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COMMON CORE GLOSSARIES A MULTI-LINGUAL APPROACH

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Title: COMMON CORE GLOSSARIES A MULTI-LINGUAL APPROACH


1
COMMON CORE GLOSSARIESA MULTI-LINGUAL APPROACH
  • Multi-Lingual Glossaries is a faculty-led and
    student-involved project to develop a series of
    common core glossaries that explain essential
    concepts and terms, in more than one language.
    The central purpose is to foreground and
    reinforce the intellectual content of specific
    courses, in a simple but 'innovative form that
    can involve all of our students.
  • This is the first step in a more expansive plan
    to foreground UWB as a multi-lingual campus
    through three interrelated projects Multilingual
    Glossaries, Multilingual Cookbook Multilingual
    Directional Signage.

2
The Art of Teaching
  • The art of teaching is to educedrawing something
    out from within, rather than cramming something
    into the mind from the outside. Educe means to
    draw forth or bring out, as something potential
    or latent elicit develop.
  • Confucius ?????wengùzhixin? gain new insights
    through restudying old material reviewing past
    helps one to understand the present. The Analects
  • Plato all knowledge is drawn from what we
    already have in our intelligence. Meno
  • Coleridge by awakening the principle and method
    of self-development. Essays on Method, from The
    Friend (Princeton Princeton University Press,
    1969), 472
  • This something is the rich resources already in
    shape on campus this project tries to transform
    students linguistic/cultural heritage into
    positive energy in their academic pursuit.

3
Need AnalysisNative Language (L1) as an Aid to
cope with a second language (L2)
  • 1. These multilingual glossaries are obviously
    valuable to the 1.5 Generation and international
    students. In winter 2013 alone, UWB, boasting
    3,500 as the fastest growing branch university in
    Washington State, has 277 students coming from 31
    countries
  • 2. This will help students who are learning a
    second language in a place where it is not used
    on a daily basis
  • 3. Those who want to participate in a Study
    Abroad Program but may be poorly prepared
    linguistically
  • 4. Certain majors/minors that require language
    proficiency at different levels.
  • Everyone has a stake. But the key is to help
    students help themselves.

2/11.2013
Multilingual Glossaries/Dr. Gao
3
4
A LIVE IDEA A SIMPLE PLANAlfred North
Whitehead The Aims of Education (1916)
  • Phase 1. For each class included in this
    project, the instructor will develop a short list
    of around 30-50 concepts, ideas, and terms that
    are essential for that course and subject matter.
    Each will have a brief definition, explanation,
    and critical evaluation.
  • Students will then be recruited from the class to
    develop a provisional translation into another
    language that they know. Students work will be
    rewarded with credit or extra credit. While we
    will start with Chinese and Spanish (the
    languages now taught at UWB, we will include
    other languages as possible.
  • Phase 2 will be refinement of the translations,
    with the help of experts, to produce a DOUBLE
    COLUMN entry for each concept or term with
    English and a second language next to it.
  • As the glossary for a course is polished and
    expanded, it will be available as an on-line or
    published resource, for instance, laminated
    reference chartshow an example.

5
LINGUISTIC INTELLECTUAL TRANSFORMATION
  • The potential impact of this project is very
    clear. For bilingual/multilingual students, this
    provides an immediate way to put the ideas they
    are learning in an expanded context or fresh
    combinations, to quote Whitehead. A
    multi-lingual glossary allows them to preserve
    and use their native language as an instrument of
    transformation. In practice, it also shows that
    translating ideas is never just a matter of
    finding words in two languages. The process is
    organic, not mechanic.
  • For domestic students, this provides a very
    effective and simple way for them to see and to
    explore a second language, without presuming that
    they have to be fluent to recognize how language
    differences expand our minds. But within four
    years, they can pick up some knowledge of L2 or
    L3, a benefit to come to UW Bothell campus.
  • For the UW Bothell living and learning community,
    this also provides a very direct way to foster
    more communication among students, in discussions
    about the core ideas that their courses present
    and develop.

6
DEVELOPING A CRITICAL EDGEWhen Implementing
Multilingual Glossaries
  • In Platos Republic I, Socrates discusses how to
    define justice with Cephalus. Cephalus, quoting
    Si'monides (556?468?) b.c. a Greek poet.,
    defines justice as repaying debts.
  • Socrates challenge Is it that simple? no
    more than this? And even to this are there not
    exceptions? Socrates counter example In case
    you return a weapon to a crazy man, a simple
    definition of justice as repaying debts could
    be consequential.  
  • Plato treats questions like this as
    provocatives that seem to show a thing and its
    opposite, sameness and difference, at the same
    time.
  • To follow Socrates, translation is not that
    simple as it creates a provocative moment. A
    provocative moment is valuable as it is
    thought-provoking.
  • Lets challenge Socrates! Though there might be
    exceptions to the rule, not repaying debts will
    entail chaotic consequences. So the rule has some
    merit. Socrates however seems to override the
    whole rule by an exception, therefore taking his
    partial truth for the whole. But Cephalus escaped
    at this point as many readers would. In Socrates
    logic, I dont have to repay 100 in case the
    person use the money to buy a weapon

7
Nurture Globally Competent CitizensEverybody has
a stake in world language learning
  • To become a Globally competent citizen, one needs
    to have a thorough cultural knowledge of global
    affaires
  • Cultural knowledge to a great extent depends on
    ones linguistic competency. First and foremost,
    a globally competent citizen should be
    linguistically competent
  • Per UW Admissions policy (College Academic
    Distribution Requirements), All applicants must
    complete a minimum level of preparation in six
    subject areas. This requirement ensures that
    students entering the University have an
    appreciation for the liberal arts and are
    adequately prepared to succeed in college. 2
    credits (2 years) of world languages in high
    school are required.
  • For purposes of admission, each quarter of
    language in college is considered equivalent to
    one credit (one year) in high school.

8
It is More ChallengingFish Out of Water!
  • To study a language in a place that is not used
    on the daily basis is more difficult!
  • Multilingual Glossaries will increase the input
    of the target language to a great extent for
    students who are taking Chinese and Spanish on
    campus.
  • A multilingual campus makes sense as it will
    create a swimming pool
  • Sample directional signs are designed in English,
    Chinese (Simplified characters Pinyin,
    exclusive of the traditional characters) and
    Spanish. Show the signs here.

9
SAMPLE SIGNShttp//www.forvo.com/word/librerC3A
Da/http//www.forvo.com/search-es/biblioteca/
Signs like these, installed around the campus
(Library, Parking Lot, Sports Field, and so on,
will give constant reminders of language
diversity --close to 7000 living languages
divided into many families.
10
http//www.forvo.com/search-es/Comida2020rC3A1
pida/Interaction between L1 L2 Produces
Something New
  • ? ? ?
  • ?sài bai wèi?
  • (phonetic/semantic rendering surpassing hundreds
    of flavors
  • SUBWAY
  • Comida rápida
  • (fast food in Spanish)

11
Multilingual Glossaries Will Generates
SomethingTautegorical
  • While this treatment of the Symbol presents other
    problems, Samuel Taylor Coleridges term,
    tautegorical, which the OED attributes to him and
    defines from his Aids to Reflection (1825) as
    expressing the same subject but with a
    difference, provides a very powerful and useful
    term for indicating this characteristic of
    metaphor, where similarities and differences
    co-exist.
  • Such a linguistic/conceutual juxtaposition will
    broaden our intellectual horizon as it reveals
    something about how other people interpret the
    same idea with differences.
  • A is B (in certain ways) simultaneously implies A
    is not B (in other ways)the second part is often
    shadowed!
  • My love is a red rose (smell good, looks pretty)
  • But a rose has thorns it could prick you!

12
Sample Entry on Gestalt Switch (the Norming
Session on Nov. 14th 2012Definition/Application/E
valuationPrepare Students for Essay Writing
  • Gestalt, meaning "essence or shape of an entity's
    complete form," is a German word that is often
    translated as whole or form. It is a theory
    of the mind and brain of the Berlin School. It
    maintains that the whole is more than the sum of
    its parts. This holistic approach has its
    philosophical implications when handling human
    affairs. In Frames of Mind A Rhetorical Reader
    with Occasions for Writing, Professor Robert
    DiYanni explains that the way a doctor looks at a
    child patient differs from that of a parent one
    professionally or clinically, the other
    emotionally or lovingly. (41) Opposite to this
    holistic approach is a one-dimensional or single
    vision that fails to take into account how
    complex an issue could be. A gestalt switch,
    similar to de-familiarization (in Russian
    formalism), tries to awake us (from our own
    paralysis in James Joyces terms).
  •  

13
Face or Vase?http//www.forvo.com/search-da/Rubin
/
  • Rubin's Vase (or Face), a set of optical
    illusions developed around 1915 by the Danish
    psychologist Edgar Rubin, calls our attention to
    an intellectual blind spot we suffer without our
    self-knowledge, and challenges us to look at the
    picture and other things from a new perspective.

14
Translation TechnologyHow to Accelerate the
Process?
  • To accelerate the process, use online
    technologies. For instance, in Microsoft
    Word/Power Point, highlight a word with the
    mouse, and then right click. Choose Translate
    and in the window opened on the righ set the
    source language (From) and the target language
    (To) as desired. Make sure you reset Region and
    Language in the control panel.
  • Vocabulary Expansion highlight a word with the
    mouse, and then right click. Choose Synonyms to
    paraphrase the word. Be careful since synonyms
    are just cousins, and paraphrase could be a
    heresy in Cleanth Brooks terms. Nevertheless,
    this sharpens students understanding of each
    word. For instance, a story differs from a
    parable, and a parable is not the same as an
    anecdote.

15
Translation as Creationthe relationship between
the Old and New
  • Translation is a sophisticated process of
    negotiations and interpretations between two
    languages and cultures
  • When a counterpart is not available in ones
    native tongue (which is called developmental
    problems), translation creates something new (as
    genuine poetry does) by reshuffling the cards
    (throw the old in fresh combinations, to quote
    Whitehead) in the old structure
  • ???diànnao? computer In Chinese, it means
    electronic brain
  • ????baolíngqiú? bowling, a protecting age ball
    (game)
  • My bowling record the first shot is just fine
    but its not progressive as my arm gets tired.
  • Avocado ???èlí? crocodile/alligator pear.
  • Translation plays a significant role in enlarging
    Chinese vocabulary by introducing loan words into
    Chinese
  • It is the same as in English (loan words)

16
Loan Words Haven Been Incorporateda Powerful
Language Has Its Built-In Mechanisms to Be
Perpetually Regenerative
17
Translation as Transformation
  • Empowerment -- for international students, it is
    a real step in the direction of seeing them (by
    others) and seeing themselves less as a problem
    than as a great and vital resource. Take a step
    back invite students to upload their translation
    on class website
  • Translation improves conceptual understanding
  • Translation may create a provocative (Plato)
    moment and highlight differences for critical
    reflection and cultural understanding. Take a
    step forward invite students to present their
    translation and explain where it differs from its
    English counterpart
  • Translation offers something that (creative)
    writing cantyou have to face it until you come
    up with an equivalent.
  • The goal is to maximize positive transfers from
    L1 to L2 and vise versa.

18
Language Transfer Developmental Issues
  • Language Transfer refers to L1 interference with
    L2 or vice versa. It could be positive or
    negative. It is highly predictable.
  • I happy now, an anecdote about two Japanese
    women hunting Matsutake, a pine mushroom on
    Whidbey Island Note in Japanese as in Chinese,
    there is no verb to be. This negative transfer is
    carried over from L1 to L2.
  • Developmental issues in SLA (Second Language
    Acquisition) refers to a situation when a
    counterpart is missing from the mother tongue.
    When this happens, it doesnt mean your mother
    tongue is useless instead, you can still educe
    something from your old treasure-house.
  • Broadly speaking, we are dealing with
    developmental issues on the daily basis.
    Confucius said one will be qualified to be a
    teacher if he knows how to infer something new
    from the old materials.
  • Whitehead throw into fresh combinations

19
Student Sample TranslationB CUSP 134 AUTUMN 2012
  • Anadiplosis (Spanish)
  • conduplicación, (linguística) repetición retórica
    de la última palabra de una oración al comienzo
    de la siguiente oración 
  • The Alternating method Alternancia Sucesión de
    forma recíproca y repetida de fenómenos, hechos,
    etc.
  • Ejemplo alternancia de partidos políticos en el
    poder. (by Herlinda)
  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos 
  • The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means
    of persuasion, appeals, into three
    categories--Ethos, Pathos, Logos.
  • ?????????????????????????,??,???(by Frank)

20
The Sunken Garden Mathematically Magnificent,
Especially Juxtaposed by a Delicate Japanese
Garden close by(The Butchart Gardens in Victoria
BC)
  • Jennie Butcharts transformation of the Sunken
    Garden (started in 1904) from an abandoned
    limestone quarry, is a stroke of genius. Jennies
    genius lies in that she capitalized on the old
    structure without fighting it, moreover,
    transforming trash to treasure. This is the
    essence of Taoismthe natural way.
  • Philosophically, Multilingual Glossaries will
    mobilize L1 as a valuable resource to master L2
    and vice versa. Bypassing L1 in L2 acquisition is
    like shooting a ball without using the white ball
    when playing the table pool.

21
Its sad to see students lose their cultural and
linguistic heritageGuo Jies Waterloo, May 20th
2012 Only Youhttp//www.youtube.com/watch?vuHY
icUe4ieo
  • ???? ?hándanxuébù?
  • imitate others slavishly and thus lose one's
    individuality.
  • According to the legend, a person from the State
    of Yan travelled to Handan, city in the state of
    Zhao. When he got there, he became infatuated
    with their unique way of walking. He tried to
    imitate it so intently, but was unsuccessful. He
    tried so intently that he forgot his own method
    of walking, and ended up crawling back to Yan.
  • Guo, after 10 years stay in France, may be
    comfortable conversing in French or in Chinese
    exclusively and respectively, got stuck in a
    bilingual setting.
  • He was puzzled when the lady, one of the bosses
    who would hire you on the spot, asked him some
    questions in French. It turned out that her
    French was full of errors
  • When the host mentioned some films (Guos major)
    in Chinese, Guo was completely out of tune.

22
SUMMARY
  • This project, starting with Multi-Lingual
    Glossaries, is a first step to foregrounding the
    linguistic richness already available in our
    community. Global learning can happen close at
    home.
  • As the Glossaries are developed, they can serve
    to foreground the intellectual content of our
    courses in a very specific and effective form,
    for all students.
  • In future phases, we can build a greater
    awareness of multiple languages through signage,
    activities, projects, that all focus on multiple
    languages as a huge resource.

23
The Role of Monolingual Students
  • Instructors can invite them to identify and
    compose additional definitions/entries for extra
    credit
  • Invite them to have all the readings recorded in
    English in MP3, etc. for extra credit

24
Advice to InstructorsScale Down on the Master
List
  • Out of my exuberance, Ive put together a list of
    over 100 words for 134 last quarter
  • Do not try to generate a big list at the
    beginning of the quarter spread it week by week
    as it is labor intensive
  • Give priority to those courses that are
    repeatedly taught to refine the list
  • To ensure the quality and accuracy in definition,
    application, and evaluation, instructors need to
    take control of the master list in English

25
Game DesignLearning through Playing
  • Adapted to Hedbanz by making flashcards!
  • We can also explore possibilities for computer
    game designs the fundamental principle of which
    being problem solving
  • Knowledge Contest (Who Wants to Be a
    Millionaire/Jeopardy) organized by themes
    coffee, justice, etc.

26
Status of translation in ESL Programs
  • ESL Used to focus on grammar/sentence
    patterns/translation
  • Nowadays it is generally not preferred
    Over-burdensome Slow down the process
  • Favor a model that maximizes the input of the
    target language, not the native language
  • Direct method emulates L1 acquisition ("The
    Berlitz Method (1878) pioneered the
    communicative approach, immersion, etc. the
    French model has its romantic appeal boys meet
    girls (talk to your girlfriend in French, your
    enemy in Deutsch, do business in Arabic, sing
    opera in Italian, etc. some have gone so far to
    punish students if they speak their native
    language in class)
  • TPA (Total Physical Response), a German model
    (James Asher), very effective to teach (action)
    verbs

27
L2 Learning is not quite the same as L1
acquisition
  • Though interesting, those approaches fail to take
    into account that L2 learners learn a language
    through their native tongue for reference L2
    learning is more comparative at every step
  • The direct approach works in some situations, but
    overall, it puts students in a guessing mode
    which leads to inaccurate understanding and
    cultural misunderstanding
  • Multilingual Glossaries is an Intensive Mode to
    study or investigate something, proposed by Zhu
    Xi (1130-1200), in the Song dynasty (N. Song
    960-1126 S. Song 1127-1279). Dont do that
    survey a great many books. Read one book
    thoroughly, then read another one thoroughly.
    (Ebrey 169)
  • The Intensive method works most effectively for
    students taking lower division classes when a
    solid foundation is most needed. The rationale is
    slow but steady. Something microwaved may not
    taste good.
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