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Next%20Generation%20Internet%20Part%20I.%20IPv6%20(Lecture%201)

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Title: Next%20Generation%20Internet%20Part%20I.%20IPv6%20(Lecture%201)


1
Next Generation Internet Part I. IPv6 (Lecture
1)
2
Grading
  • Attendance
  • Seminar
  • Term project
  • Final Examination

3
Term Projects
  • Home Networking
  • Wireless LAN
  • Ad-hoc Network
  • VoIP
  • Mobile IP
  • Multicasting considering mobility
  • 15-20 pages (A4/single space/11 font)
  • Overview/review/main technologies/comparisons/prop
    osal simulation
  • Presentation

4
? Course / Seminar Name
1? IPv6 Overview
2? IPv6
2?
3? Activities for NGI
3? M-Commerce
4? KORNET, Server-farm Networking
4? Wireless IP network
5? Policy-based Network
5? Ad-hoc network
6? IntServ
6?
7? RSVP
7? Use of RSVP in wireless network
8? DiffServ
8? Bandwidth-broker
5
? Course Name
9? Routing
9? QoS routing
10? Term-Project 1
11? Multicasting
12? MPLS
12? GMPLS
13? Mobile-IP
13? VPN
14? Mobile-IP
14? Streaming service
15? Term-Project 2
16? Term-Project 2
6
Internet Introduction
7
Introduction
8
Introduction
WWW Growth
9
Introduction
Some numbers to ponder
An estimated 1.1 billion email messages were sent
last year(, each averaging 18500 bytes. The total
flow of data between the worlds 500 million
email boxes 20350 terabytes.
At the end of 1969, the ARPANET (predecessor of
the Internet) consisted of four computers. At its
current average growth rate (69 new hosts added
each minute), the Internet will comprise a
billion hosts by 2005.
10
Introduction
Who keeps the Internet Running?
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN) A nonprofit corporation
responsible for allocating IP address space,
assigning protocol parameters, and managing the
domain name and root server system. This last
function includes determining which new top-level
domains are added to the system. Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Belong to
Internet Society. In Korea, KRNIC (Korea Network
Information Center)
11
Introduction
Who keeps the Internet Running?
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
An International community of network designers,
operators, vendors, and researchers. Their job is
to evolve the Internet and smooth its operation
by creating technical standards through consensus.
12
Introduction
Who keeps the Internet Running?
The Internet Society (ISOC)
An international, nonprofit organization for
Internet professionals. It serves as the
organizational home of the IETF, overseeing
various organizational and coordinating
tasks. IAB(Internet Architecture Board)
13
Introduction
Who keeps the Internet Running?
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
A consortium of over 400 corporate, academic, and
public institutions that oversees the application
most responsible for the Nets rapid growth the
World Wide Web. W3C identifies new technical
requirements, designs technologies to fulfill
them, produces standards (called
recommendations), and coordinates its efforts
with other standards groups, including the IETF.
14
Introduction
Growing Pains
  • Problems
  • The depletion of IP addresses (sometimes between
    2005 and 2011)
  • The explosion in the sizes of routing tables
  • Many TCP/IP engineers feel that the routing table
    explosion will condemn the Internet even sooner
    than the exhaustion of network addresses.
  • World Wide Wait

15
Introduction
Next generation
IPng refer to all the aspects of the next
generation Internet Protocol
IPv6 The new version of Internet
Protocol Changes to IP affect many other TCP/IP
protocols. In fact, at least 58 current TCP/IP
standards must be revised to accommodate IPv6.
There is also the question of migration. It
simply is not possible to flip a switch
somewhere and magically convert all IPv4 systems
to IPv6.
16
Introduction
Next generation
Other Improvements
To Support QoS (Quality of Service)
Integrated ServiceRSVP (Resource reSerVation
Protocol) Differentiated Service
To support mobility Mobile IP
Continuous improvements to TCP, HTTP, etc.
17
Why IPv6?
18
IPv4?
  • IPv4 Problems
  • Lack of class B IPv4 address space gt CIDR
    addressing
  • Nearly 60,000 Routable Prefixes
  • Inadequate address aggregation
  • Ballooning BGP databases and Router memory
    exhaustion
  • Increased forwarding table look up time
  • Security
  • Mobility
  • Quality of Service

19
IPv4 Address
  • IPv4 relied on CIDR based addressing, but address
    assignment efficiency is still below 1
    (Christian Huitema) due to inefficient address
    aggregation.

20
CIDR
  • Classless Inter-domain Routing
  • 147.8.182.174/22 ? 22 is the network prefix,
    indicating the first 22 bits in the address
    represent a network.
  • Network prefix in CIDR ranges from 13 to 27.
  • ltprefix, lengthgt for aggregation.
  • The longest match routing rule 198.32.1.0/24,
    198.32.0.0/16

21
background
  • IPng was recommended by the IPng Area Directors
    of the Internet Engineering Task Force at the
    Toronto IETF meeting on July 25, 1994, and
    documented in RFC 1752,
  • "The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation
    Protocol". The recommendation was approved by the
    Internet Engineering Steering Group on November
    17, 1994 and made a Proposed Standard.

22
background
  • In 1973, TCP/IP was introduced to the ARPANET,
    which at that time connected about 250 sites and
    750 computers
  • In the following two decades since that, the
    Internet has grown into the dominant form of
    global information communication.
  • TCP/IP has mushroomed into a family of protocols
    that provide a wealth of connectivity services.

23
background
  • The continued exponential growth of the Internet
    has exposed underlying inadequacies in the
    network's current technology.
  • Today's base technology, Internet Protocol
    version 4 (IPv4) was last revised in 1981
    (RFC791), and for the last several years the
    Internet Engineering Task Force has been
    developing solutions for these inadequacies.
  • This solution, which has been given the name
    IPv6, will become the backbone for the next
    generation of communication applications.

24
IPv6 Critical Technology for Network
Connectivity in the 21st Century
  • Twenty years from now the Internet will be
    routinely used in ways just as unfathomable to
    us,
  • Virtually all the devices with which we interact,
    at home, at work, and at play, will be connected
    to the Internet the possibilities are endless,
    and the implications staggering.
  • Enabling the convergence of all these
    capabilities will be "The Network", an evolution
    of the current Internet, but still based on the
    TCP/IP protocol.
  • To function within this new paradigm TCP/IP must
    evolve too, and the first significant step in
    that evolution is the development of the next
    generation of the "Internet Protocol," Internet
    Protocol version 6, or IPv6.

25
IPv6 Overview
  • It is a new version of the Internet Protocol,
    designed as a successor to IP version 4 and is
    assigned IP version number 6 and is formally
    called IPv6.
  • IPv6 was designed to take an evolutionary step
    from IPv4. It was not a design goal to take a
    radical step away from IPv4. Functions that work
    in IPv4 were kept in IPv6, but functions that
    didn't work were removed.
  • Header Format Simplification
  • Improved Support for Extensions and Options
  • Expanded Addressing Capabilities
  • Flow Labeling Capability
  • Authentication and Privacy Capabilities

26
IPv6 overview
  • Expanded Routing and Addressing capabilities
  • Relief of address shortage
  • Support of more addressing hierarchy
  • Addition of anycast address to give multicast
    efficiencies
  • Header length fixed to 40 bytes
  • 64 bits 128 bits source destination address
  • Easier to process in hardware and easier to
    compress.
  • Improved support for Options
  • Use of Extension Headers and improved coding give
    more efficient forwarding

27
IPv6 Overview
  • Hierarchial Addressing Structure
  • Enables High Degree of Aggregation
  • Ensures Minimum Number of Prefixes
  • Minimizes Routing Tables
  • Multihoming possibilities
  • Enables users to switch between providers
    (auto-renumbering)
  • Offers increased security and cost optimization

28
IPv6 Overview
  • Security
  • IPv4 Security Problems
  • 1) Denial of service attack
  • 2) Address spoofing
  • IPv6 Security
  • 1) Mandated at the Kernel level gt IPSEC
  • 2) Authentication Header (Default to MD5)
  • 3) Encryption ( Default to DES-CBC)
  • 4) Security Parameter Index (Defines non-default
    security association)
  • 5) Repudiation features

29
IPv6 Overview
  • IPv6 QoS Advantages
  • QoS becoming an issue as real time services
    emerge
  • Need for lower latency and jitter, but improved
    tolerance to lost packets
  • More emphasis on timing relationships
    (time-stamping)
  • 20-bit Flow Label enables identification of
    traffic flows
  • Class of Service field to manage conflicts
  • RSVP/IS used by routers to deal with requests
  • DiffServ.
  • Compression
  • ATM Integration (Int. Serv. to ATM QoS Mapping)

30
IPv6 Overview
  • IPv6 /ATM Integration
  • IPv6 Multicast Groups maps to ATM Multicast
  • RSVP/IS maps to ATM QoS
  • Controlled Load to ATM UNI 3.1 CBR or 4.0 ABR
  • Guaranteed maps to ATM UNI 3.1 or 4.0 CBR

31
Links
  • Internet2 http//www.internet2.edu/
  • NGI http//www.ngi.gov/
  • IETF http//www.ietf.cnri.reston.va.us/home.html
  • vBNS http//www.vbns.net/
  • TEN-34 http//www.dante.net/ten-34.html
  • APAN http//www.apan.net/
  • CANARIE http//www.canarie.ca/
  • ESNET http//www.es.net/
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