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The European Union and Enlargement

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Title: The European Union and Enlargement Author: School of Div, His & Phil Last modified by: User Created Date: 10/20/2004 11:52:30 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Union and Enlargement


1
Dr. David Galbreath Lecturer in Politics and
International Relations d.galbreath_at_abdn.ac.uk Off
ice F36 Edward Wright Building Hours Tuesday
10-12
2
The European Union and Enlargement
  • PI 2003 International Organisations in Europe
    Week 9

3
Previous Enlargement
  • Original members Belgium, France, Germany,
    Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
  • 1973 Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
  • 1981 Greece
  • 1986 Portugal and Spain
  • 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden
  • 2004 10 new members

4
(No Transcript)
5
EU Enlargement
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social

6
EU Enlargement Questions
  • Why did the EU expand?
  • How did the EU expand?
  • What were the political implications of
    expansion?
  • How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members?
  • What were the political, economic and social
    requirements of new member-states?
  • What is the future for EU expansion?

7
Why did the EU expand?
  • Changes the internal order of the EU
  • Allows for greater divisions in the EU
  • Forces painful economic and institutional
    adaptations required of the applicant country
  • Encourages anxiety over immigration in the
    existing member-states.

8
Why did the EU expand?
  • Three views
  • Rationalist approach
  • Ethical-political approach
  • Moral approach

9
Why did the EU expand?
  • Three views and hypotheses
  • Rationalist approach
  • The EU would concentrate only on those states
    that offered the most gain
  • Ethical-political approach
  • The EU would concentrate on those states that had
    an element of kinship
  • Moral approach
  • The EU would concentrate on democratic states
    outside the community

10
Who supported enlargement?
  • Drivers vs. Brakemen
  • Drivers
  • those bordering the CEECs (except for Italy and
    Greece)
  • Brakemen
  • Recent new states (ex. Spain)
  • All others (except for Britain)

11
Who supported enlargement?
  • Drivers two groups
  • Limited round focusing on Central Europe
    (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland,
    Slovenia)
  • The big bang enlargement

12
Who supported enlargement?
Limited Enlargement Inclusive Enlargement
Drivers Austria, Finland, Germany Britain, Denmark, Sweden
Brakemen Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain
13
Who supported enlargement?
  • Reasons for support
  • Geographical proximity
  • Interdependence
  • Shared borders
  • Economic gains

14
Member state shares of EU exports to Central and
Eastern European countries and EU economic output
15
Who supported enlargement?
  • Reasons for support
  • Geographical proximity?
  • Economic gain?
  • Influence?

16
EU Enlargement
  • Institutional Arrangements
  • Copenhagen Criteria
  • Acquis Communautaire
  • Madrid European Council
  • Agenda 2000

17
EU Enlargement
  • Copenhagen Criteria
  • stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy,
    the rule of law, human rights and respect for and
    protection of minorities
  • the existence of a functioning market economy as
    well as the capacity to cope with competitive
    pressure and market forces within the Union
  • the ability to take on the obligations of
    membership including adherence to the aims of
    political, economic monetary union.

18
EU Enlargement
  • Acquis Communautaire
  • Treaty of Amsterdam 1993
  • The body of EU law that must be adopted into
    domestic law
  • Acquis politigue
  • Finalité politique

19
EU Enlargement
  • Madrid European Council
  • Administration
  • Judicial Structures

20
EU Enlargement
  • Agenda 2000
  • Amsterdam IGC 1997 and Luxembourg European
    Council 1998
  • Development of EU
  • Challenges of Enlargement
  • Accession Process Regular Reports
  • Financial framework beyond 2000

21
EU Enlargement
  • Agenda 2000 (regular reports)
  • 1998-2003
  • Minorities
  • Adoption of Acquis
  • No delay for 6
  • Relied on other institutions and NGOs

22
EU Enlargement
  • The logistics
  • Should the Commission be re-weighted?
  • Should voting change in the Council?
  • How will the new states be represented in
    Parliament?

23
Political Conditions
  • Democracy
  • Transition
  • Consolidation
  • European Union and Democratisation

24
Political Conditions
  • Political Conditionality
  • This is achieved by specifying conditions or
    even preconditions for support, involving either
    promises of material aid or political
    opportunities.
  • Democratic Conditionality

25
Political Conditions
  • Democratic Conditionality (three stages)
  • Pre-negotiations
  • Actual negotiations
  • Once membership begins

26
Financial Issues
  • PHARE
  • (Poland and Hungary Aid for Economic
    Restructuring)
  • Three aims
  • Pre-accession Funds for adoption of the Acquis
  • Structural Funds
  • Aimed at Regions and regional institutions

27
Financial Issues
  • PHARE
  • Three phases
  • Mark I (1989-97)
  • Mark II (1997-2000)
  • Mark III (2000-)

28
Financial Issues
  • Common Agriculture Policy
  • Reforms at the Copenhagen summit in December 2002
  • Direct payments phased-in
  • Lock-in strategy

29
Financial Issues
  • The Economic and Monetary Union
  • Euro is obligation for new states
  • Although when and how is up to state
  • No states ready yet (euobserver.com)
  • Criteria exchange rates, price stability,
    interest rates, deficits and the status of
    central banks

30
What is the future for EU expansion?
  • Romania and Bulgaria (2007)
  • Turkey (2010?)
  • The Balkans (Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia,
    Albania)?
  • Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia?
  • North Africa?

31
Conclusion
  • Why did the EU expand?
  • How did the EU expand?
  • What were the political implications of
    expansion?
  • How did EU change to prepare for 15 new members?
  • What were the political, economic and social
    requirements of new member-states?
  • What is the future for EU expansion?
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