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Early River Valley Civilizations

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Title: Early River Valley Civilizations


1
Early River Valley Civilizations
  • Ancient India

2
Indus River Valley
Geography
1. Subcontinent separated from
Asia 2. Rivers Ganges Indus
3. Mountains Hindu Kush Himalayas 4. Deccan
Plateau highland in southern India
5. Monsoons seasonal winds that bring moist
air in summer dry air in winter
3
1st Indus Civilization of India
1. Around 2500 B.C. the first Indian
civilization developed along the Indus River.
2. Cities centered around a citadel, a fortified
area, where the major buildings were found.
The two most important were Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa.
3. Were polytheistic, the worship of cattle is
evident from archaeological digs.
4. Destruction around 1500 B.C.- may have been
caused by a natural disaster or invaders.
4
The Aryans Invade India
1. The Aryans invaded India through the Hindu
Kush Mountains around 1500 B.C.
2. They were nomadic herders who counted wealth
in cattle and had no writing system. The
individual who ruled each state was called a
rajah.
3. Based their society on a caste system, where
people are divided into several separate groups
based on who their parents are. This shaped
every persons life.
5
Hinduism
1. Established by the Indians/Aryans in India.
2. Believe people experience a rebirth called
reincarnation, where people who live a good
life will be reborn into a higher caste. A
person living a bad life will be reborn into
lower caste.
3. Priests kept hymns in four collections called
the Vedas.
6
Hinduism
4. Hindus believed in an ethical law of cause
and effect called karma.
5. A set of duties an individual had to display
in their class of society is called dharma.
6. All wise Hindus seek to reach a state of
perfect understanding called moksha.
7
Buddhism
1. Born in 563 B.C., Siddartha Gautama found the
religion of Buddhism. His followers called him
Buddha, meaning the Enlightened One.
2. A person tries to achieve nirvana, where
salvation is achieved.
8
The Mauryan Dynasty
1. Chandragupta Maurya took over much of India
around 322 B.C.
2. He ruled by force and fear, had many
government spies, and trusted nobody.
3. After ruling 24 years, his son took over the
throne, yet little is known about him. His
grandson, Ashoka would then take control and
become the complete opposite of his cruel
grandfather. 273 B.C.
9
The Mauryan Dynasty
4. Ashoka became a Buddhist to win the support
of his people through kindness.
5. Set up edicts around India, or public orders
on stone. He also provided hospitals.
6. Buddhism spread beyond India and developed
millions of followers under him.
7. Ashoka was the last strong ruler of the
Mauryan dynasty, which fell only 50 years
later in 180 B.C.
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