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MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS Alexandre ELAGUINE

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MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS Alexandre ELAGUINE & Mikhail BAIAKOVSKI 31.01.2002 MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS Basic principles Early analog networks Digital networks, GSM GPRS and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS Alexandre ELAGUINE


1
MOBILE COMMUNICATIONSAlexandre ELAGUINE
Mikhail BAIAKOVSKI31.01.2002
2
MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS
  • Basic principles
  • Early analog networks
  • Digital networks, GSM
  • GPRS and EDGE
  • UMTS
  • Future networks

3
Wireless versus Mobile
4
BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE
5
Propagation Mechanisms
  • Reflection
  • Diffraction (Shadowing)
  • Scattering
  • Doppler effects
  • Fading

6
FREQUENCY REUSE
7
3/9 CELL PATTERN
8
BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE
9
SYSTEM STRUCTURE
10
ANALOGUE MOBILE NETWORKS
11
DIGITAL MOBILE NETWORKS
12
(No Transcript)
13
SIM SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE
14
GSM frequency bands
  • 900 MHz
  • 225 MHz Bands
  • 45 MHz Duplex Spacing
  • 125 carriers
  • 1800 MHz
  • 275 MHz Bands
  • 95 MHz Duplex Spacing
  • 375 carriers
  • 1900 MHz
  • 260 MHz Bands
  • 80 MHz Duplex Spacing
  • 300 Carriers
  • 890-915 MHz Uplink
  • 935-960 MHz Downlink
  • 1710-1785 MHz Uplink
  • 1805-1880 MHz Downlink
  • 1850-1910 MHz Uplink
  • 1930-1990 MHz Downlink

15
GSM AREAS
16
THREE ACCESS METHODS IN CELLULAR SYSTEMS
  • FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
  • TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
  • CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

17
TDMA FRAME
18
D-AMPS
  • The EIA/TIA (TDMA) standard has many names
  • TDMA (the most common)
  • US Digital Cellular (USDC)
  • North American TDMA (NA-TDMA)
  • Digital AMPS (D-AMPS)
  • IS-54 and IS-136

19
CDMA
  • Every mobile in the network has a unique code,
    the chip sequence
  • When a mobile sends a bit stream, each bit is
    replaced by the chip code
  • A  one  in the bit stream is replaced by the
    chip code
  • A  zero  in the bit code is replaced by the
    compliment of the chip code
  • If the chip code is n bits long, each bit in the
    original bit stream is replaced by n bits
  • Instead of some 10kbps in the original bit
    stream, Mbps is sent
  • This is often referred as to  spread spectrum
    techniques 

20
GPRS, GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE (1)
  • Genera! Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new
    service designed for digital cellular networks
    (GSM, DCS, PCS).
  • GPRS uses a packet-mode technique to transfer
    high-speed and tow-speed data and signalling in
    an efficient manner over GSM radio networks.
  • GPRS can be used for carrying end user's packet
    data protocol such as IP andX.25
  • GPRS is standardised in ETSI (European
    Telecommunications StandardsInstitute).
  • New GPRS radio channels are defined, and the
    allocation of these channels is flexible from 1
    to 8 radio interface timeslots can be allocated
    per TDMA frame, timeslots are shared by the
    active users, and up and downlink are allocated
    separately.
  • Various radio channel coding schemes are
    specified to allow bitrates from 9 to more than
    150 kbit/s per user.

21
GPRS, GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE (2)
  • GPRS introduces two new network nodes in the GSM
    PLMN The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), which
    is at the same hierarchical level as the MSC,
    keeps track of the individual MSs' location and
    performs security functions and access control.
    The SGSN is connected to the base station system
    with Frame Relay. The Gateway GSN (GGSN) provides
    interworking with external packet-switched
    networks, and is connected with SGSNs via an
    IP-based GPRS backbone network. The HLR is
    enhanced with GPRS subscriber information, and
    the SMS-MSCs are upgraded to support SMS
    transmission via the SGSN. Optionally, the
    MSC/VLR can be enhanced for more-efficient
    co-ordination of GPRS and non-GPRS services and
    functionality e.g., paging for circuit-switched
    calls which can be performed more efficiently via
    the SGSN, and combined GPRS and non-GPRS location
    updates.

22
EDGEEnhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
  • ECSD - Enhanced CSD (Circuit Switched Data)
  • EGPRS - Enhanced GPRS
  • For higher data rates
  • New coding and modulation schemes
  • The base stations need to be up dated
  • EGPRS up to 384 kbps (48 kbps per time slot)
  • ECSD 28.8 kbps

23
IMT-2000
  • FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile
    Telecommunications System
  • IMT 2000 International Mobile Telecommunications
  • UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
  • UMTS Specificed by ETSI, CEPT and UMTS forum
  • UMTS Specificed by ETSI, CEPT and UMTS forum

24
IMT-2000
  • The main characteristic of 3G Systems, known
    collectively as IMT-2000, are a single family of
    compatible standards that have the following
    characteristics
  • Used worldwide
  • Used for all mobile applications
  • Support both packet-switched and circuit-switched
    data transmission
  • Offer high data rates up to 2Mbps (depending on
    mobility/velocity)
  • Offer high spectrum efficiency

25
IMT-2000
  • IMT-2000 stands for
  • IMT International Mobile Communications2000 the
    frequency range of 2000 MHz and the year 2000
    (WARC'92 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz)
  • All 3G standards have been developed by regional
    standard developing organizations (SDOs)
  • In total, proposals for 17 different IMT-2000
    standards were submitted by regional SDOs to ITU
    in 1998. 11 proposals for terrestrial systems and
    6 for mobile satellite systems (MSSs).
  • Evaluation of the proposals was completed in
    1998, and negotiatians to build a consensus among
    different views were completed in mid 1999. All
    17 proposals have been accepted by ITU as
    IMT-2000 standards. The specification for the
    Radio Transmission Technology (RTT) was released
    at the end of 1999.

26
The most important IMT-2000 proposals
  • UMTS (W-CDMA)
  • as the successor of GSM
  • CDMA2000
  • universal wireless communication-13 6
    (UWC-136)/EDGE as the successor of the interim
    standard'95 (IS-95)
  • time division-synchroneous CDMA (TD-CDMA)
  • as the TDMA-based enhancements to D- AMPS/GSM

27
ITU IMT2000 Radio Interface Specifications
  • 5 were approved by the ITU in November 1999
  • IMT DS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA)
  • IMT MC cdma 2000
  • IMT SC UWC-136 (EDGE)
  • IMT TC UTRA TDD or TD-SCDMA
  • IMT FT DECT
  • DS Direct Sequence, MC Multi-Carrier, TC Time
    Code, FT Frequency Time

28
Key Differences between W-CDMA and cdma2000
29
UMTS
  • UMTS is being developed by Third-Generation
    Partnership Project (3GPP), a joint venture of
    several SDOs
  • ETSI (Europe)
  • Association of Radio Industries and
    Business/Telecommunication Technology Committee
    (ARIB/TTC) (Japan)
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) T-1
    (USA)
  • Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA)
    (South Korea)
  • Chinese Wireless Telecommunication Standard
    (CWTS) (China)

30
Towards UMTS
31
(No Transcript)
32
Evolutionary Concept
33
Maximum Data Rates
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