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U.S. History 1877-Present


U.S. History 1877-Present 3rd Nine Week Benchmark Test Review Power Point (use along with Study Guide if needed) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History 1877-Present

U.S. History 1877-Present
  • 3rd Nine Week Benchmark Test Review Power Point
  • (use along with Study Guide if needed)

USII.2a The Great Plains
  • 1. Physical features and climate of the Great
  • Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west
  • Land eroded by wind and water
  • Frequent dust storms
  • Low rainfall

USII.2a The Great Plains
  • 2. Technological advances allowed people to live
    in more challenging environments.
  • 3. Because of new technologies, people saw the
    Great Plains not as a treeless wasteland , but
    a vast area to be settled.

USII.2a The Great Plains
  • The 8 inventions/adaptations of the Great Plains
  • barbed wire beef cattle raising
  • steel plows wheat farming
  • dry farming windmills
  • sod houses railroads

USII.2b Advances in Transportation
  • Advances in transportation linked resources,
    products, and markets by
  • a. Moving natural resources such as copper and
    lead to eastern factories.
  • b. Moving iron ore deposits to sites of steel
    mills in Pittsburgh
  • c. Transporting finished products to national

USII.2b Advances in Transportation
  • Three examples of manufacturing areas that were
    located near centers of population included
  • a. Textile in New England (Northeast)
  • b. Automobile in Detroit (Midwest)
  • c. Steel in Pittsburgh (Northeast)

USII. 2c States and Regions
  • States in the Northeast (9)
  • Maine Rhode Island
  • Vermont New York
  • New Hampshire New Jersey
  • Connecticut Pennsylvania
  • Massachusetts

USII.2c States and Regions
  • States in the Southeast (14)
  • Maryland South Carolina
  • Delaware Georgia
  • West Virginia Florida
  • Virginia Alabama
  • Kentucky Mississippi
  • Tennessee Louisiana
  • North Carolina Arkansas

USII.2c States and Regions
  • States in the Midwest region (12)
  • Ohio Iowa
  • Indiana Missouri
  • Illinois Kansas
  • Michigan Nebraska
  • Wisconsin South Dakota
  • Minnesota North Dakota

USII.2c States and Regions
  • States in the Southwest (4)
  • Texas
  • Oklahoma
  • New Mexico
  • Arizona

USII.2c States and Regions
  • States in the Western/Rocky Mountain region (6)
  • Colorado Montana
  • Utah Wyoming
  • Nevada Idaho

USII.2c States and Regions
  • 12. States in the Pacific region (3)
  • Washington
  • Oregon
  • California

USII.2c States and Regions
  • States in the Noncontiguous region (2)
  • Alaska
  • Hawaii

USII.2c States and Regions
  • Region for each city
  • Honolulu Noncontiguous
  • New York Northeast
  • Los Angeles Pacific
  • Washington D.C. Southeast
  • Denver Western/Rocky Mountain
  • San Antonio Southwest

USII.2c States and Regions
  • 14. Continued
  • Chicago Midwest
  • Boston Northeast
  • Pittsburgh Northeast
  • St. Louis Midwest
  • Atlanta Southeast
  • Philadelphia Northeast

USII.2c States and Regions
  • Continued
  • Juneau Noncontiguous
  • Salt Lake City Western/Rocky Mountain
  • Detroit Midwest
  • New Orleans Southeast
  • Santa Fe Southwest
  • San Francisco Pacific
  • Suffolk Southeast

USII.3a Reconstruction
  • 14.Reconstruction took place after the Civil War.
  • 15. The 13th Amendment banned slavery in the
    United States and any of its territories.
  • 16. The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to all
    persons born in the United States and guarantees
    them equal protection under the law.

USII.3a Reconstruction continued
  • 17.The 15th Amendment ensures all citizens the
    right to vote regardless of race or color or
    previous condition of servitude.
  • 18. The 14th Amendment guarantees equal
    protection under the law for ALL citizens.

USII.3b Reconstruction Policies and Problems
  • 19. Reconstruction policies were harsh and
    created problems in the South.
  • 20. Reconstruction attempted to give meaning to
    the freedom that the former enslaved African
    Americans had achieved.

USII.3b Reconstruction Policies and Problems
  • 21.Reconstruction policies and problems
  • Southern military leaders could not hold office.
  • African Americans could hold public office.
  • c. African Americans gained equal rights as a
    result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which
    authorized the use of federal troops for its

USII.3b Reconstruction Policies and Problems
  • d. Northern soldiers supervised the South
  • e. Freedmans Bureau was established to aid
    former enslaved African American in the South.
  • f. Southerners resented northern
    carpetbaggers, who took advantage of the South
    during Reconstruction.

USII.3b Reconstruction Policies and Problems
  • 22.Reconstruction ended with the Election of
  • a. Federal troops were removed.
  • b. Rights that African Americans gained were
    lost through black codes.

USII.3c The Legacy of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E.
Lee, and Frederick Douglass
  • 23.The actions of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee,
    and Frederick Douglass created lasting impacts.
  • 24. Abraham Lincoln
  • Reconstruction plan called for reconciliation.
  • Preservation of the Union was more important than
    punishing the South.

USII.3c The Legacy of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E.
Lee, and Frederick Douglass continued
  • 25. Robert E. Lee
  • a. Urged Southerners to reconcile at the end
    of the war and reunite as Americans when some
    wanted to continue to fight.
  • b. Became president of Washington College
    which is now known as Washington and Lee

USII.3c The Legacy of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E.
Lee, and Frederick Douglass continued
  • 26. Frederick Douglass
  • Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments
    that guaranteed voting rights.
  • b. Had a powerful voice for human rights and
    civil liberties for all.

USII.4a Westward Expansion
  • 24. New opportunities and technological advances
    led to westward migration following the Civil War.

USII.4a Westward Expansion
  • 25. The 5 reasons for westward expansion
  • Opportunities for land ownership
  • Technological advances, including the
    Transcontinental Railroad
  • Possibility of wealth created by the discovery
    of gold and silver
  • Adventure
  • A new new beginning for former slaves, also
    called Exodusters.

USII.4a Westward Expansion continued
  • 26. The Impact on American Indians
  • a. Opposition by American Indians to westward
    expansion (Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting
    Bull, and Geronimo).
  • b. Forced relocation from traditional lands to
    reservations (Chief Joseph, Nez Perce).
  • c. Reduced population through warfare and
    disease (Battle of Wounded Knee).

USII.4a Westward Expansion continued
  • d. Assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes,
    e.g. reduction of buffalo population.
  • e. Reduced their homeland through treaties that
    were broken.
  • f. American Indians were not considered
    citizens until 1924.

Westward Expansion (continued)
  • g. Indian policies and wars
  • -land set aside for Native Americans called
  • -last victory for the native Americans Battle
    of Little Bighorn
  • -led his people to Canada to escape living on
    reservations Chief Joseph

USII.4b Immigration
  • 27. Reasons for increased immigration were
  • Hope for better opportunities
  • Escape from oppressive governments
  • Adventure
  • Religious Freedom

USII.4b Immigration
  • 28. The 3 reasons why cities developed
  • Specialized industries
  • -steel-Pittsburgh
  • -meatpacking-Chicago
  • Immigration from other countries
  • Movement of Americans from rural to urban
    areas for job opportunities

USII.4b Immigration
  • 33. Inventions that created great change and
    industrial growth in the United States
  • lighting and mechanical uses of electricity
  • -Thomas Edison
  • telephone service
  • -Alexander Graham Bell

USII.4b Immigration
  • 34. Population changes, growth of cities, and
    new inventions produced interaction and often
    conflict between different cultural groups.

USII.4b Immigration
  • 35. Population changes, growth of cities, and
    new inventions produced problems in urban areas.

USII.4b Immigration
  • 36. Inventions had both POSITIVE and NEGATIVE
    effects on society.

USII.4b Immigration
  • 37. Rapid industrialization and urbanization led
    to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and

USII.4b Immigration
  • 38. Efforts to solve immigration problems
  • Settlement houses such as Hull House, founded
    by Jane Addams
  • Political machines (politicians) that gained
    power by attending to the needs of new immigrants

USII.4b Immigration
  • 39. Challenges faced by cities
  • Overcrowded and run-down neighborhoods called
    tenements and ghettos
  • Political corruption by political machines

USII.4b Immigration
  • 40. Continued
  • Interaction and conflict between different
    cultural groups
  • Discrimination against immigrants
  • -Chinese
  • -Irish

USII.4c Jim Crow
  • 41. Discrimination against African Americans
    continued after Reconstruction.
  • 42. Racial segregation is
  • based upon race
  • directed primarily against African Americans,
    but other groups were also kept segregated

USII.4c Jim Crow
  • 43. Jim Crow laws were passed to discriminate
    against African Americans. Although these laws
    were legal in many communities and states, they
    were enforced primarily in the Southeast region.

USII.4c Jim Crow
  • 44. Jim Crow laws were characterized by
    unequal opportunities in housing, work,
    education, and government.

USII.4c Jim Crow
  • 45. African American responses included
  • Booker T. Washington
  • -believed equality could be achieved through
    vocational education accepted social separation
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • -believed in full political, civil, and social
    rights for African Americans

USII.4d Big Business
  • 46. Between the Civil War and WWI, the United
    states was transformed from an agricultural
    nation to an industrial nation.

USII.4d Big Business
  • 47. The 4 Reasons for the Rise and
    Prosperity of Big Business
  • National markets created by transportation
  • Captains of Industry
  • John D. Rockefeller, Oil
  • Andrew Carnegie, Steel
  • Henry Ford, Automobile
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping Railroads
  • Advertising
  • Lower-cost production

USII.4d Big Business
  • 48. The 4 factors resulting in the growth of
  • Access to raw materials and energy
  • Availability of the work force due to
  • Inventions
  • Financial resources provided by the
  • captains of industry

USII.4d Big Business
  • 49. Examples of Big Business
  • Railroads
  • Oil
  • Steel

USII.4d Big Business
  • Industrialization and the rise in big business
  • influenced life on American farms by
  • Mechanization (the reaper) which reduced farm
    labor needs and increased production
  • Industrial development in cities created
    increased labor needs
  • Industrialization provided access to consumer
    goods, such as mail order

Now, check your map
Can you name the region for each significant city
Study and do your
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