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????????? Collection of Epidemiologic Data

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Title: ????????? Collection of Epidemiologic Data


1
?????????Collection of Epidemiologic Data
  • ???,????,???????
  • Bao-Ping Zhu, MD, MS
  • ??????????????????
  • U.S. Resident Expert Advisor to China FETP

2
???????????Types of epidemiologic data
  • ???? Outcome data
  • ???? Exposure data
  • ??????????? Data on related risk factors

3
?????????Sources of epidemiologic data
  • ???? Existing data
  • ?????? Data to be collected

4
??????Examples of existing data
  • ??????? Population data
  • ?????? Census data
  • ???????? Inter-census estimates
  • ?????? Vital statistics data
  • ???? Birth registry
  • ???? Death data
  • ??????? Marriage and divorce
  • ???? Surveillance data
  • ???? Disease surveillance
  • ???????? Behavioral risk factors surveillance

5
??????Examples of existing data
  • ????????? Health status and behavioral data
  • ??????? Health and nutrition surveillance
  • ???????? Behavioral risk factor surveillance
  • ??????? Socioeconomic data
  • ???????, ??????, ??? CPI, GNP, unemployment rate
  • ?????? Administrative data
  • ???? Outpatient records
  • ???? Hospitalization data
  • ??????? Laboratory testing data

6
??????????? Methods for collecting epidemiologic
data
  • ?????? Self-administered questionnaire
  • ????? Personal interviews
  • ??????????? Biochemical analysis of biological
    specimens
  • ???????????? Physical or chemical analysis of the
    environment

7
?????????Scales of Epidemiologic Data
  • ???? Nominal
  • ??,?? Gender occupation race/ethnicity
  • ???? Ordinal
  • ?????? Socioeconomic status low, medium, high
  • ???? Interval
  • ?? Temperature
  • ???? Year of birth
  • ???? Ratio data
  • ?? Weight
  • ?? Height

8
???????????Higher scale data are always preferred
  • ???????? Richer information
  • ??????? Higher statistical power
  • ???????????? More options for statistical
    analysis
  • ????????? Higher scale data may be transformed
    into lower scale data
  • ??????????????? Lower scale data may not be
    transformed into higher scale data

9
???????????????? Data is only as good as the
measurement instrument used
  • ??????????,??????????? We would like to measure
    the truth every time we measure a
    characteristic
  • ?????????,????????? Any deviation from this
    constitutes a measurement error
  • ???????????
  • ??? Reliability
  • ??? Validity

10
??? Reliability
  • ???????????,?????????? Refers to the degree of
    similarity of information obtained when the
    measurement is repeated in the same subject
  • ????????????? Is the same value arrived at every
    time the measurement is taken/made?

11
??? Validity
  • ????????????? Is it a true reflection of what you
    want to measure?
  • ????????,??????????????????,?????????? A measure
    lacks validity if an observer or an instrument
    measures the characteristic in the same
    individual repeatedly higher or repeatedly lower
    than the real value
  • ????????????? This systematic error
    introduces a bias
  • ??????????,?????????? A measure can be reliable
    but not valid

12
  • ????????????
  • Validity and Reliability

????? The Target metaphor

?? ????
?? ????
???? ????
??? ???
13
??????? The sources of error in measurement
  • ???? The instrument
  • ??????????????,????????????? The instrument
    itself gives different results for the same
    individual
  • ??,?????????? e.g. blood pressure cuff
  • ???? The observer
  • ??????????? Inter-observer variation -
    differences among observers
  • ?????????????? Intra-observer variation -
    differences in the same observer

14
??????? The sources of error in measurement
  • ???? The subject
  • ????????? Biological inconsistencies
  • ???? Memory
  • ?????? The environment
  • ?? Temperature
  • ?? Humidity

15
?? Questionnaires
  • ???????????????? A good questionnaire takes time
    and effort to design
  • ???????????!Dont underestimate this !!
  • ??????????????????! The questionnaire should only
    collect that information that you need for the
    study
  • ????,??,????? e.g. Demographics / Exposure /
    Outcome
  • ???????????????????? Think about the research
    questions and analysis plan
  • ??????????,??????????? e.g. Are you only
    interested in exposure (Y/N) or are you also
    interested in dose ??

16
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

17
??????????? State the Research Questions or
Hypotheses
  • ???????????? Generate hypotheses to guide data
    collection
  • ?????? Review descriptive studies
  • ????????? Look and learn from outliers
  • ????? Talk to people
  • ??????????? Talk to local officials
  • ??????? Go to field and study the environment

18
??????????? State the Research Questions or
Hypotheses
  • ????????????????Think about questions and
    related outcomes in advance. For examples
  • ????????? Contact with a case is associated with
    illness
  • ?????????? Vaccine is associated with protection
    from illness
  • ????????? Milk is associated with illness
  • ??????????? Illness was associated with the
    amount of milk consumed
  • ??????,????????????????? What exposures and
    outcomes do we specifically want to measure?

19
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

20
??????(???)Outline an analysis plan (empty
tables)
  • ??????????What measure of association will be
    used?
  • ????????????Which associations am I interested in?

??Ill
???Not Ill
????? Contact with case
???????????? We need to measure/define illness!
????? No Contact with case
????????? We need a measure of contact!
21
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

22
?????????Variables to be collected (observed or
measured)
  • ???? The participant
  • ????,???,??Participant (Name, ID )
  • ??,??,??,??Address, age, sex, occupation, etc....
  • ?? The exposure
  • ??,??,??,??,????If/where/when/how much/how long
  • ?? The outcome
  • ??,??,???? Symptoms/signs/tests

23
????????????Information that may be collected
with a questionnaire
  • ???? Individual characteristics
  • ??,??,?? Height, age, income
  • ?? Environment
  • ????,????? Housing, family size
  • ??,?? Behaviors, practices
  • ??,?? Alcohol or tobacco consumption
  • ?? Judgements
  • ?? Opinions
  • ?? Attitudes
  • ??????? Indicators of knowledge
  • ????????? Risk factors
  • ?????????? Healthy lifestyle

24
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

25
????????? Methods of obtaining information
  • ?????? Self-administered questionnaire
  • ????? Mail (postal)
  • ???? Web-based
  • ???????? Monitored
  • ????????? Interviewer-administered questionnaire
  • ???? By telephone
  • ????? In person

26
?????????What method to choose?
  • ????? Nature of questions
  • ??????????What is the research question to be
    addressed?
  • ?? Convenience
  • ????????Which method is most readily available?
  • ?? Cost
  • ??How costly is it to collect the information and
    how affordable is the method?

27
???????? Questionnaire administration
  • ????? In-person interviewing
  • ???????? Most frequently used
  • ?????????? High response rates flexibility
  • ???????????? Time consuming potential observer
    bias
  • ???? Telephone interviews
  • ?????????????? Inexpensive rapid large
    numbers or area
  • ????????????????????????????? Non-response
    no visual cues rushed potential observer bias
  • ????? Postal Questionnaires
  • ???????????????? Inexpensive rapid large
    numbers or area
  • ????????????? Non-response complexity

28
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

29
????? Types of Questions
  • ?????? Factual
  • ???,???,???? Demographic, laboratory, clinical
    information
  • ????? Opinions and Attitudes
  • ????????,??,??,???,?? Beliefs, ideas,
    predispositions, and values related to the topic
    under study
  • ??,?? Information/knowledge
  • ????????????(???????) Measures what people know
    (presence or absence of knowledge)
  • ???????? Correct or incorrect knowledge

30
????? Types of Questions
  • ?? Behavior
  • ??????? Description of behavior
  • ???????????????????? Difficult to evaluate how
    people think they behave vs. what they actually
    do
  • ?? ???????????,???????????? Constructs
    responses to multiple questions are combined to
    estimate a particular variable
  • ???????? Socio-economic status (SES)
  • ?????? Quality of life
  • ??????????? Self efficacy to change a behavior

31
??-????Measuring Dose-Response Relationship
  • ????????????????
  • ??????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ???????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ????????? ___?
  • ???????????
  • (?????????)????????,???????? ___?
  • ???????????
  • ?????????????,????????????
  • ??????___??
  • ??????___??
  • ??????___??

32
???????????Measuring Dose-Response Relationship
  • ?????????
  • ???????,????????,????????
  • ???????

33
????Aids to recall
  • ?????
  • ???????,?????
  • ??
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ?????????(???,??)????

34
???????A hepatitis A outbreak
35
????11????????????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ???????
  • ????????
  • ????3???????
  • ?????????????

36
????????Ask Preference Questions
  • ?????????
  • ??(???)? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
  • ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
  • ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
  • ????
  • ?????,???? ??? ??? ??? ????
  • ????????,???????(???) ??? ?????????

37
???????????Common Problems
  • ???? Ambiguous questions
  • ????? Not self-explanatory
  • ????????? Two questions in one (compound
    questions)
  • ???? Complex words
  • ????????? Asking things that people wont
    remember
  • ????? Hypothetical questions
  • ????????? Not enough categories
  • ??,??????? Too long or too many ideas
  • ??????? Overlapping categories
  • ?????? Leading questions
  • ?????????? Degree of accuracy not specified

38
????Questionnaire Solutions
  • ??????? Simple language
  • ???????? Closed questions
  • ????????? Staged questions
  • ??????? Scaling
  • ?????? Visual clues
  • ??? Pilot tests

39
????????Be clear about the data format you want!
????? Unspecified Format
??Date 12/10/06 10/12/06 06/10/12
?
?
?? Age 9 (?9???9???)(What? Years or months)
40
?????Format of questions
  • ?????????? Closed format ? give a fixed
    response
  • ????? Simple and quick easy to use in the field
  • ??????????????? Reduces discrimination against
    those who are less literate
  • ?????????????? Easy to code, record, and analyze
    results quantitatively
  • ?????? Easy to report results
  • ???????????? Limits the variety and amount of
    data collected

41
?????Format of questions
  • ??? ?????? Open-ended format ? allows
    exploration of issues
  • ?????????????,????????? When there is interest in
    what information a subject will volunteer before
    asking a specific response
  • ???????,???????????When conducting qualitative
    research when verbatim responses are needed in a
    report
  • ????????????????? Can be used even if a
    comprehensive range of alternative choices cannot
    be compiled
  • ???????? Not easy to administer and record
  • ????????????????? Difficult to code responses,
    analyze data, and quantify results

42
????? Open Question
??/???????? What milk products have you
eaten? ________________________
43
??????/?Closed question Yes / No
????????Did you have any of the following
symptoms ? ?Yes ?No ??? Unsure ??
Diarrhea ?? Fever ?? Abdominal pain ??
Vomiting ?? Other
44
??????Staged Questions
  • ?????????????,?????Did you drink the apple juice
    at the party and how much did you drink?
  • _______________
  • ? OR
  • ?????????
  • Did you drink any apple juice?
    ?Y ??N
  • ??,?????If yes then how much did you drink?
  • 1?1 cup 2?2 cups 3?3 cups 4????4 cups

45
  • ??????????
  • Other Types of Structured Questions

????? Nominal response ????? What is the
patients gender? 1 ?male 2?
female ????? Ordinal response (useful in
ranking) ?????????????????,1??,5??? Please
rank the following food items in degrees of how
much you would like to eat with 1 being the
highest and 5 being the lowest? __ ??
Chicken __ ?? Beef __ ?? Horse
__ ?? Fish __ ?? Sheep
46
?????? Using Scales
  • ????????? How would you characterize the pain
    that you had?
  • ??Mild ?? Moderate ??Severe
  • ? OR
  • ?????????0-10?? How would you characterize the
    pain that you had on a scale of 0 to 10?

10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
47
??????? Problems and Pitfalls
  • ??????????????????????? Avoid questions that
    ask two things at once - you wont know which
    bit people are answering
  • ????????????????/??
  • e.g. Have you ever had neck pain and diarrhea?
    Yes/No?
  • ???? Ambiguity.....
  • ????????????
  • e.g. Do you go to the toilet a lot?

48
??????? Problems and Pitfalls
  • ??????Avoid jargon
  • ????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????????,????,???????????????
  • ???????? Avoid options that are not mutually
    exclusive when they need to be
  • ????? What age are you?
  • 16-20 ?
  • 20-25 ?
  • 25-30 ?
  • 35-40 ?

49
??????? Problems and Pitfalls
  • ??????? Avoid leading questions
  • ?????????????????Do you think that the food in
    the hotel made you sick?
  • ?????????????????????Did the hotel staff seem
    unhygienic to you?
  • ???????????????????? Do you agree that the
    hospital staff were close to exhaustion?
  • ?????? Avoid making the questionnaire too long
  • ????? Typographical / spelling errors
  • ?????????
  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ???????

50
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

51
?????Sequence of Questions
  • ??????????????? Group questions by topic or
    response options
  • ???????? Question order is important
  • ?????? General to particular
  • ???? Easy to difficult
  • ?????? Factual to abstract
  • ?????????? Start with closed format questions
  • ???????????????????? Start with non-threatening
    questions relevant to the main subject
  • ?????????????? Dont put the most important item
    last

52
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

53
??????Layout General
  • ????????? Particularly important with postal
    questionnaires
  • ???? Attractive
  • ?????????? Clear language and instructions
  • ???? Easy to follow
  • ?????????? Well illustrated jumps/skips
  • ???????? Keep it short and simple

54
??????Layout General
  • ?????? Practical tips
  • ????????????? Make it easy for survey team
    members in the field
  • ??????????? Keep form well-spaced and open
  • ????????????? Make spaces for recording data
    obvious
  • ?????? Each question needs to fit wholly on a
    page
  • ????????? Make it easy for keypunching
  • ?????? Place spaces for recording data
  • ???????????????? Record data in consistent visual
    framework
  • ??????????,?9?- Use common symbol for
    unknown "9", "Unk", "-", etc.

55
???? Layout example
  • ?????????
  • ????
  • 1. ????_________ ????_________
    ????__________________
  • 2. ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ?
  • 3. ????12?????
  • 1) __?, ?? ??2??????????? ? ? ?
  • 2) __?, ?? ??2??????????? ? ? ?
  • 3) __?, ?? ??2??????????? ? ? ?
  • 4. ?? ? ???? ? ????
    ? ???
  • ????????? ????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ??????
  • ????
  • 6. ??????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ?????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • 7. ??????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ???????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • 8. ??????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??
  • ????????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??

56
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

57
??Translation
  • ????????????? The best way to interview people is
    to address them in their own language
  • ???????/????????????Researcher makes
    questionnaire in his language
  • ????????? Translation into local language
  • ????????????????? Back-translation (check)
  • ???????????????? Interviewers should be fluent in
    the language of the interviewees

58
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

59
?????Training Interviewers
  • ????? Need to understand the questionnaire
  • ???? Terminology
  • ?? Skips
  • ?? Definitions
  • ??????????,????? Only read the questions, not
    interpret them for the respondent
  • ???????????? Master the consent process
  • ????????????????,???????? Remove interviewer bias
    by asking everyone questions in calm,
    non-judgemental fashion

60
?????Training Interviewers
  • ????????????????? Interviewers should be trained
    in all tasks required to conduct the interview
  • ??????????? Find the household to interview
  • ?????????,?????????? Approach people pleasantly
    and acquire consent
  • ?????????? Assure confidentiality and anonymity
    (when possible)
  • ????????,?????? Administer questionnaire, and
    respond to questions
  • ??????,?????????? Review filled out questionnaire
    forms

61
??????????Steps in questionnaire design
  • ??????????? State the research question(s)/hypothe
    ses
  • ?????? Outline an analysis plan (empty tables)
  • ?????????? List the variables to be measured
  • ???????? Decide how the questionnaire will be
    administered
  • ??????? Formulate the questions
  • ??????Decide on the questions
  • ????? Phrase the questions
  • ??????? Determine the sequence of questions
  • ???????? Plan the layout and design of the
    questionnaire
  • ?????????????? Translate if necessary
  • ????? Train interviewers
  • ??? Pilot test

62
  • ???????
  • Why pretest questionnaires?
  • ????????? Ease of understanding
  • ????????? Avoid ambiguity
  • ????????????? Identify other exposures
  • ????????? Clarify response categories
  • ???????? Eliminate unnecessary questions
  • ????????? Understand sensitive issues
  • ?????? Estimate time needed
  • ???????????? Uncover logistical problems

63
???Pretest
  • ?????????????,????????????? Administer
    questionnaire to other survey staff and correct
    questionnaires
  • ???????? Go over each question
  • ??????????Ensure questions are easily readable
  • ?????????Be sure skip patterns clear

64
???Pretest
  • ????????????????!Always pretest on target
    population
  • ???????????? Supervisors should observe pretest
  • ?????????????? Pretest entire data collection
    procedures
  • ????????? Ask respondents about interview
    questions
  • ???????? Ask survey workers about
  • ???????? Individual questions
  • ???????????? Entire process of data collection

65
?????????Pretest answers these questions
  • ??????????????Are people willing to answer
    questions?
  • ??????????????? Are people willing to allow
    specimen collection?
  • ???????????Are any questions difficult to answer?
  • ??????????Are any questions sensitive?
  • ????????????Do people understand every question?
  • ????????????Can interviewers follow instructions
    on data collection form?
  • ??????????Are there other difficulties with the
    data collection form?
  • ??????????Are there any answers that should be
    included on data collection form?
  • ???????????????How long does data collection
    take?
  • ?????????????,??????What is best organization of
    data collection steps within household?

66
??????Advantages of questionnaires
  • ?????????????????????(????????)Can reach a large
    number of people relatively easily and
    economically (especially postal questionnaires)
  • ???????? Provide quantifiable answers
  • ???????? Relatively easy to analyze

67
??????Disadvantages of questionnaires
  • ???????????? May provide only limited insight
    into the problem
  • ???????????? Limited response allowed by
    questions
  • ????????? You may not have asked the right
    questions
  • ??????? Varying response
  • ?????????????????? They may not understand your
    question and may interpret it differently
  • ??????????? Postal questionnaires ? low response
    rate
  • ?????,????????????? Hard to chase after missing
    data need to get it correct the first time

68
?????? Other Issues
  • ????????????? Look at previously used
    questionnaires
  • ????????????? Standard validated measurements
  • ???? Ethics
  • ????? Observations vs. Responses
  • ?????????????? Question/actual response/recorded
    response
  • ???????? Coding for analysis

69
?????????????
???????,???????????????????????? ?? ??
70
?????
  • ?????????????????
  • ____________
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74
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77
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79
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19-25 ? 45???
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84
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85
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THANK YOU
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Extra Slides
90
Learning Objectives
  • List objectives of questionnaire
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of
    questionnaire
  • List steps in questionnaire design
  • Describe different types of questions and when to
    use them
  • Identify characteristics of effective
    questionnaire
  • Define pilot testing
  • Describe ways to avoid common problems
  • Explain sensitive issues related to translating
    questionnaire

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A Questionnaire is a Way to Measure
  • It is a list of questions (answered by a
    respondent) to generate an indirect measure of
    the variables under investigation.
  • Questions regarding
  • - exposure - outcome -
    both
  • Design and administration of a questionnaire is
    critical part of study.
  • Poor design or administration can decrease the
    reliability and the validity of a measure.

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????? Types of Variables
?? Variable
???? Quantitative measurement
????? ?? Qualitative or categorical
???? (??????) (??,??) Continuous
(real-valued) e.g. height
????? (?????) Discrete (count data) e.g.
number of admissions
???? (?????? ???) Ordinal (ordered) e.g.
response to treatment
???? (???,???) Nominal (not ordered) e.g.
nationality
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Objectives of a questionnaire
  • To ensure that the information obtained is as
    accurate and as relevant to the study as possible
  • To maximize the proportion of subjects answering
    the questionnaire as high a response rate as
    possible

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