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Review/articles/ Qualitative


Title: Research in Music Teaching Author: Keri Miksza Last modified by: Phillip Hash Created Date: 8/28/2007 3:57:15 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review/articles/ Qualitative

  • Class 9

  • Tomorrow
  • Final Presentations w/ PPT
  • Disseminating Research
  • Monday
  • Completed proposals
  • Revisions possible

Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative
Paradigmsholds implications for method,
purpose, and role of the researcher (Glesne,
  • Quantitative
  • Positivist Concerns
  • Reality exists as a relatively fixed entity that
    is external to the individual
  • Social facts have objective reality
  • Discrete variables can be identified and
    objectively measured
  • Qualitative
  • Interpretivist
  • Constructivist
  • Reality is socially constructed by the
    participants in their settings
  • Variables are interwoven, and difficult to

Researchers Role in Quantitative and Qualitative
Paradigms (Glesne, 1999)
  • Quantitative
  • Researcher detached
  • A non-participant
  • Strives for objective interpretation of findings
  • Qualitative
  • Researcher personally involved
  • Participation may vary greatly
  • Strives for interpretation and understanding
    while acknowledging subjectivity tries to
    balance credibility with empathic interpretation
    and personal insight

Other General Characteristics of Qualitative
  • Holistic Perspective
  • Study topic is a complex system that is more than
    the sum of parts. Interactions of phenomenon
  • Type of Data
  • Detailed, thick description, quotations
  • Dynamic Systems
  • Attention to process vs. product, change is
    constantly occurring in the individuals and
  • Design Flexibility
  • Methodology is adapted as the research unfolds,
    new participants may be added, new questions may

Approaches to Qualitative Research
  • Ethnography
  • Goal is to obtain an holistic picture of a
    society, group, institution, setting, situation
  • Emic perspective an insiders perception of
  • Culture the sum of a groups social patterns,
    customs, ways of life the ideas, beliefs, and
    knowledge that characterize a particular group
  • Emphasis on social interaction
  • Many data sources (e.g., interviews,
    observations/field notes, key informants,
    artifacts, are used)

Approaches to Qualitative Research
  • Phenomenological Study
  • Investigating experiences (e.g.,
    reactions/perceptions) individuals have when
    faced with a particular phenomenon
  • Focus is on lived experience and
    subjective/personal meaning
  • In-depth interviews are prominent

Approaches to Qualitative Research
  • Case Study
  • Can be of an individual, a class, a school, a
    program, a particular event, a particular
    activity, etc.
  • Intrinsic case study interested in
    understanding a specific individual/situation
  • Instrumental case study interest in studying a
    particular case as a means towards a larger goal
  • Multiple case study more than one case

Approaches to Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory
  • Purpose is to inductively generate a theory
    grounded in data systematically gathered and
  • Employs constant comparative method continual
    interplay among researcher, data, and theory
    continuously revising in light of new evidence
  • Categories/themes are created, logically analyzed
    in light of data and discarded or accepted by the
  • Interviews are common for data collection

Approaches to Qualitative Research
  • Mixed Methodology
  • Incorporating both quantitative and qualitative
  • Triangulation collect both quantitative and
    qualitative to compare results
  • Explanatory Collect and analyze quantitative
    data, then follow up by collecting qualitative
    data to refine the findings
  • Exploratory Collect and analyze qualitative
    data, the follow up by collecting quantitative
    data to extend the findings

Qualitative Data Collection Methods
  • Field Notes describing the context of the
    research, can keep field notes and journal in
    same text (use brackets to differentiate one from
    the other)
  • Direct Observation/Transcriptions
    (video/audio/live/verbal) script taking that
    describes specific events, transcribing
    recordings is perhaps the best way to do this
    accurately, includes more than simply writing
    each word spoken, includes actions, inflections,
  • Journals (personal reflection) higher
    inference, beginning of the analysis phase
    (starting to draw researcher inferences)
  • Prox-em-ics/Mapping (use of social space)
    diagrams of people or objects in the field in
    the research space being observed

Qualitative Data Collection Methods (continued)
  • Interviews surveys, open-ended interviews
  • Verbal protocol, Think Alouds subjects
    describing their experience while they are in the
    moment, while they are doing
  • Artifacts/pictures of artifacts
  • Content analyses of existing documents
    unobtrusive measures

Your Qualitative Articles
  • Purpose
  • Methodology
  • Participants
  • Dependent Var./Stats Analysis
  • Results
  • Conclusions
  • Opinions

  • What is the IRB? Who needs to go through this
  • http//
  • Human subjects training (online)
  • Form on my website as well
  • What is variance? What is it good for? What if
    the variance b/w 2 groups is different?
  • What is standard deviation? What if its large?
    How might we attain a lower value?

Normal Curve
  • Type I Type II error
  • Treatment Group/Control Group
  • They should be as _______ as possible
  • What if they are not?
  • Experiment Effect of IV on the DV.
  • Randomized pretest/posttest control group
  • R O X O
  • R O O (might show?)

  • Compare 2 groups of matched pairs.
  • 2007 ACT Explore Band Student English Math
  • Compare 3 groups of independent samples
  • English for 2007, 2008, 20009
  • You have 35 boys and 60 girls in your band. Is
    this reflective of the school population? Which
  • List non parametric equivalent
  • Independent samples T-Test
  • Correlated Samples ANOVA

  • Explain correlation (define, purpose, types,
    etc.). What are some assumptions?
  • What is the relationship b/w ratings by judge 3
    and the final rating?
  • What is effect size? Calculate effect size for
    the difference between band and non-band students
    on the 2009 Explore composite. What do you need
    to do?

Syllabus Terms
  • Define
  • Provide an example
  • Create an application
  • Teach to someone else

Development and Validation of a Music Self
-Concept Inventory for College Students
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a music
    self-concept inventory (MSCI) for college
    students that is easy to administer and reflects
    the global nature of this construct. Students (N
    237) at a private college in the Midwest United
    States completed the initial survey, which
    contained 15 items rated on a five-point Likert
    scale. Three subscales determined by previous
    research included (a) support or recognition from
    others, (b) personal interest or desire, and (c)
    self-perception of music ability. Factor
    analysis indicated that two items did not fit the
    model and, therefore, were deleted. The final
    version of the MSCI contains 13 items and
    demonstrates strong internal consistency for the
    total scale (a .94) and subscales (a .83 -
    .92). A second factor analysis supported the
    model and explained 63.6 of the variance.
    Validity was demonstrated through correlation (r
    .94) between the MSCI and another measure of
    music self-perception, MSCI scores and years of
    participation in music activities (r .64), and
    interfactor correlations (r .71 - .75)
    indicating three distinct factors. This
    instrument will be useful to researchers
    examining music self-concept and to college
    instructors who want to measure this construct
    among their students.

(No Transcript)
  • Terms Self-concept (Am I?), self-esteem (/- ?),
    self-efficacy (can I?)
  • Previous measures
  • Schmitt (1979)
  • Ability
  • Influence of Others
  • Interest
  • Svengalis (1978)
  • Vispoel (1993, 1994)
  • Self-Concept is Hierarchical (global vs.
  • SC can influence motivation, self-regulation,
    perseverance, participation, and probably

Purpose Need
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a brief
    music self-concept inventory for college students
    that is easy to administer, tests the
    three-factor model defined by Austin (1990), and
    demonstrates acceptable internal reliability of a
    .80 (e.g., Carmines and Zeller, 1979
    Krippendorff, 2004).
  • Such an instrument will be useful to researchers
    or college professors who want to measure music
    self-concept among their students.

  • The initial draft of the Music Self Concept
    Inventory (MSCI) consisted of 15 statements
    divided into three equal subscales related to (a)
    support or recognition from others, (b) personal
    interest or desire, and (c) perception of music
    ability (Austin, 1990).
  • 2 pilot studies (N 20)
  • Main Study (N 237)
  • Also took SEMA (Schmitt, 1979) n 55
  • Factor Analysis to confirm efficacy of the three
    factor model

Factor Analysis
  • Pattern Matrix for Principal Factor Analysis with
    Promax Rotation of the MSCI (final version)

  • Limited number of tests
  • Accurate and fast
  • Import CSV EXCEL files
  • Comma delimited
  • Surveys