communities across national borders and/or
    large distances
  • This can mean that the connection with
    traditional community structures is weakened

Technological effects of globalisation
  • ICT decreases social isolation by connecting
    isolated, rural, disabled and marginalised
  • ICT increases the range of and access to
    interest-based communities
  • ICT communities are often more democratic and
    individually empowering
  • Some ICT negatives
  • It disconnects people from reality
  • It is isolating for urbanites (i.e., less
    face-to-face interaction)
  • The contact is less personal and it is easier
    to lie
  • There is often less self-censorship (e.g., racist
  • It is linked to increases in childhood obesity
  • It excludes people without access to or knowledge
    of computers/Internet
  • The rise in online communities has shrunk the
    number of real communities

Social effects of globalisation
  • Globalisation has enhanced individualism,
    consumerism and competition all of which work
    against community cohesion
  • Move from manufacturing industries to service
    industries has opened up the workplace to more
    women, which in turn has changed family
    structures and shifted family functions to other
    institutions (e.g., schools)
  • Globalisation has also impacted on migration,
    ethnicity, multiculturalism, etc