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Title: PLANNING%20


1
PLANNING LAYOUT OF KITCHEN
2
Kitchen planning arises directly from the fact
that keeping a family well-fed, receives priority
in every home. It is impossible to imagine any
house without a kitchen. A kitchen should, (i)
be airy, well-lighted and ventilated (ii) have
eastern or north-eastern aspect (iii) have three
centres with enough storage space.
3
Characteristics of Good Kitchen - It is desirable
that the kitchen be a cheerful, sanitary, well,
ventilated and a properly lighted place to work
in. - The surfaces should be durable,
non-absorbant, stain resistant and easy to clean.
- Cross ventilation is essential and an exhaust
fan is helpful in removing odours and smoke. - A
window over a sink helps the worker in getting a
good view and also lights up the area. - A
general central light and a light over each
working area is important. - The ceiling of the
kitchen should be painted in a light color.
4
Work Areas in a Kitchen (a) Storage centre
Refrigerator and pantry where food stuffs are
kept. (b) Preparation and mixing centre Food is
chopped and dish washing is done. (c) Cooking
stove centre Here food is cooked. This includes
serving centre as well. The work triangle among
these three centres should not less than and more
than 22 feet.
5
Types of Kitchen There are two styles of
kitchen. (1) Foreign or standing type and (2)
Indian or sitting type. (1) Foreign or standing
type (a) Pullman or strip Kitchen (b)
U-shaped Kitchen (c) Corridor Kitchen or Two
Wall Kitchen (d) L-shaped Kitchen (e) Broken
U-shaped Kitchen (f) Island Shaped Kitchen (2)
Indian Style or Sitting Type Kitchen
6
(1) Foreign or Standing Type Kitchen (a)
Pullman or Strip Kitchen It is found in small
houses in which there is little space for a
kitchen. The strip kitchen is on wall with the
components placed in row fashion so there is one
wall with the one end to the other for food
preparation.
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(b) U-Shaped Kitchen It is the best of the
kitchen plans and most popular. Three work
centres on three adjacent walls, provide a great
deal of continuous counter space for work.
Continous flow of activity from one centre to
another centre.
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(c) Corridor Kitchen or Two Wall Kitchen It
resembles the strip kitchen, the only difference
being that it is on both sides of the wall,
facing each other. This is more workable kitchen.
Its disadvantage is that it often acts as a
passage for family members on their way from one
part of the house to the other part, and this
traffic interferes with meal preparation.
Unnecessary movement can be restricted as in
the pullman type arrangement. Storage and
preparation centre is on one side and cooking
centre is on the opposite side.
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13
(d) L-shaped Kitchen This can also be regarded
as a good type. It leaves two walls empty for
windows and doors and the free corner can be
utilized for keeping built-in storage or dining
area. Three work centres right to left are placed
on adjacent walls.
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15
(e) Broken U-shaped Kitchen This provides good
continuous space for working whereas in the
U-shape the continuity is broken up.
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(f) Island Shaped Kitchen It needs a fairly
large room. The cooking happens on the island and
it could be used for the food preparation area.
It reduces the amount of walking. It allows the
walking space for 1200 mm between the island and
any other cupboard/obstruction.
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(2) Indian Style or Sitting Type Kitchen This
style of kitchen are still in use in villages
only. The cooking of food, serving, cleaning of
utensils etc. are carried out in sitting
positions. The racks and almarihs are of low
height. However there should be proper
ventilation for exit of smoke. These types of
kitchen are gradually becoming outdated because
of certain inherent drawbacks of excessive
fatigue and health problem to person working in
such kitchens.
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21
Planning and Location Of Work Centres The
activities and the work in the kitchen are
usually carried out at the three work
centres (i) Preliminary preparation of the
working centres. (ii) Cooking centre (iii) Sink
or the washing centre In addition to above, the
bigger kitchens also have serving centres within
themselves.
22
In deciding about the location of work centres,
their arrangement and planning should be
appropriate to the individuals using the kitchen
most extensively. The following generalizations
is useful 1) Frequent movement of other family
members around the work centres should be
limited. 2) Distance between work centres
should be short and movement should be as direct
as possible. 3) This means that the work
triangle formed by cooking, sink and preparation
or mixing centres measures more than 12 feet but
less than 20 feet in length.
23
S
erving Centre The Work Trinagle
Sink
Centre for soaking water
Preparation centre
Cooking Centre
Storage Centre
24
In usual conditions the working arrangements fall
into four categories- preparing, cooking, placing
cooked food and washing. Some examples are given
below i) Preparation Centre It is also known
as the mixing centre. This is the place where all
preliminary preparations are made before cooking
the meal. There should be adequate space for
counter. It should be adjacent to the sink and
just around the corner provided for cooking. If
possible, a wooden inset in the space below
counter, can be conveniently utilized for
storage. Requirement for this area a) A counter
at least 90-100 cm long. This facilities mixing
and prevents fatigue. b) Wall cabinets to store.
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(ii) Cooking Centre The cooking centre is
designed for all kinds of cooking and serving of
hot foods. It should not be away from the mixing
and sink centre. The cooking is the main
equipment in this centre. Important features
are (a) Heat resistant counters on both sides of
the stove. (b) Wall cabinets to store spices,
small cooking utensils etc. (c) Base cabinets for
heavy utensils. The height of the working
surface should not be 2-1/2 feet above the floor.
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(iii) Washing or Sink Centre Cleaning after the
meals is an equally important operation. It is
the place used for number of operations.
Working space should be provided on each side
is usually adequate for stacking soiled dishes
and about 32º long on one side is usually
adequate for the dishes and same on the other
side for the cleaned vessels. It should also
have provision for collection of trash and
garbage. It is often located between the cooking
and preparation centre.
29
Serving Centre
  • Bigger Kitchen 2 purpose
  • Cooking and serving
  • Serving space should be adequate
  • Serving centre should be continuous to the
    cooking centre /separate table may be provided in
    the cooking area.
  • Small window, storage space for table-ware,
    pickles, salt and pepper etc.

30
Storage Centre
  • Adequate space near the table,
  • stove and sink,
  • Groceries
  • Cooking utensils
  • Pots and pans
  • Cleaning materials

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Other considerations in Kitchen Planning
Factors Apart from the shape of the kitchen
there are certain other factors to be considered
when planning a kitchen a) Aspect The aspect
of the kitchen should be east or north-east, so
as to get the early morning sun rays. The cool
kitchen is preferred for rest of the day. b)
Size The size of the kitchen is dependent upon
several factors, among which important ones are
the available space in the house plan and the
number of persons for whom the food is to be
cooked.
33
c) Doors These are considered as necessary
evils, because they take space and ease of
movement and working efficiency is decreased. So
doors should be minimum and can be provided where
no major work centre comes in between.
34
d) Windows Windows provide the kitchen with
natural lighting and ventilation. Therefore,
enough area should be provided for windows to the
extent possible. Minimum window area should equal
atleast 10 of the floor area. If possible, one
counter should have daylight from window and
facilitate an outlook.
35
e) Floors Floor should be made of such material
and finishes which are easy to clean and
maintain. The floor surface should be smooth and
maintainable with minimum effort but it must not
be too much smooth, otherwise it becomes slippery
adequate friction should be provided for safety.
It can be made of colorful tiles , which are not
hard on the feet of the cooker. Some other
varieties in floor covering are also available
specifically for the kitchens.
36
f) Walls Like the floors the walls should be
easy to clean and maintain. For walls, often a
wainscoting or glazed tiles or a splash back of
washable material of a permanent nature wall
paper may be used. Wood in the kitchen adds
warmth and color but must used to minimum, lest
it should overpower the room.
37
g) Work Counters The height of the work counters
should be 2, 2 ½ feet above the floor. They
should be according to the height of the person
who is to work in the kitchen. Materials to be
used on work counters should be resistant to acid
stains, withstand heat and at the same time are
easy to clean and maintain. Mouldings for facing
the counter edge should be of the material which
does not stain the clothing of the person working
there.
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h) Ceiling The kitchen ceiling should be simple
and neat. Wall-paper or any other type of special
wall covering for the ceiling should not be used.
Any pattern on the ceiling is likely to create a
disturbing effect.
40
i) Lighting Good lighting in the kitchen is very
necessary. Single fixture is generally not
sufficient. Instead small subsidiary lights
should be installed over the cooking and sink
centre. Plenty of electrical points should be
planned, if electrical appliances are to be used.
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j)Storage Proper storage in the kitchen is very
important because the placement of equipment and
utensils can either improve or reduce the
effciency of various functions. Shelves within
the cupboards should be properly designed and
also there can also be moveable units in
cupboards so that the person working can utilize
the space as needed. Drawers should have movable
dividers. Proper storage space should be provided
near respective centres for the relevant items.
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45
k) Color Colors is of great importance because
wrong colors in the kitchen may creat a
disturbing feeling. Intense warm colors should be
avoided. Hues on the cool side of the color wheel
should be used. Generally, light colors should be
used in the kitchen ceiling preferably white or
it may counter act the heat of cooking.
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47
KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS
48
Various equipments used in the kitchen can be
divided into two main categories i) Equipments
for food preparation ii) Equipments for
serving Let us study food Preparation Equipments
in detail The type, size and quality of
equipments required for food preparation depends
upon the size of the family, its interest and
social activities, and the work that has to be
carried on in the kitchen. The number and the
size of the utensils significantly affect the
storage space.
49
We can divide them into major groupings as
follows a) Utensils for preliminary food
preparations prior to cooking or baking, such as
paring knives, graters, choppers, beaters,
measuring cups, spoons etc. b) Utensils for
cooking over the stove which may include pans of
various sizes. c) Utensils for baking inside the
oven. Apart from the above, some equipments are
essential for storage and cleaning.
50
Measuring Devices - Standard measuring
equipments are essential for the accurate
measurement of ingredients. - Invariably the
measuring equipments, used in kitchen are based
on volumetric measures. - These measuring cups
and spoons re necessary. The top diameter of one
cup-measure type must exceed 3 inches and the
capacity must be indicated on the side.
51
- Heavy gauze aluminum and glass are good. -
The plastic and light-weight aluminum may
sometime bend out of shape and thereby impair the
accuracy of the measure. - Cups for liquid
ingredients must be transparent so that the
contents can be seen. There should be a rim and
pouring spout to prevent spilling.
52
There are three types of measuring
instruments i) To measure dry ingredents
Theses measure a cup when filled to the top. ii)
To measure liquid indredients measure a cup when
filled somewhat below top. Iii) To measure
fractional part of a cup Separate cups for
¼,1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup measures are available.
53
Knives While choosing knives one should be very
vigilant, because the difference in the
appearance of the high quality knife blade and an
inferior blade is so minute that it requires
careful inspection. The best blade have a
concave surface behind the cutting edge and are
of highly tempered carbon steel alloys. Steel
of 100 points carbon has 1 percent carbon while
that of 70 points have 0.7 percent of
carbon. Good quality knives require 100 to 110
points carbon.
54
The best knife blades are forged or hammered from
bars of heated steel. A forged blade tapers in
thickness from the handle to he point. The
handle is an important part of the knife. The
shape and the size of the handle should be
suitable for firm grip and ease in cutting. In
selecting a knife, following points must be
carefully examined i) Whether the handle is too
long or too short. In case of short handles, the
hands may slide down into the blade and cause a
cut or injury whereas with a knife of a long
handle, the hand gets tired with prolonged use.
55
ii) Whether the balance between the handle and
the blade is a proper. When the balance is good,
minimum effort is required to use the knife for
various jobs. iii) Whether the finish is smooth
and non-absorbant type so that it does not remain
wet after cleaning with water. Continuous use of
knife makes a blade blunt, so it requires
sharpening which can be got done by a knife
sharpener. However, hand abrasive stones can also
be used for sharpening of knives.
56
Paring Knives are used for oridnary cutting or
peeling and for slicing articles. The blade of a
paring knife, should have a straight cutting
edge, a sharp point and be 2, ½ to 3 inches
long. The knife for paring fruits and vegtables
has a thin blade with a slight curvature at
cutting edge.
57
Slicing Knives has a thin, narrow, flexible
blade. Its blade is 6 to 8,1/2 inches long with a
blunt or pointed end. A Cook's Knife has a
stiff blade 8 inches long with a narrow point.
There is a proper serrated groves over the handle
for a proper grip by fingers as it is used for
dicing.
58
Bread Knife has a thin, broad, flexible blade
7,1/2 to 8 inches. A blade with a sharp, finely
serrated edge is desirable as it will cut the
bread without tearing.
59
Butcher's Knife has a heavy stiff blade about 7
to 8 inches long with a sharp point and curved
cutting edge. For cutting meat, a carving knife
is the best. Its length is 8,1/2 to 9 inches. It
is used for heavy cutting.
60
Other cutting devices used for dividing firm
foods in to small pieces are slicers, shredders
and graters. The metal used for them varies from
tined sheet-steel to forged steel. The width and
the length desired in a slicer, shredder or
grater depends upon the size of the food to be
processed. Large vagetables such as cabbage
require three to five inches width of blade. Let
us study all in brief
61
i) Slicers These have form one one to five
parallel kinves. They are 1,1/2 to 4 inches long.
Some slicers consists of a metal sheet in which
slits are made and the material on one side of
the slit raised and sharpened to form the cutting
edge.Another design of durable slicers consist of
metal blades set in wooden frames which may be
adujested for slicing foods in different
thickness.
62
ii) Shredders This consists of round holes. 1/3
to ¼ inches in thin sheet metal. A portion of
metal at the bottom of the hole is raised to form
a cutting edge. As food is drawn over knives with
appropriate pressure, it is cut into long pieces.
Shredders are good to be used for salads.
63
iii) Graters The cutting edges of graters are
made by cutting crosses or star-shaped cuts in
the metal, and punching the corners through large
cuts for making coarse graters, and smaller cut
to be used for salads.
64
iv) Food Chopper Another cutting device is a
food chopper. It is used to reduce large pieces
of food into small pieces. Food choppers are made
of cast ron which are heavily tinned to give a
smooth. Easy to clean and non-corrosive surface.
65
Stirring Equipments
66
Spoon Spoons used for mixing, stirring and
serving are made of aluminum, tin plated
enamelware, iron or brass, plated silver and wood
or stainless steel. Aluminum spoons are brittle
and will not stand bending. Tin spoons discolor
easily and all metal spoons usually scratch the
container and do not become warm while handling
or serving hot preparations. Hence, for beating
and stirring. Now-a-days, stainless steel
spoons are being used extensively. For handling
hot preparations, the metallic spoons are
generally provided wooden or plastic handles.
67
Cooking Utensils These are made from different
kinds of materials. The suitability of the
material depends upon the ability to absorb and
transmit heat. The amount of heat absorbed and
transmitted to ingredients depends largely on the
surface finish given to the material. A polished
metal surface reflects some heat whereas a dark
finish absorbs heat rapidly.
68
Other factors that contribute to the effective
use of utensils are the following - The size
of the pan should be chosen depending on the
amount of the food to be cooked. - Pans with
flat bottoms, should be large enough to
completely cover the flames as these are more
economical and efficient to utilize heat during
cooking. - Straight-walled utensils are more
efficient than bulging or flaring ones because of
their smaller radiating surfaces.
69
- Cooking utensils having handles, should be
securely fastened, so that they do not become
loose. - Wooden handles must be protected with
a metal shank, to prevent them from catching
fire. - A handle too long may disturb the
balance of the pan. - If the handle is too
short, the handle may come in contact with the
hot pan and may cause burns.
70
Pressure Sauce-pans These are much in use
now-a-days. Essentially, they consist of a sturdy
pan with a cover fitting tightly enough so that
steam does not leak and desired pressure can be
built up inside it. Steam in the pan is
heated to temperatures avove the boiling point of
water. This enables food to be cooked the far
less time ordinarily required.
71
The cover seal may be formed in one of the two
ways, depending on the design of the
pan. The cover seal may be made of
flexible material like synthetic rubber which van
be slipped under the rim of the pan and flattened
out smoothly as the handle of the lid is brought
in line with the handle of the pan and hooked
over it.
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These type of pan like pressure cooker or frying
pan will offer a saving of cost and storage
space. Casseroles with or without covers of
various sizes and materials are useful in oven
cookery. Heat-resistant glass is desirable.
75
Non-Stick Cookware Much of today's cooking ware
has a heat resistant nonstick finished surface,
thus reducing the need for adding fat in cooking,
particularly in frying and besides facilitating
easy cleaning of pots and pans. Teflon is the
most frequently used material for providing
non-stick and hard coating. It gets scratched
with metal stirrers. Breaking the surface coating
reduces the efficiency of pans. They loose their
non-stick quality when the coated teflon surface
is broken. For such cook wares tools like
spatulas, spoons, turners made of plastic or wood
are available to prevent scratching.
76
Non-stick is very easy to clean. Warm soapy water
and a plastic scrubber or sponge is all that you
need for cleaning. Thorough cleaning after
cooking each meal help in preventing food build
up over it keeps the cookware clean and
sparklingly new.
77
Selecting Dinner-ware
78
The dinner service is the most important of the
table setting. It is best to select ot first and
then choose glassware, silverware and linens to
harmonize with it. Aside from the quality of
dishes selected, the form, color, texture and
pattern all contribute to the appearance. A
judicious and proper selection makes the serving
of food, a pleasing experience, both to best and
guests.
79
Use and Economy i) Size and shape of dishes are
very important. Each dish should be large and
deep enough to hold an adequate amount of food
without spiling. ii) The style of dishes should
be matching with the setting of the home. Modern
shapes fit and look well in modern surroundings.
Certain classical shapes enhance formal
settings. iii) Dishes that serve dual purpose,
i.e cooking as well as serving economize cost,
time and assure hot food.
80
Beauty i) Color can be introduced in dishes to
produce an interesting and entertaining effect.
Subtle colors are used for formal services, and
strong brillant colors for innformal service.
ii) Texture of dinnerware depends upon the
materials from which they are made. iii) Beauty
of dinner-ware is enhanced by good design. The
design can be naturalistic, conventional and
geometrical.
81
Dinner-ware can be of several types, each made by
variations of the same process. It includes
pottery, earthen-ware, semi-vitreous china,
pottery etc. The amount of money available for
dinner-ware, the type of meal to be served and
the number of persons to whome dinner is to be
served are all factors in the choice of the type
of dinner ware.
82
Care of Dinner-ware - When washing dishes, use
plenty of hot water and suds made from mild
soaps. - If the water is hard, mild water
softners such as borax or washing soda can be
used along with. - Change the water
occasionally when it becomes soiled and rinse in
plenty of hot water. - A towel of rubber mat
laid on the board protects fine dishes from
sliping ad damages.
83
Selection Of Cutlery (i) Glassware The
glassware should be selected to harmonize with
elegance or simplicity, color, texture of the
other items over the table. The quality of
glassware selected depends on certain
characteristics, such as brillance, clarity,
hardness, smoothness and color which are
determined by the quality of the compounds of
which glass is made. Tumblers for everyday use
can also be of unbreeakable aluminium or
stainless steel or of plastic. Coloured glassware
enlivens a table.
84
Glassware includes water glasses, which may be
plain tumblers, footed tumblers or
goblets. Squarely, oval or V-shaped tumblers can
also be conveniently chosen. Dessert glasses
may have stem or they may range in shape from
cups to shallow dishes. Other pieces include
bowls, service plates, dessert plates, creamers
and sugar bowls. Cocktail glasses can also be
chosen depending upon need.
85
(ii) Silverware There are two types of
silverware which may be used in the home. Flat
ware Which includes knives, forks and
spoons. Hollow ware which includes coffee pots,
tea pots, platters, serving dishes, bowls and
pitchers. Apart from these, flat wares are also
made from bone-china, wood or mixed
composition. These become interesting when used
with heavy pottery or wooden dishes.
86
Use and Economy i) As these are used
frequently, they should be easy to pick up and
hold firmly, should balance well in the hand and
have no sharp edges. ii) Sterling silver is
expensive and does not ware out easliy and
quickly. iii) Silver plated silverware costs
less but wears off quickly and for longer
durability, they have to be double or triple
plated. iv) Ornamented silver requires extra and
careful cleaning but enhances beauty.
87
Care of Silverware - All Silverware must be
used in order to develop and maintain a beautiful
luster. - Seldom used silverware should be
cleaned, dried and polished thoroughly before and
after the use and then stored in a tarnish-proof
chest or wrapped air-tight. - Silverware should
be used and handled carefully. - Never use
tableware in the kitchen for stirring. -
Careless handling throwing them loosely into a
drawer may cause dents, nicks and bends. -
They should be sorted, stacked and stored in a
partitioned drawer after cleaning and wiping dry.
88
Cleaning of Silverware - Polishing material may
be bought in paste, powder or liquid form. Liquid
is perhaps the most convenient. - Form polishes
when used with a damp sponge, remove both tarnish
and grease. - Silver is then washed to remove
the form and polished with a duster.
89
Table Setting The success of a meal is not
measured only by its nutritive content, its
skillful preparation or the amount of money
spent. The manner in which it is served and the
attractive appearance of the table contribute
much to its total appeal. Food that appears
attractive stimulates the flow of digestive
jucies. Artistic table-setting need not mean
expensive tableware, table linen or cutlery.
Gracious serving of the food is essential to
maintain a cheerful and pleasant mood at meal
times. The family enjoy these in day-to-day
living, for they form a background for good
manners and sound family relationships.
90
Rules for Table Setting - All cutlery, china,
linen and glass put into place for each
individual before the beginning of a meal. - All
dishes should be placed across or lengthwise.
These should be placed in such a way that no
particular area of the table appears
overcrowded. - The table must have only
essential linen, crockery and cutlery on it.
91
- The sequence for all spoons, forks and knives
is such that the dinner starts at the outside and
works inwards in the order in which the cutlery
is to used. - All knives are placed to the right
of the plate with the sharp edge facing the
plate. Knives need not be placed unless they are
required at the meal. - The forks are placed to
the left of the plate with the prongs turned
up. - Spoons are placed for the desert is placed
on the right of the plate and outside the knives.
92
- The fork and spoon for the desert is placed
near the top edge of the plate. - The glass for
water can be placed on the right near the tip of
the knife. - If a separate plate is used for
bread, it is set at the tip of the forks. The
butter knife is placed parallel to the edge of
the table with its handle to the right convenient
use. - Salt cellars can be placed for an
individual use or shared between two or more
people. - Napkins are placed to the left of the
fork on the side plate in such a way that they
can be conveniently opened out.
93
Formal Meals - The hostess sits at the head of
the table and nearest to the kitchen end. This
helps her in supervising and controlling the
serving of food. - The chief lady guest sits to
the rightof the host. The second most important
lady guest sits on the left of the host. -
Careful thought to the placing of guests ensures
a happy combination which permits good
conversation. - The children sit at a separate
table for meals-preferable earlier to the eating
time of the adults.
94
- It is a general practice to have waiters or
waitresses serving at formal and large meals. The
food dishes are placed and removed from the left
of the guest in an un-abstructive way. - While
serving the dish must be kept on a folded
serviette on the left hand by the waiter and the
guest is served with the right hand. - The
dishes should be held low enough for convenient
serving. A napkin should be held while pouring
water into the glasses. - A trolley or a tray is
useful for cleaning away the dishes.
95
- The used crockery and cutlery at formal meals
is removed at the end of each course. - used
dishes should not be stacked in the dining room
itself. - After the desert the guests can be
given finger bowls for cleaning their hands.
Lukewarm water with a slice of lime in it helps
to remain grease from the fingers.
96
Buffet Arrangement - Buffet arrangements are
common when there are many guests and the space
available is limited. - These are similar to
self-help counterstand hence an orderly layout of
the cutlery, linen and food is essential. -
Tables may have menu card or at least vegetarian
and non-veg food may be separated to guide guests
to the right place. - Here the serving is done
by guests for themselves.
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- Large dinner plates help to prevent
over-crowding so that different food items may
be kept separate. - Usually buffet offer an
opportunity to the hostess to provide a fairly
large variety of dishes from which the guests may
choose their food. - A separate service table
is useful for the plates on after the guests have
finished eating.
99
There are 5 different ways by which one can save
time and energy in the kitchen 1) Change in
body positions and motions. 2) Change in working
arrangements and equipments. 3) Change in
production. 4) Change in finished product. 5)
Change in raw materials.
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