Anatomy and Physiology of Sex - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Anatomy and Physiology of Sex PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7aed2e-MGY4O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Anatomy and Physiology of Sex

Description:

Anatomy and Physiology of Sex Ms. Markowski – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:90
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: wikis1754
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Anatomy and Physiology of Sex


1
Anatomy and Physiology of Sex
  • Ms. Markowski

2
Male Anatomy
Foreskin, if uncircumsized
3
Male Anatomy
Urinary Bladder
Vas Deferens
Seminal vesicle
Urethra
Prostate Gland
Penis
Bulbourethral or Cowpers gland
Epididymis
Testis
Scrotum
4
Male Physiology by Part
  • Foreskin outer skin of penis, only present in
    men that are NOT circumcised
  • Circumcision surgical removal of foreskin,
    usually done in infancy
  • Penis external male reproductive organ, filled
    with spongy tissue and blood vessels, also an
    erogenous zone

5
Male Physiology by Part
  • Testicles produce testosterone androgens,
    contains hundreds of seminiferous tubules
  • Seminiferous Tubules hundreds of tiny coiled
    tubes in testicles that produce sperm (called
    spermatogenesis)
  • Sperm are born here!
  • Scrotum external sac that holds the testicles
    protects sperm by allowing them to develop at 1-3
    degrees lower than body temperature
  • Behaviors that prevent scrotum from adjusting
    properly?

6
Male Physiology by Part
  • Epididymis
  • where sperm are stored after spermatogenesis to
    fully mature store until next ejaculation
  • sperm lounge
  • Vas Deferens
  • tubes that connect epididymis to the urethra, so
    sperm can travel out of the body.
  • 14-16 inches long
  • highway

7
Male Physiology by Part
  • Urethra passageway through which urine and semen
    are released
  • Never at the same time!!!
  • Meets up with vas deferens at the prostate train
    tracks
  • Sperm male gamete, 23 chromosomes (DNA)
  • How long can sperm live??
  • In male 2-3 weeks
  • In female 0-7 days
  • Travel 5-9 cm/hour
  • Semen made out of 2 things sperm ____________
    fluid
  • 3 parts of the male reproductive system that add
    fluid to sperm to make semen
  • a. Seminal Vesicle b. Prostate c.
    Cowpers gland

8
(No Transcript)
9
Glands that add fluid to sperm
  • Seminal vesicle contributes 70 of seminal
    fluid to sperm, producing a base to counteract
    the acidity of the vagina.
  • Also release fructose amino acids to nourish
    the sperm. (sticky)
  • Prostate gland 25 of seminal fluid, also
    neutralizes acidity of vagina with its
    milky-white fluid,
  • Also produces hormone prostaglandins that
    triggers uterine contractions in females Why??
    turbo boosters
  • To help sperm swim faster to fallopian tubes to
    find the egg
  • train tracks here, connecting urethra and vas
    deferens
  • Cowpers gland 5 of seminal fluid, known as
    pre-ejaculate fluid that lubricates urethra,
    cleaning urine and left-over sperm from previous
    ejaculation
  • Therefore, the WITHDRAWL method of birth control
    is a POOR choice.

10
Erections and Ejaculation
  • Erection
  • penis fills with blood, becomes hard and prepares
    for ejaculation
  • arteries dilate compress so blood cant get out
  • Erection must happen 1st before ejaculation can
    occur
  • Having an erection does NOT mean you need to
    ejaculate!
  • Ejaculation
  • sperm are moved from epididymis into vas
    deferens then urethra by through SMOOTH muscle
    contractions

11
How many sperm??????
  • How many sperm are in one ejaculate?
  • 300 million to 700 million (about ½ a BILLION)
    sperm
  • 2-6 mL of fluid with each ejaculation
  • Semen is released with velocity and does not
    just trickle out
  • Life of a Sperm

12
Male Sterility
  • The inability to produce healthy sperm and/or
    maintain an erection to orgasm
  • Some behaviors lead to unhealthy sperm
  • Some behaviors lead to the inability to maintain
    an erection to the point of ejaculation (orgasm)
  • E.D. Erectile Dysfunction
  • Inability to maintain erection to ejaculation

13
Ways to keep the Male Reproductive System Healthy
HOW they work
  • Avoid Prolonged Use of Drugs (Marijuana, Alcohol
    steroids)
  • These reduce sperm count the ability to
    maintain an erection to ejaculation
  • Get Tested for STDs every time you change
    partners!
  • Undiagnosed untreated STDs can reduce sperm
    count, quality and sometimes lead to Erectile
    dysfunction
  • Allow temperature regulation of scrotum avoid
    long-term use of compression shorts, saunas and
    hot tubs which reduce sperm count
  • Reduce Sugar Fat Intake these interfere with
    blood pressure and flow which can lead to
    erectile dysfunction
  • Practice healthy stress-management to maintain
    healthy erections and ejaculation
  • Get Yearly Physical Exams to diagnose hormonal
    issues and variocoele and provide treatment for
    both

14
Other Male Reproductive concerns
  • Nocturnal emissions
  • Orgasm with ejaculation during sleep (normal)
  • Hernia
  • Part of large instestine pushes through torn
    abdominal wall into scrotum (be careful when
    lifting!)
  • Testicular cancer
  • slight enlargement or lump in one testicle or
    dull ache in abdomen, most common ages 15-34
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Frequent, painful or difficult urination, sexual
    problems, 2nd most common cancer in males

15
(No Transcript)
16
Female Anatomy
17
Female Anatomy
Ovary
Fallopian tube
Cervix
Clitoris
Uterus
Urethra
Labia majora
Vagina
Labia minora
18
  • Ovary release eggs and estrogen
  • Secretes one egg every month.
  • Egg/Ova Female gamete, 23 chromosomes (DNA)
  • Girls are born with all their eggs (400,000),
    called follicles of which only about 400 will
    ever mature and be released as eggs

19
  • Fallopian Tubes
  • Tubes that connect the ovary to the uterus
  • Site of fertilization for egg sperm
  • Fallopian Tube and Ovary do NOT touch, they are
    connected by fembria
  • Fembria finger-like projections that sweep the
    egg into the fallopian tubes
  • Video

20
  • Ectopic Pregnancy Pregnancy that occurs and
    implants in the fallopian tubes. Will result in
    zygote death and possible death of mother.?

21
  • Uterus
  • Pear-shaped muscular organ that houses the fetus
    where it will grow and develop.
  • Endometrium
  • Inner lining of the uterus
  • Nutrient-rich, mucous like tissue
  • Sheds with menstruation if no pregnancy
    (fertilization)
  • If fertilization, zygote implants during
    pregnancy and will become placenta
  • bed for the baby

22
  • LEFT Placenta in utero (attached to amniotic sac
    and uterus on bottom left)
  • RIGHT Placenta or after birth where the other
    end of the umbilical cord is attached

23
  • Cervix
  • Narrow T-shaped opening to the uterus.
  • Allows for a single file of sperm
  • Dilates to 10cm during labor to allow passage of
    fetus.

24
  • Vagina 3-5 inches long 3 main functions
  • Menstrual fluid vaginal fluid come out
  • Site of intercourse semen delivery
  • Birth canal (fetus is delivered out of the body)
  • Urethra
  • Exit tube for urine only, located above vagina

25
  • Labia Minora and Majora
  • Folds of skin that run on the outside of the
    vagina, cover the urethral and vaginal openings.
  • Clitoris
  • Female sex organ sensitive to stimulationno
    reproductive purpose

26
The Menstrual Cycle
  • The cycle of physiological changes that occur in
    fertile women (thus, a woman is always going
    through her cycle)
  • Phase 1 Menstruation (Days 1-5) Lining of the
    endometrium sheds, commonly called period
  • Phase 2 Follicular (Days 6-13) Follicle
    stimulating hormone causes about 20 immature eggs
    (follicles) to begin maturing in the ovaries.
  • Phase 3 Ovulation (Days 10-18) Luteinizing
    hormone causes ONE mature egg to burst out of the
    ovary
  • Phase 4 Luteal (Days 15-28) Endometrial lining
    continues to thicken in preparation for a
    fertilized egg while egg floats through
    fallopian tube

27
Menstruation
  • A womans cycle can range from 21-35 days,
    average of 28 days!
  • But, MANY things can change how regular or
    irregular a womans cycle is, such as
  • Stress
  • Exercise
  • under-eating or over-eating (body fat )
  • Illness
  • Jet lag
  • Drug use (Rx and Illegal drugs like marijuana and
    alcohol)
  • Living near or with other women!
  • Etc..

28
Ovulation
  • When one egg is selected from one of the ovaries,
    to be released
  • Only occurs once per menstrual cycle (every 21-35
    days)
  • Ovulation is triggered by hormone levels
  • Compare ovulation to ejaculation

29
Picture of Menstrual Cycle
30
How much fluid do you think is lost during
Menstruation?
31
(No Transcript)
32
Maintaining Female Reproductive System Health
How it works to keep it healthy
  1. Get yearly gynecological exams once you start
    having intercourse or by age 18 to maintain
    health of cervix uterus and check regulation of
    menstruation and ovulation
  2. Get yourself tested for STDs whenever exposed to
    a new persons bodily fluids to maintain health
    of uterus and cervix to prevent fertility
    problems
  3. Avoid marijuana, alcohol and other illegal drugs
    to keep menstrual cycle regular periods lighter
    less painful!
  4. Maintain healthy nutrition body fat to keep
    ovulation and menstruation regular and healthy
  5. Practice healthy stress management
    relationships behaviors to avoid disruptions in
    the menstrual cycle

33
Female Reproductive Concerns
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Cysts in ovaries caused by hormone imbalance (too
    many androgens), painful, infrequent, absent or
    irregular periods, body hair growth, acne,
    infertility, are most common signs. Treatable.
  • Endometriosis
  • When pieces of the endometruim grow in places
    outside the uterus and are not shed, leading to
    scar tissue and possibly infertility and pain
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Most likely cause is HPV (genital warts), no
    early symptoms, difficult to treat, but vaccine
    called ______?
  • Breast cancer
  • Most common cancer in females, changes in breast
    or nipple appearance, lumps or swelling under the
    armpit, treatable if detected early

34
Fertilization and Development
  • The process of a sperm joining with an egg in the
    fallopian tube, to create a zygote
  • Fertilized egg begins to undergo millions of cell
    divisions (called mitosis)
  • Travels to and implants itself in the endometrium
    of the uterus

35
Fertilization and Implantation
Day 2
Day 3
Day 1
Day 4
Fertilization
Day 0
Day 7
Implantation of blastocyst
Egg released by ovary
36
Development of Embryo/ Fetus
  • Three main Trimesters (12 weeks each)
  • After about 40 weeks, the fertilized egg grows
    from
  • Zygote ? morula ? blastocyst ? embryo ? fetus ?
    infant
  • Lets talk about pregnancy

37
STOP and THINK!
  • But what if we have sex while she is having her
    period?
  • It is still possible for a woman to get pregnant
    even if she is menstruating.
  • The younger the woman, the more likely her cycle
    is going to be irregular as her body adjusts to
    changes in hormone levels.
  • Menstruation and Ovulation sometimes overlap or
    are just days (not always weeks) apart. Think
    about how long can sperm live inside a womans
    body!

38
STOP and THINK!
  • Can a woman get pregnant by having oral sex
    because sperm (ejaculate) enter her digestive
    system?
  • No, if sperm (ejaculate) have ONLY entered the
    mouth, there is no connection between the
    digestive system and the reproductive system.
  • However, if ejaculate is deposited near the
    vagina, it is possible for a sperm to swim up to
    an available egg.
  • BE CAREFUL!

39
Resources
  • Miller, K. Levine, J. (2005). Prentice Hall
    Biology CD ROM. Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Bold, M., Jennings, G., Brock, L. (2005). FS
    5023 Family Sexuality CD ROM. Department of
    Family Sciences, Texas Womans University.
About PowerShow.com