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Equine Anatomy

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Equine Anatomy & Physiology Equine Science & Technology Equine Anatomy Equine Anatomy Equine Bodily Systems The skeleton of the horse consists of 206 bones. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Equine Anatomy


1
Equine Anatomy Physiology
  • Equine Science Technology

2
Equine Anatomy
3
Equine Anatomy
  • Equine Bodily Systems
  • The skeleton of the horse consists of 206 bones.
  • The muscular system provides movement both
    internally and externally
  • The digestive system converts feed into a form
    that can be used by the body for maintenance,
    growth, and reproduction.
  • Sexual reproduction is the process of creating
    new organisms of the same species through the
    union of male and female sex cells-sperm and eggs.

4
Equine Anatomy
  • Skeletal System
  • The skeletal system is the rigid framework that
    gives the body shape and protects the internal
    organs.
  • It is composed of bone and cartilage.
  • Bones are composed of one part organic matter and
    two parts inorganic matter.
  • The bones and joints together compose a complex
    system of levers and pulleys, which combined with
    the muscular system give the body the power of
    motion.

5
Equine Anatomy
  • Bones are classified by their shape as long,
    short, flat, and irregular.
  • Long bones are found in the limbs. They support
    the body weight and act as the levers of
    propulsion.
  • Short bones occur chiefly in the knee and hock
    and aid in the dissipation of concussion (the
    shock of impact)
  • Flat bones, such as the ribs, scapula, and some
    of the bones of the skull, help to enclose
    cavities containing vital organs.
  • Irregular bones are unpaired bones, such as the
    vertebrae and some of the bones of the skull.

6
Equine Anatomy
  • Muscular System
  • The muscular system provides movement both
    internally and externally.
  • Muscles are the active organs of motion and are
    characterized by their property of contracting or
    changing shape when stimulated.
  • Each muscle is supplied by one or more nerves
    that bring commands from the brain to make it
    contract.

7
Equine Anatomy
  • Muscular System
  • Muscles compose about 50 percent of the total
    body weight.
  • The muscle system is made up of three types of
    muscles
  • smooth or involuntary,
  • cardiac or involuntary striated, and
  • striated or skeletal muscle.

8
Equine Anatomy
  • Digestive System
  • The digestive system converts feed into a form
    that can be used by the body for maintenance,
    growth, and reproduction.
  • It consists of all the parts of an organism
    involved in taking food into the body and
    preparing it for assimilation, incorporation into
    the body.
  • In its simplest form, the digestive system is a
    tube extending from the mouth to the anus with
    associated organs.

9
Equine Anatomy
  • Digestive System
  • This includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach,
    intestines, anus, and other associated organs
    like the liver, teeth, pancreas, and salivary
    glands.
  • The entire digestive tract of a mature light
    horse is approximately 100 feet long, and has a
    total capacity of about forty to fifty gallons.
  • Approximately 65 percent of the capacity of the
    digestive system is in the cecum and colon, which
    digests the forages consumed by the horse.

10
Equine Anatomy
  • Reproductive organs of the stallion
  • The primary sex organ of the stallion is the
    testicle, of which there are two.
  • The testicles produce sperm and a hormone called
    testosterone, which regulates and maintains the
    male reproductive tract, and is responsible for
    the masculine appearance and behavior of the
    stallion.
  • Sperm production takes place within the testicles
    in the seminiferous tubules-
  • a mass of minute, coiled tubules, the inner wall
    or surface of which produces the sperm.

11
Equine Anatomy
  • Reproductive organs of the stallion
  • Theses tubules merge into a series of larger
    ducts, which carry the sperm to a coiled tube
    called the epididymis.
  • The epididymis is the place where the sperm are
    stored and where they mature.
  • The testicles and epididymis are enclosed in the
    scrotum
  • The scrotums chief function of which is
    thermo-regulatory to maintain the testicles
    temperatures several degrees cooler than the body
    proper.

12
Equine Anatomy
  • Reproductive organs of the stallion
  • From the epididymis the sperm move through a
    tube, the vas deferens, into the urethra. The
    urethra has a dual role
  • Urine is carried from the bladder through the
    penis, and
  • Sperm is carried from the junction with the vas
    deferens to the end of the penis.
  • Along the urethra are the accessory sex glands-
    the prostate, the vesicular glands (seminal
    vesicles), and the bulbourethral (Cowpers)
    glands.
  • Their fluids nourish and preserve the sperm and
    provide a medium for its transport.
  • The combined sperm and fluid is called semen.

13
Equine Anatomy
  • Reproductive organs of the mare
  • The primary sex organ of the mare is the ovary,
    of which there are two.
  • The ovaries are bean-shaped organs, 2 to 3 inches
    long that produce eggs.
  • Each egg is contained in a bubble-like sack
    called a follicle.
  • There are hundreds of follicles on every ovary.
  • When the follicle is about 1 in. in diameter a
    hormone causes it to rupture and discharge the
    egg.
  • This process is known as ovulation.
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