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History of Modern American Science and Technology Session 5


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Title: History of Modern American Science and Technology Session 5

History of Modern American Science and
TechnologySession 5
  • Modern Environmental Movement

Rachel Carson, 1907-1964
  • Marine biologist (MS from Johns Hopkins) and
    nature writer
  • Career in Fish and Wildlife Service, US federal
    government, 1936-1952
  • Wrote popular books on the ocean, most famously
    The Sea around US (1952)
  • Wrote Silent Spring (1958-1962) which has been
    called one of the few books that changed world
    history it started the modern environmental

Silent Spring (1962)
  • Modern problem Only within the moment of time
    represented by the present century has one
    speciesmanacquired significant power to alter
    the nature of his world.
  • Scale of the problem Along with the
    possibility of the extinction of mankind by
    nuclear war, the central problem of our age has
    therefore become the contamination of mans total
    environment with such substances of incredible
    potentials for harm.

Silent Spring (cont.)
  • Danger unknown It is not my contention that
    chemical insecticides must never be used. I do
    contend that we have put poisonous and
    biologically potent chemicals indiscriminately
    into the hands of persons largely or wholly
    ignorant of their potentials for harm.
  • Publics right to know The public must decide
    whether it wishes to continue on the present
    road, and it can do so only when in full
    possession of the facts.

Silent Spring (cont.)
  • Need for scientific research All of these
    questions urgently require the precise answers
    that only extensive research can provide, yet
    funds for such purposes are pitifully small.When
    will the public become sufficiently aware of the
    facts to demand such action?

Silent Spring (cont.)
  • Importance of scientific research A truly
    extraordinary variety of alternatives to the
    chemical control of insects is available. Some
    are already in use and have achieved brilliant
    success. Others are in the stage of laboratory
    testing. Still others are little more than ideas
    in the minds imaginative scientists, waiting for
    the opportunity to put them to test.

  • Important to understand nature All alternative
    to chemicals have these in common they are
    biological solutions, based on understanding of
    the mechanisms they seek to control, and of the
    whole fabric of life to which these organisms

Silent Spring (cont.)
  • Science and technology The control of nature
    is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the
    Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when
    it was supposed that nature exists for the
    convenience of man. The concepts and practices
    of applied entomology for the most part date from
    that Stone Age of science.
  • It is our alarming misfortune that so primitive
    a science has armed itself with the most modern
    and terrible weapons, and that in turning them
    against the insects it has also turned them
    against the earth.

Presidents Science Advisory Committee
  • First constituted in the Executive Office of the
    President in the aftermath of the Korean War in
  • Reconstitute into the White House in 1957 when
    Eisenhower sought to respond to the Sputnik
  • PSAC helped Eisenhower organize space program,
    initiate nuclear test ban, and evaluate military

Eisenhower on PSAC
  • White House, December 1960
  • The President said that he had a deep sense of
    obligation to PSAC.
  • He has put science advice into more and more
    subjects of national policy.
  • PSAC holds great influence in our federal system.
  • Personal gratification most impressive and
    valuable work stimulation of thought
    broadening and deepening of understanding.
  • Said later His science wizards helped him
    control the arms and space races.

PSAC and Technological Skepticism
  • PSACs importance Not their advice on what
    technology could do, but on what it could not do.
  • Technological skepticism PSAC recognized the
    limits of what a given technology could
    accomplish in the broad social and political
    environment and advocated instead basic
    scientific research as a precondition for any
    technological solution.
  • It manifested itself most clearly in PSACs
    evaluation of military technology, space program,
    nuclear arms control, and its report on Uses of
    Pesticides in response to Rachel Carsons Silent
    Spring in the 1963.

PSAC, Kennedy, and Silent Spring
  • USDA, chemical companies and pest control
    scientists attacked Carson for exaggerating the
    harms of pesticides damage control The main
    problem is Miss Carson.
  • Kennedy and PSAC were sympathetic to Carsons
  • Kennedy press conference in August 1962 federal
    government to respond to Silent Spring,
    specifically Federal Council for Science and
    Technology and PSAC

PSAC as Environmental Experts
  • Cranberry crisis of 1959
  • Jerome Wiesner Presidential science advisor,
    PSAC chairman, director of the White House Office
    of Science and Technology, chairman of the
    Federal Council for Science and Technology
  • Wiesner came from MIT and helped Kennedy to end
    nuclear test in the air later visited China in
  • PSAC on cranberry crisis of 1959 radiation
    debate new field, no experts

PSAC Panel on Life Science
  • Colin M. MacLeod, a pioneer in molecular biology
    at New York University was chairman.
  • Panel included prominent scientists, such as
    James Watson of Harvard.
  • Critics charged that they were not experts on
    pest control, but thats not their job
  • There was no experts on the environmental effects
    of pesticides
  • MacLeod the magnitude of this problem is going
    to require a distinct reorientation on the part
    of many.

Carson meets PSAC, 1963
  • Believing that perhaps its a chance to
    straighten out some thinking, Carson met with
    PSAC panel for nearly a day on January 26, 1963
  • She impressed the panel members as being more
    moderate and sensible than they expected from
    reading some of the more dramatic passages in her

Social Construction of Science Policy
  • PSAC produced first report on pesticides in early
    1963 which confirmed Carsons warning that
    pesticides represented an unknown and potential
    serious threat to environmental and human health
  • USDA and FDA attacked it for siding with Rachel
    Carson and emphasized too much the harmful
    effects of pesticides
  • USDA Report could profoundly damage U. S.
    agriculture and lead to a breakdown of public
    confidence in control programs, pesticide use,
    research scientists and their findings,
    governmental regulations of pesticides, and the
    safety and wholesomeness of our food supply.
  • Interior supported the report and demanded
    regulatory power.

Compromise and Principles
  • The PSAC panel agreed that inter-state and
    international food was safe but not necessarily
    within the state.
  • PSAC further rejected the USDAs request to
    remove the only passage in the report where they
    paid a quiet but warm tribute to Rachel Carsons
    work Public literature and the experiences of
    Panel members indicated that, until the
    publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson,
    people were generally unaware of the toxicity of
  • The USDA such a reference to a commercially
    available publication is inappropriate in a
    scientific report.
  • PSAC The Panel members felt that it would be a
    deliberate slight if they did not make reference
    to the book.

PSAC Report on Pesticides
  • Recognizing "the use of pesticides must be
    continued" for food production and control of
    diseases, the report focused on the unknown
    hazards of pesticides, especially in low dosages
    and emphasized, as did Carson, that the pesticide
    problem was only one of many that threatened the
  • The public had a need to know even as the
    problems admitted of no easy technological fix,
    the panel pointed out
  • The panel can suggest ways of avoiding or
    lessening the hazards, but in the end society
    must decide, and to do so it must obtain adequate
    information on which to base its judgments.
  • Regulatory policy The decision is an
    uncomfortable one which can never be final but
    must be constantly in flux as circumstances
    change and knowledge increases.

Policy Transparency, Publics Right to Know,
Education, and Research
  • The Panel believes that all data used as a basis
    for granting registration and establishing
    tolerances should be published, thus allowing the
    hypotheses and the validity and reliability of
    the data to be subjected to critical review by
    the public and the scientific community.
  • The PSAC report advocated expanded federal
    research and public education programs on the
    effects of pesticides.

Reactions to PSAC Report
  • Scientific publications, such as Science and
    Chemical and Engineering News, which had both
    published damning reviews of Carsons book, now
    joined the popular press in applauding the
  • New evidence about the harmful effects of
    pesticides contained in the PSAC report and
    incidents of fish kill due to pesticides in the
    Mississippi since Silent Spring first appeared
    must have had an impact.
  • Kennedy I have already requested the
    responsible agencies to implement the
    recommendations in this report, including the
    preparation of legislative and technical
    proposals which I shall submit to the Congress.

Carson Delighted by PSAC Report
  • I think no one can read this report and retain a
    shred of complacency about our situation.
  • EPA Conflict of interest should be eliminated
    completely The Commission should be made up
    of citizens of high professional competence in
    such fields as medicine, genetics, biology, and
  • Carsons positive experience with the PSAC
    pesticide panel contributed to the idea itself.

Significance of PSAC Report
  • In retrospect, the real contribution of the PSAC
    report was probably its critical role in changing
    public and official opinion of the environmental
    problems discussed in Rachel Carsons Silent
  • By the weight of its own investigation, its
    scientific prestige, and its proximity to
    presidential power, the PSAC group helped to
    certify the seriousness of Carsons seemingly
    radical claims of environmental cataclysms.

???????????????????(1962)????????????? ????
?(1963) ?????????(1965)???????????????
??, 1907-1964
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????, 1936-1952
  • ??????????,?????????(The Sea around US)
  • 1958-1962???????(Silent Spring)
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????

  • ?????,????,?????,???????,1997?
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  • ????????
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  • ????,?????????????????????????????,??????????????
  • ??????????????,????-????????????,?????????????

  • ???????????,?PSAC???????????,????????????????????
  • ?????
  • ???????????
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  • ???????/??????

  • ?????????????????
  • ???????????????,???????(appropriate technology)
  • ?????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????

  • ??????????????????????????
  • ?????1964?????????????
  • ??????????,??????????????????
  • ?????1964-1965????????????(Restoring the
    Quality of Our Environment) ??
  • ???????????????????????
  • www.presidency.ucsb.edu 1965 President Johnson
    publicly announced the possibility of global
    warming in a special message to Congress

  • ????????????????????
  • ????,?????????,???????????
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  • ???????????,??????,?????????
  • 100????
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  • ?2000?,??????????????????25
  • ?????????????,?????????????,?????????????????????
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Science, Technology, and Environment
  • Neither Carson nor PSAC was anti-science or
  • They wanted the public to recognize the limits of
    any technological solutions and advocate the use
    of appropriate technologies
  • They advocated scientific research as a way to
    prevent the abuse of technologies or nature
  • Technological skepticism by competent experts is
    still needed in our age of new technological
    enthusiasm marked by information and bio

  • ???????,???????Harold Varmus??????????????(http//
  • ??61???????????
  • ?www.sciencedebate2008.org???????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ??????,??2050?????????1990?????80

  • ??????????,??,???,??????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????,???????
  • ????????????????????????,??,????????,?????
  • ??????????,??????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????,???????????
  • (www.barackobama.com/pdf/issues/FactSheetScience.p

  • ????????
  • ?????????10??????
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  • ??21?????
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  • ???????????????????????,????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????,??????????,??????????????,????

What Can We Expect from the New Obama
  • Richard Olson and Zuoyue Wang, What Can We
    Expect from the New Obama Administration?
    Harvey Mudd College Magazine, Winter 2008, 16-17.
    Co-authored by Richard Olson. ? Harvey Mudd
    College Magazine, Winter 2008, 16-17.

  • ???????
  • Critical national goals can only be met if we
    renew our commitment to science, technology and
    innovation. ???????????????????,??????????????
  • Investments in science and technology foster
    economic growth create millions of high-tech,
    high-wage jobs that allow American workers to
    lead the global economy improve the quality of
    life for all Americans and strengthen our
    national security. ??????????????????????????????
  • Clean energy technologies can help end our
    dependence on foreign oil and combat global
    warming. Advances in biomedical research can
    deliver life-saving ways to diagnose, prevent and
    treat diseases.???????????????????????????????????
  • And the urge to probe more deeply into the
    unknown and expand the frontiers of human
    knowledge is at the core of the American
    experience.... We need to end the Bush
    administrations war on science where ideology
    trumps scientific inquiry and politics replaces
    expert opinion.??????????????????????,????????????

  • ??????????????????????????????????,??????????????
  • ??????????????????,????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????,???????????
  • ?????????????????????,??????????????,?????????????
    ?????cap-and-trade (??????????
  • ???????????????????????????

  • 2008?12?15?????????????
  • ???????????????????,????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ????????,??????????????,?????????????????
  • ???????,???????????????--??????????????????,?????

  • 2009.1.20 We will restore science to its
    rightful place and wield technologys wonders to
    raise health cares quality and lower its cost.
    We will harness the sun and the winds and the
    soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And
    we will transform our schools and colleges and
    universities to meet the demands of a new age.
    All this we can do. All this we will do.

  • 2009.3.9???????????,?????,????????????????,??????

Recovery Act????/???
  • 2009.2.17Even beyond energy, from the National
    Institutes of Health to the National Science
    Foundation, this recovery act represents the
    biggest increase in basic research funding in the
    long history of Americas noble endeavor to
    better understand our world. And just as
    President Kennedy sparked an explosion of
    innovation when he set Americas sights on the
    Moon, I hope this investment will ignite our
    imagination once more, spurring new discoveries
    and breakthroughs in science, in medicine, in
    energy, to make our economy stronger and our
    Nation more secure and our planet safer for our
    children. ?????????????,?????????,????????????????
  • ????????? NSF 16 ??

  • 2009.4.27Necessity of Science ??????
  • ???????????
  • ???????

  • ??????????????????????????????????
  • ???,?????????????????????,?????????????????,??????
    ????????? ???
  • ??,????????????????
  • ??????????1980??????????????????,???????????,?????
  • ?????,???????????????,????????????,???????????????
  • ???????????,????????????,????????????????????????
    ?????????,??????????(Whats New, 7/25/08
    IPCC4, p. 59)????(???)??????????????,?????????,???

(No Transcript)
  • ?????????????????????????????,??????,?????????????
  • 1957??????????????????,?????????,??????????????PSA
  • ????,??????9/11?????,??????,?????????????????????,
  • ????????????????????????????????PSAC???,??????????
  • ?????????????????,?????????????????,??????????????
  • ?????????????????,???????????????????????????????

  • How did China react to Sputnik and how did the
    Soviets react to American satellites?
  • China applauded it
  • Mao Zedong East Win prevailed over West Wind
  • Mao went to Moscow and later launched the Great
    Leap Forward

????1958.02.03?5? ????????????????
  • ???2??  ???????1????????????????,?????????????  
    ???????????????????? ????????,???????????????????
    ??????,??????????????????????????????    ?????
    ?????????????    ???????????????niè_at_????????????
    ????????????????????(???????) ???????

Revising Sentence
  • Its really a shame that there are so many
    similarities between the society of todays China
    and the society depicted in Modern Times, which
    share the common feature of maximizing the
    benefits of capitalists and overlooking the
    welfare of workers
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