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6 sigma??

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6sigma CTQ ... Break-down ... Flow Chart ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 6 sigma??


1
6 sigma??
2
6sigma???
3sigma????? 6sigma?????
????1015????? ????66,807????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????99 ????CTQ ????5????? ????3.4????? ???????????? ??????????? ????,??,??,???? ????99 ???????????CTQ
4sigma????30?????1???????? 5sigma??????????1??????
?? 6sigma????????????1????????
3
6sigma???
3sigma????? 6sigma?????
???54,000???????? ?????????????????40,500? ???2????????? ???2?????????? ??????5????? ????1350??????? ?????54,000??? 25????1??????? 100????????????????3? 16????1??????? 100??6????????? ????????10???1????? 20??????????? ????35???
4
6sigma??(????)
?? Tools Tools
Define (??) 1)Process Mapping 3)Pareto Analysis 2)Logic Tree 4)QFD, FMEA
Measurement (??) 5)Gage RR 7)Process Capability 6)Rational Subgroup
Analysis (??) 8)Hypothesis Test 10)Graph Analysis 9)Regression
Improvement (??) 11)DoE(Design of Experiment) 12)ANOVA 11)DoE(Design of Experiment) 12)ANOVA
Control (??) 13)SPC 13)SPC
  • 6sigma???????,???????????

5
Yf(x)
Question 1) Y?X??????? Question 1) Y?X???????
Y X1Xn
???? ????
Output Input
?? ??
?? ????
??????? ????
6
Yf(x)
  • Question 2)??X????,????????????Y?
  • 6sigma???????????(CTQ)???,??????

7
6sigma???????
?? ???? Focus
Define(??) 1)?????/??????
Measurement (??) 2)????????CTQ 3)??Y????? 4)??Y????? 5)?Y???????? Y Y Y Y
Analysis (??) 6)????Y??? 7)????Y??? Y X1Xn
8
6sigma???????
Improvement (??) 8)????????????? 9)?????????????? 10)???????(?????) X1Xn ????????Xi ????????Xi
Control (??) 11)???X????? 12)??????????????? 13)???????????????????? ????????Xi ????????Xi ????????Xi
  • 6Sigma Process??D-M-A-I-C5??????????13??
  • 6Sigma?????????,????,???????,?D-M-A-I-C???????????
  • ?????,??1?????????1???????????????????????

9
?????????
  • ???????
  • ??????????

10
?????????
  • ?????
  • S(???Total Sum of Squares)?????
  • ????(Unbiased Variance)S?????(n-1)
  • ???????or????

11
?????????
  • ??????
  • ??(Parameter)??????????
  • ???(Statistics)????????

12
?????????
?? ?? ???
??(Mean) ??µ ????
?? (Variance)
?? (Deviation)
13
?????????
  • Sigma???
  • Sigma?????,????????
  • Sigma????????????????(Standard Deviation)???(Varia
    tion),?????????????
  • Sigma????????????,???Sigma?DPU(????,Defect Per
    Unit),PPM??????

14
?????????
  • ???????Sigma????,???????????
  • Sigma?????????,?????

15
?????????
  • ???????????????(s)????????(T)??????(USL or
    LSL)????????3???,?????3Sigma??????

16
?????????
  • ????????????60?,????5???????,?????????,70?????????
    ????

17
?????????
  • ????N(60,52)
  • ??????N(0,12)
  • 70?????Z-??
  • ???????75???,????????Z2??2s?
  • Z??????????(s)????????????????(USL,LSL)???????

18
?????????
  • Z-????
  • 70???????????
  • ????????1
  • ?????X????(µ)??????????(s)???Z????
  • ??????(or??)?X??????????????????????????
  • Z??????????,??????????,???Z??2.0,???????1?????
    ??0.0228?

19
Z????
20
???????? Z-?
  • Z3

21
???????? Z-?
  • Z6
  • ?????(??)?????????
  • ?????????,???????????
  • ???????????????(Z)????6 s??,????????????

22
?????????????????
??????? ???????
?????????????? ????????????????
Zst(sst) Zlt( s lt )
Cp Cpk
?? ??????
?????????? ??????????
6 s Zst6.0,Cp2.0 6 sZlt4.5,Cpk1.5
Zst3Cp Zlt3 Cpk
  • ???????????????????,?ZltltZst????
  • ZshiftZst-Zlt ?ZstZlt1.5

23
6 sigma?????????
  • ????????(1.5 s)

24
???????????????
???? ??????? (??????) 1.5s??????
1s 317,000 697,700
2s 45,500 308,700
3s 2,700 66,810
4s 63 6,210
5s 0.57 233
6s 0.002 3.4
  • 6Sigma????????3.4PPM,?Cp2.0,Cpk1.5

25
4Block Diagram
Poor
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5
A B
C
Z shift ????
Good
1 2 3 4 5
6
Z st
Poor
Good
??
26
4Block Diagram
  • A????????,????????
  • B???????,???????
  • C??????,??????
  • DWorld Top?????

27
???????
  • ??????
  • Process Mapping
  • Process Mapping????????,??Process???
  • ???????????????
  • Process Mapping??
  • ??Process??(????????????Process)
  • ?????????Process?????

28
???????
  • ??????,????
  • ????Process,????
  • ??Key Process??(Yield, Cost, ????,????,Cycle
    time?)
  • ??????,?????(Process Loss?????/??Cycle
    time/????/Flow??)
  • QFD(Quality Function Deployment)??????
  • QFD??????????,???????????(??),????CTQ???,?????????
    ?

29
???????
  • QFD Process
  • ??????,???????,????????????????????????
  • ?????????,????????????????
  • ??????????????????????,????????????????,??????Part
    ??(CTQ)
  • ?????????????(CTQ)????
  • QFD????????????????,??????????
  • ??QFD??????????,???????CTQ,??????

30
???????
  • FMEA(Failure Modes Effects Analysis)?????????
  • FMEA?????????????????????,?????????????????
  • FMEA Process
  • ????????Brainstorming???????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ????????????????

31
???????
  • ?????
  • ??????????????
  • ????80????20??
  • ??????????????
  • ????????????,??????,??????????????????

32
???????
  • ???????????
  • Brainstorming??????????????
  • Brainstorming??
  • Free Wheeling?Team??????????Idea
  • Round Robin???,Team?????Idea
  • Card Method????,Team??Idea?????,?????

33
???????
  • Brainstorming?????
  • ????
  • ??Idea????
  • Idea??????????
  • ???Idea????
  • ????????
  • Logic Tree(Structure Tree)
  • ????????,??????
  • Break-down(??)?????MECE(??????????)
  • MECE(Mutually Exclusive and Collective
    Exhaustive)(???,????????)

34
???????
  • ?????????Benefit??(??/????)
  • ?????,??????
  • ??????????
  • ??????,?????????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????????????

35
??(Measurement)
36
?????
  • ?????

????
????/Bottle Neck/Issue ??
37
?????
  • ?????(?????)
  • Inch or??????????????
  • ????????????
  • ?????(?????)
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????

38
?????
  • ????(White Noise)
  • White Noise????????????????(????)
  • ????????????????
  • ???????
  • ??????????????
  • Z.st???

39
?????
  • ????(Black Noise)
  • Black Noise??????????????,?????,????????(????)
  • ???????????
  • ?????,?????????????
  • ?????????????,?????????

40
???????????
Line1
Line2
Line3
???1 ???2 ???3
???4 ???5 ???6
???7 ???8 ???9
  • ?????Line 1,2,3????(?Line????????)????
  • ?????Line????????????

41
?????
  • Rational Subgroup(????)
  • ?????????,???????????????????????
  • Rational Subgroup??Subgroup????????,Subgroup??????
    ??,???Grouping
  • ?????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????,?????

42
????
  • ???????

Short-term Capability (6s)
st
st
? ?
st
st
Long-term Capability (3s)
lt
SL
SU
  • ???????,?????????(4M)??,????????????????

43
????
  • ???????
  • ????????,??????????????????????????(????)?,??????
    ??????????
  • Six Sigma???????????(or????s)?,????6?????????????
    ????

44
????
  • ??/?????????
  • ???????????????,?????????????????,????????????????
    ,??,????????,??????,???????????
  • Short Term Process Capability Index????????
  • Zlt(slt),Cpk
  • Zlt3Cpk

45
????
  • ???????????????????,???????????,???????????,??????
    ???????,??????????????????????????
  • Long Term Process Capability Index????????
  • Zlt(slt),Cpk
  • Zlt3 Cpk

46
Gage RR
  • Gage RR???????
  • ?Blind?????
  • ??????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????,???Gage RR?????????????

47
Gage RR
  • ????Tolerance????Gage?????,?Study
    Var?20???,???????Process
  • Gage RR????,??????????????????????,????????,???6s
    Project???????????????????

48
Gage RR
  • ???????Gage RR
  • ??Parts????????????,?gono go?
  • 1V?????,
  • 2????????20???

49
? ?
???? ???1 ???1 ???2 ???2
???? 1 2 1 2
1 G G G G
2 G G G G
3 NG G G G
4 NG NG NG NG
5 G G G G
6 G G G G
7 NG NG NG NG
8 NG NG G G
9 G G G G
10 G G G G
50
? ?
???? ???1 ???1 ???2 ???2
???? 1 2 1 2
11 G G G G
12 G G G G
13 G NG G G
14 G G G G
15 G G G G
16 G G G G
17 G G G G
18 G G G G
19 G G G G
20 G G G G
  • ??????4???????????,????????
  • Gage RR320 10015

51
Gage RR
  • ?????Gage RR?Minitab??
  • Gage RR?Graph??
  • P39

52
Gage RR
  • P38

53
Gage RR
  • X bar???
  • ?????????,?????????
  • ??????50??????????,????????
  • ???????????????????,??????????????????,???????????
    ????
  • ?????(???,????)?????????,????Parts??????

54
Gage RR
  • R???
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????

55
Gage RR
  • Number of Distinct Categories4
  • ??????????????????

4?Categories
????????????,?3????????2??????4????????,??????????
???????,??????????????????(?????????????)???????
56
Gage RR
  • Number of Distinct Categories????
  • Number of Distinct Categories01???(??????)
  • Number of Distinct Categories24????????
  • Number of Distinct Categories5?????

57
Gage RR
  • ?????Gage RR?Minitab??
  • Gage RR Study-ANOVA Method
  • P36

58
Gage RR
  • R36

59
Gage RR
  • Study Var???????????????????????(Gage
    RR)(???????20??)
  • Tolerance????????????,??????????????(????Gage
    RR???????)

60
Gage RR
  • P35

61
Gage RR
  • ?????Gage RR?Minitab??
  • ??Monitor Cover?Six Sigma Theme
  • Spec2.31.5
  • ???????,3?????10???????2?

62
  • P34

63
Gage RR
  • ??????Gage RR??
  • CTQ???Spec?2.0000.015?

?? ???1 ???2 ???(1-2)
1 2.003 2.001 0.002
2 1.998 2.003 0.005
3 2.007 2.006 0.001
4 2.001 1.998 0.003
5 1.999 2.003 0.004
????? ?R0.015
64
Gage RR
  • ?????? ?R/50.015/50.013
  • ????(5.15/1.19)(R)4.33(0.003)0.013
  • ???????(0.0130.030)10043.3
  • ??)????????????????(???4.33)???????5.15/d?????,
    d??????,5.15?Gage????????5.15s99??

65
?????????d?
???? ???? ???? ???? ????
???? 2 3 4 5
1 1.41 1.91 2.24 2.48
2 1.28 1.81 2.15 2.40
3 1.23 1.77 2.12 2.38
4 1.21 1.75 2.11 2.37
5 1.19 1.74 2.10 2.36
6 1.18 1.73 2.09 2.35
7 1.17 1.73 2.09 2.35
8 1.17 1.72 2.08 2.35
9 1.16 1.72 2.08 2.34
10 1.16 1.72 2.08 2.34
66
Gage RR
  • Gage RR??
  • ?????
  • ???2?????5???
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ?????
  • ????2-3??????10???????2-3?
  • ????????????????,??????????

67
Gage RR
  • ??????????
  • ??(Linearity)?????Gage???????????????????????????
    ???,????1????????????

68
Gage RR
69
Gage RR
  • ??????????
  • ???(Stability)???????????????????????????????????

Time1
70
Gage RR
  • ??(Bias)???????????????????(Accuracy)

71
Gage RR
  • ???(Repeatability)1????????????????????????????

Repeatability
72
Gage RR
  • ???(Reproduceability)????????????????????????????
    ???

???1
???2
???3
Reproduceability
73
Gage RR
  • Gage RR????
  • Gage RR???,????????????????????????,???????,?6s
    Project???,???????????????????

????????Gage ??
20?? Accept
20-30 ???????????????Accept
30?? ?????
74
Gage RR
  • ?????(?????)
  • ?????????????/Spec?????10??????????
  • ????????????????
  • ?)?????0.020?,???????0.002
  • Gage RR?Sampling??
  • ???????,?????Spec????????,????????????

75
Gage RR
  • Gage RR????
  • ?????????????????
  • Gage RR Study
  • Gage RR Study???3?
  • ???(Repeatability)
  • ???(Reproduceability)
  • ??????
  • ???Process?Spec????????????????????

76
Gage RR
  • ?????? ????? ??Error??

77
Gage RR
  • Gage RR???
  • Gage RR????????????
  • ?????????(Gage????????)
  • ??????????(or ???)
  • ???????,????????????????(?????????,?????????Y???
    X??)

78
?????
  • ????Rational Subgrouping
  • Rational Subgroup?6 Sigma?????????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ????????????

79
?????
  • Rational Subgroup????????????????????X??,??5M??
    ?????
  • Man?????,??????,?????
  • Machine???????,???????
  • Material??LOT,????,????
  • Method????????????
  • Measurement??????,???????

80
?????
  • Rational Subgrouping??
  • ????TV Back Cover??????,?????????????Rational
    Subgrouping??
  • ?????X???????
  • ?????????????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ???????Lot,??Lot?????

81
????
  • ????????
  • ??????????

SL
SU
82
????
  • ?????????

K
SL
SU
M
83
????
  • ????
  • K????(??K0,CpCpk)
  • M(Mid-range)?????
  • T(Tolerancne)??
  • SU(Upper Spec)????
  • SL(Lower Spec)????

84
????
  • ????????????

SU
85
????
  • ????????????

86
????
  • ?????Minitab??
  • ?????????????,??????,?????????????Project,????????
    ,????????????????X????????Y????
  • X????,??,????,???,??,????

87
????
  • P46

88
????
  • ????????
  • P47

89
????
  • P47

90
????
  • ?????Minitab??
  • ????????
  • P48

91
????
  • ??Submit Command
  • P49

92
????
  • ?????Minitab??
  • P50

93
????
  • ????????????Cp,Cpk,Cpu,Cpl?????????????Pp,Ppk,Ppu,
    Ppl
  • ??????????,??????????,??????Zst,??????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????,?????????,?????????,??????????????Zlt?

94
????
  • ?????Minitab??
  • P51

95
????
  • ?????Minitab??
  • P52

96
???????
  • ????
  • D(Defect)??or??(??)
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • DO(Defect Opportunity)????(??)
  • ?????????(??)???????
  • ????????????????

97
???????
  • U(Unit)??
  • ???????????
  • ?????
  • DPU(Defect Per Unit)
  • ???????????
  • DPO(Defect Per Opportunity)???????
  • ??Unit???????????????????

98
???????
  • DPMO(Defect Per Million opportunity)(????????)
  • 1,000,000????????
  • DPO 1,000,000 ??Six Sigma??
  • P(ND)None Defect???
  • ????????????
  • P(ND)1-DPO

99
???????
  • DPU/DPO/DPMO/P(ND)??
  • ???100????,????100?????,??????10???,
    DPU/DPO/DPMO/P(ND)?????
  • DPUD/U
  • DPU100/1001.0(100)???????,?????????1????

100
???????
  • DPOD/(UOpp)
  • DPO100/(10010)0.1(10)?????????????????1???????
    ?10?
  • DPMODPO1,000,000
  • ???DPMO?0.11,000,000 DPMO
  • P(ND)1-DPO1-0.10.9(90)

101
???????
  • ??????????
  • ??????
  • ??
  • Y??
  • DPU?????
  • r
  • e????2.71828

102
???????
  • r0?
  • ?Ye-dpu
  • ?????????,Y???0

103
???????
  • Process Yield(??)
  • ??750???34?????,??DPU/DPO/DPMO/Yield/Sigma?????(??
    ??10?????)
  • DPU??????34 7500.0453
  • DPO???(??????)34 (750 10)0.00453
  • Yield??Ye-dpu2.7138-0.0450.955995.6

104
???????
  • DPMODPO 1,000,0000.0045 1,000,0004,500PPM
    ?????45,000PPM???
  • SigmaZinv(0.9556)1.5(??)1.711.53.21
  • Zinv??Z?????????,???????????

105
???????
  • ?????
  • YFT(First Time Yield)(???????)
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????????????
  • YRT(Rolled Throughput Yield)??????????
  • ????????????????????????,????????????
  • ????????????????????,??????????

106
???????
  • YNA(Normalized Yield)????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????????????

107
??????
????(YRT) ???????(YF)
??????? ???????
?????????? ???????????
????????? ???????????
???????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????????
YRTe YFS/U
YY1Y2Yn S????
U????
108
???????
  • VFT(First Time Yield)

109
???????
  • ??A???100?Unit(??)
  • ???70??????????
  • ???30?????????
  • 15???????,15????
  • ?????Final Yield(YF)?????85
  • ?First Time Yield(YFT)???????????,???????YFT?70?

110
???????
  • YRT(Rolled Throughput Yield)
  • ??A?3???????????,YRT/YND????????

??1
??2
??3
YFT80 YF100
YFT70 YF90
YFT90 YF95
111
???????
  • YRF???????YFT??
  • YRT0.80.70.90.504(50.4)
  • ??????
  • ??????????
  • ??????,????????????
  • YND(Normalized Yield)
  • ??n??????

112
???????
  • ??YND(Normalized Yield)
  • ?????YFT79.6
  • ????????????,?YND(Normalized Yield)????Sigma?
  • ??YRF???????????(?????)
  • ??????(??)?????,??????

113
???????
  • ???????????????
  • Process Mapping??????????????????

114
???????
  • YRFY1Y2Y3Y4
  • 0.990.910.990.991/30.970.98 0.9035
  • YNA(YRT)1/3(0.9035)1/40.9749
  • ??(??)??1-0.97490.0251
  • ????????0.0251??Z?,??Z1.96

115
???????
  • ????(YRT)Minitab??
  • P62

116
???????
  • ????(YRT)Minitab??
  • P62

117
???????
  • ????(YRT)Minitab??
  • P63

118
???????
  • ????(YRT)Minitab??
  • P64

119
???????
  • ????(YRT)Minitab??
  • P64

120
??(Analysis)
121
Graph??
  • ??????
  • ????????,??????
  • ???????????????Focusing
  • ????????????????
  • ?????
  • ???????,??(??)Graph???

122
Graph??
  • ?Graph??????????
  • Graph????,?????????????,??????????
  • ???Graph????,???????,??????????

123
Graph??
  • Graph???Minitab??
  • ???????Compressor(???)????????????????,???3?????3?
    ???,???3???????????

124
Graph??
  • ??Histogram(???)
  • GraphgtHistogram
  • P67

125
Graph??
  • P67

126
Graph??
  • ??Plot
  • GraphgtPlot
  • P68

127
Graph??
  • P68

128
Graph??
  • ??Box Plot
  • GraphgtBox Plot
  • P69

129
Graph??
  • P69

130
Graph??
  • ??Matrix Plot
  • Graphgt Matrix Plot
  • P70

131
Graph??
  • P70

132
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ????????
  • ?????????????,?????????????????????????????????
  • ??????(??)
  • ???Flatron Monitor????????????
  • LG Digital TV?????Digital TV?????
  • 6s????Tool??????????????Tool?????
  • 019 PCS????????????

133
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????????
  • ???(Null HypothesisHo)?????????
  • ?????????,?????????(or??)?
  • ???????
  • ????(Alternative HypothesisHi)????????????
  • ???????????,????????????
  • Ho????????(?????????)

134
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????(Type ?Errora)???????,????????,????????
  • ?????(Type ? Errorß)???????,????????,???????
    ?
  • ?????(Test Statistic)??????????Ho,?????????????
  • ?????(Significance Level)??????a0.05(or0.01,0.10
    )Ho????????

135
????(Hypothesis Test)???
136
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ??????
  • ???????Sample(??)???????
  • Hoµ1µ2
  • Hoµ1µ2µ3µn
  • Ho s1s2
  • Ho s1s2 s3 sn

137
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ??????????????
  • ?????H1µ1?µ2
  • ?????H1µ1 lt µ2
  • µ1 gt µ2
  • ?????H1s1? s2
  • ?????H1s1 lt s2
  • s1 gt s2

138
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ???????
  • ???????Z,T-test???
  • ??????????????????(F-test)
  • F-test???2?????????
  • ???????x2(chi-Square)???
  • ??????

139
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ????????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????,?????????,???????????
  • ??,???????,???????/????????
  • ??,???????????????????????

140
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????????
  • ??????????(Ho,Hi)
  • ???????(a0.10,0.05,0.01)
  • ???????(Z,T,Chi-square???)
  • ???????
  • ?????????,????
  • P(Probability)???lta???????(H1)
  • P(Probability)???gta???????(Ho)
  • ??????????????

141
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ???????????
  • ???
  • ???(Ho)??
  • ???? (H1)??
  • ???
  • ???(Ho)??
  • ???? (H1)??

???
(a)
142
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ????????
  • ??????????????????(Ho)
  • ??????????????????(Ho)
  • 0?????????????(Ho)
  • 0?????????????(Ho)
  • Minitab?????
  • P-Value???a??????(Ho)
  • P-Value???a??????(Ho)

143
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??
  • ?????Transmission Housing?10CTQ,10?CTQ?8?Fixture
    Brake??????,??????8????Fixture?????????,??Fixure?
    ???????,?X??????????????

144
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??
  • P76

145
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P76

146
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??(1???????)
  • P77

147
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P77

148
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??(1???????)
  • P78

149
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P78

150
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??(1???????)
  • P79

151
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?Sample??????Target ???????????
  • ?,????Sample?Target????(Ho??,H1??)
  • ??,???????Fixture 1?????Target Mean??????

152
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??(2???????)
  • P80

153
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P80

154
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P81

155
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • X2(Chi-square)
  • ?????(Goodness of fit test)
  • ?????????or???????????????
  • ???????????????????????
  • ????
  • HoP1P2Pn
  • H1P1P2Pn
  • ????????????50??????????

156
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ???(Contingency Table)
  • ??????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????,?????????(????),???(?
    ???)???????
  • ????
  • Ho??(???????????)
  • H1??(???????????)

157
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ???(E),???(O),X2???
  • ???(Expected Frequency)????????????
  • ???(Observed Frequency)?????????????
  • X2????

158
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • X2(Chi-square)???
  • ?3???Monitor????????????????,???????(???)?(???)???
    ???????,??????,???N309?Monitor????4?????????
  • ??X2(Chi-square)??
  • ???(Ho)????????????????(????)
  • ????(H1)?????????????????(????)

159
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ????
  • A??
  • B??
  • C????
  • D????

160
????(Hypothesis Test)???
??? A B C D
1 15 21 45 13
2 26 31 34 5
3 33 17 49 20
  • ????
  • ???(Ho)???????????????(??)
  • ????(H1)????????????????(??)

161
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • ?????Minitab??
  • P84

162
????(Hypothesis Test)???
  • P84

163
??(Improvement)
164
????(ANOVA)???
  • ???????(ANOVA)?
  • ?????,?????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????,??Y???
    (???)????????????????????
  • ??X???,?????????Y????

165
????(ANOVA)???
  • ??????????Y???(???)???????????,??
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????
  • ??(Factor)???????????
  • ??(Level)??????????
  • ???(Sum of square)?????????,?????????
  • ??Balance/Unbalance????????????????????

166
????(ANOVA)???
  • ???????
  • One Way ANOVA??2???????1??????
  • Balance ANOAV??2????????
  • ?????(DoEDesign of Experiment)??????,????????Y
    ????????????

167
????????
  • ????????
  • ???????
  • ?????(????)Y
  • ????(????)X
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ????????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????

168
????????
  • ??????
  • ???????????
  • ??Y(????)????X(????)????????
  • ???????,????????
  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????????????
  • ??????????

169
????????
  • ?????(????)Y
  • ??????????Y
  • ?????(Logic Tree?),??Yn???????X????
  • ??????????????63???,???????
  • ???Y???,?????????????????

170
????????
  • ?????????????,??????????
  • ??????????,???????,????????????
  • ??????????,???Y??Gage RR,?????20

171
???????
  • ????(????)X
  • ???????
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????????
  • Blocking??(???????)
  • ????

172
???????
  • ??????
  • ??????????????????
  • ????
  • ?????
  • Flow Chart
  • ??????
  • ?????
  • ?????
  • ?????????
  • Process Mapping
  • Rolled Through Yield

173
???????
  • ????
  • ?????????????,?????,??????????????????????,
    ????????Blocking?
  • ????????
  • ?????????????????????????????,???????????????????
    ???????????

174
???????
  • ??????
  • ???????????????????????
  • ????????????????,?????2??
  • Y??????????????????
  • ??????????,?????????,?????????????
  • ????????????????(????????,??????????????)
  • ??????????????????,???????,????????

175
???????
  • ??????
  • ????????10?????
  • ???
  • ???
  • ???
  • ???
  • ????
  • ????
  • Noise??
  • Blocking
  • Sample???
  • ??

176
???????
  • ???????
  • ???
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ???
  • ???????????????????????
  • ???????
  • ??Unit???
  • ???????

177
???????
  • ???
  • ?????????,??????????????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????
  • ???
  • ?????Run ??Sample?????,??????
  • ??
  • ?????,???????

178
???????
  • ????
  • ????,?????,??????,????????????????????,??????
  • Noise??
  • ????????,????????,?????????????Noise??,??????????

179
???????
  • Blocking
  • Block???????,??????????????,????????Blocking??
  • Blocking???????,??????,?????
  • Blocking????Blocking????,????????,??????
  • ?????
  • ???????????,?????,??

180
???????
  • ???
  • ??????????????,???????????,????????????????,3?????
    ?????????????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????,????,?????????????
  • ?????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ?????????????????

181
???????
  • ??????,??????????????,??????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????????,???Mechanism,????????????????
  • ??????????,??????????

182
???????
  • ????
  • GRAPH??
  • Capability Analysis
  • Histogram
  • Box Plot
  • Pareto
  • Scatter Plot
  • Cube Plot
  • Main effect plot???????
  • Interaction plot???????

183
???????
  • ????
  • P-value,?????
  • T-test,F-test,Chi-square
  • ?????(ANOVA Tables)
  • ?????(Regression)

184
???????
  • ????
  • ???????????
  • ??/??/???????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ???????(???)????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????
  • ??????Y???????????
  • ????????????

185
???????
  • ????????????????
  • ??????????
  • ????
  • ???????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????(??????)

186
???????
  • ????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ???????????????????????
  • /-??????????????,????2?????????

187
???????
  • ???????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????
  • ?Cost(????)???,???????
  • ???????????

188
???????
  • ????????????????
  • ????????Y???????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????CTQ
  • ???????,????????

189
?????
  • ?????
  • ???1???????????????,???????????????
  • ??????????????????????,?????????????,??????,??????
    ????????????????????????(A160?,A265?,A370?,A47
    5?),????3?,???12??????????????????????,?????

190
?????
  • ?????(A)?????(??Kg/mm2)?????

???? ???? ???? ????
A1 A2 A3 A4
????? 8.44 8.59 9.34 8.92
????? 8.36 8.91 9.41 8.92
????? 8.28 8.60 9.69 8.74
191
?????
  • ??????Minitab??
  • P97

192
?????
  • P97

193
?????
  • P98

194
?????
  • P98

195
?????
  • P99

196
?????
  • P99

197
?????
  • ?????
  • ??2????????????
  • ?????????????(Yield,)?????????????????????????,??
    ?????,??????
  • ??????
  • ????(A)A1(180 ?),A2(190 ?),A3(200 ?) , A3(200 ?)
  • ??(B)B1(??M???),B2(??Q???),B3(??P)

198
?????
  • ??????

??A ??B A1 A2 A3 A4
B1 97.6 98.6 99.0 98.0
B2 97.3 98.2 98.0 97.7
B3 96.7 96.9 97.9 96.5
199
?????
  • ??????Minitab??
  • ????????
  • P101

200
?????
  • P102

201
?????
  • P102

202
?????
  • P103

203
?????
  • P103

204
?????
  • ??????A3200?,????B1?????
  • ?????????????,???????,??????????????????

205
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ????????
  • n???,????????k?????,????????????????
  • ???????
  • 2n???n?,???????2??
  • 3n???n?,???????3??

206
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ???????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????????
  • 22??
  • ????(A0,A1)????Mold(B0,B1)??????????(balance)???4?
    ???

207
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ????

A0 A0 A1 A1 ??
B0 31 165 82 110 88 72 352 517
B0 45 165 82 110 88 72 352 517
B0 46 165 82 110 88 72 352 517
B0 43 165 82 110 88 72 352 517
B1 22 84 30 37 38 29 134 218
B1 21 84 30 37 38 29 134 218
B1 18 84 30 37 38 29 134 218
B1 23 84 30 37 38 29 134 218
?? 249 249 486 486 735
208
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ??????Minitab??
  • P106

209
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P106

210
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P107

211
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P108

212
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P108

213
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P109

214
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P109

215
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P110

216
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P110

217
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P111

218
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ????(mix)1??,mold-1?????????
  • mold?????(mix)????????
  • Main effects plot????????,????????????

219
?????(Factorial Design)
  • Interaction Plot
  • P112
  • ???????(mix,mold)??????????,??????????????????

220
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ???????
  • ??2?????????,?????????3????????,????????,????????

Y
Y
Y
X
X
X
?????? (?????)
???????
????????
221
?????(Factorial Design)
  • Cube plot

222
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ??????????????(mix)1??,mold-1??
  • ???????????
  • mold?????????????

223
?????(Factorial Design)
  • 23??
  • ???????????????,??????????????????????Filter(???)?
    ??,Filet???????????????,???????2??????

224
?????(Factorial Design)
Factor Level Level
-1 1
A. ????(Temp) ?? ??
B.??(Time) ? ?
C.?????(Conc.) ? ?
  • ??Run??2?(?2???)?????(Yield)?,???????????????2?(?2
    ???)?,?????1?????

225
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ????

RUN Temp Time Conc. Yield
1 -1 -1 -1 65
2 1 -1 -1 43
3 -1 1 -1 46.5
4 1 1 -1 43
5 -1 -1 1 59.5
6 1 -1 1 44
7 -1 1 1 51
8 1 1 1 43
226
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ??????Minitab??
  • P115

227
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P115

228
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P116

229
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P117

230
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P117

231
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P118

232
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P118

233
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P119

234
?????(Factorial Design)
  • P119

235
?????(Factorial Design)
  • Main effects plot
  • P120

236
?????(Factorial Design)
  • ?Yield?temp/time/conc?????plot Graph
  • ????????Low Level(-1)???(-1)????(?????),????High
    Level(1)???(1)?
  • ?????????????????,????????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????????

237
?????(Factorial Design)
  • Interaction plot
  • P121

238
?????(Factorial Design)
  • TempTime?????????????,?????????,????????
  • TempConc??????,?????????,?????????
  • TimeConc??????,???????????????????

239
?????(Factorial Design)
  • Cube plot(?????)

51
44
46
1
43
time
60
44
1
43
65
conc
-1
-1
temp
1
240
?????(Factorial Design)
  • temp(1??),time(1?),conc(1?)??temp(1??),time(-1
    ?),conc(-1?),?????
  • ????,????????????????,???????????????
  • ?????,?????????,???????????(???????????????????)

241
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • ????????(Fractional factorial design)
  • ????????????,???????,????????????
  • ???????
  • ??????????????????
  • ???????????,???????

242
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ??????????????????????????,??????????????????????
    ????????,????????????????(2n3n??????)
  • ??,???????????????????????

243
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ???????????(Fractional factorial design)
  • ???????????Screening?
  • ???/?????????????,???????
  • ?????(Fractional factorial design)???
  • ?????????????????????
  • ?????,????????

244
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • 25??
  • P124

245
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • 25??
  • ?32????16???????
  • X1X2X3X4X5-1?
  • X1X2X3X4X51??
  • ???????????,?????????
  • ?????????,??????????
  • ??????????????

246
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • ??????????,??????,???????????????,???????????
  • ??X1X2X3X4X51?16???
  • ????????????????
  • ?????????????????

247
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • P125

248
?????(Fractional factorial design)
  • 25??
  • ??16???????????
  • ??2????2?
  • ??2????2?
  • ??2????2?

249
?????(Fractional factorial design
1
X5
1
X2
-1
-1
1
-1
X3
-1
1
X1
1
-1
X4
250
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ???4????23-1????,?23?????,???????????????or-?4
    ???,???2??????????????????X3????????Z1,X2?????????

???Column ???Column ???Column ???Column ????Column ????Column ????Column ????Column ????Column
Run X1 X2 X3 X1X2 X1X3 X2X3 X1X2X3 ???
1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
2 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
3 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
251
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • X1,X2,X3?????2???????????
  • X3 ColumnX1 X2 Column
  • X1 ColumnX2 X3 Column
  • X2 ColumnX1 X3 Column

1
X2
1
-1
X3
-1
-1
1
X1
252
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • 25??
  • ?????????,????????,?????????????5?????,?????????
  • ???????????(liter/min)
  • ??????()
  • ??(RPM)
  • ??????(?)
  • ????????????????????

253
?????(Fractional factorial design
Factor -1 1
1.???(feed rate) 10 15
2.???(catalyst) 1 2
3.??(RPM) 100 120
4.??(temperature) 140 180
5.??(concentration) 3 6
254
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ??????Minitab??
  • P129

255
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ??????Minitab??
  • P129

256
?????(Fractional factorial design
257
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P129

258
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P130

259
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P131

260
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P131

261
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P132

262
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P133

263
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P133

264
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P134

265
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • P134

266
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • Main effects plot
  • P135

267
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ???????????????,???????????
  • ??????(????)????????
  • ??????????,???????,????????????????

268
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • Interaction plot
  • P136

269
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ??catalysttemperature?temperatureconcentrate
    ????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ???2???????3??????????????,??3????????????????,???
    ???????

270
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • Cube plot

67
52
65
78
49
55
45
56
95
93
61
63
60
69
10
15
271
?????(Fractional factorial design
  • ??????????1(2),??1(180?),??-1(3)?????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????????????????????

272
????(Regression)
  • ???????(Regression)?
  • ???????,??????????????,???????????(?/??????,??????
    ???Point)
  • ????????????????????????,??????????Y?????X????
    ????????????????
  • yabxerror ?a?? b??

273
????(Regression)
  • ????????
  • ??????????(????),????(????)?1????
  • ?????????(????)2??????
  • ??????????(????)1?,????(????)1??????(???2????????
    )

274
????(Regression)
  • ???????????(Regreesion )?
  • ???????Vital Few(??????)
  • ????Y???????
  • ??????X????Y?????

275
????(Regression)
  • ??????????Vital Few?
  • ????????????,??????,????????????
  • ?????????

276
????(Regression)
  • ?????
  • a?b?????

277
????(Regression)
  • ??????????????????,???????????????????????a?b?(???
    ??)
  • ?????????????,?????0,???????????????????
  • ???????????????(???????),??????????

278
????(Regression)
  • ??????????
  • ???????????,????X??????????????????????
  • ??????????????,???????????X???????????

279
????(Regression)
  • ??Minitab??????
  • ????LOT???????,??????????????????

LOT??(X) 10 20 30 40 40 50 60 60 70 80
????(Y) 20 29 50 60 70 85 90 95 109 120
280
????(Regression)
  • P141

281
????(Regression)
  • P142
  • ???????????????????

282
????(Regression)
  • P143

283
????(Regression)
  • P143

284
????(Regression)
  • P144

285
????(Regression)
  • FITS??????????????????????,Y?????man-hour4.171
    .48 lot size
  • Residual(??)?error???
  • ??????,?????????????????,??????C4C2-C3

286
????(Regression)
  • ????????(Residual)????
  • ??(Residual)Plot?????????,?????????
  • ??(Residual)???????0
  • ??(Residual)??????(Normal Distribution)
  • ??(Residual)??????(?,?????????)

287
????(Regression)
  • ??????
  • ??????????????

288
????(Regression)
  • ????????????????????

289
????(Regression)
  • ?????????????

290
????(Regression)
  • ??(Residual)??(???)
  • P146

291
????(Regression)
  • P146

292
????(Regression)
  • P147

293
????(Regression)
  • P147

294
????(Regression)
  • ????????????????
  • ?StatgtBesic StactisticgtNormality Test
    VariableResi 1,Value0.269???????

295
????(Regression)
  • ??(Residual)?? (???)
  • P148

296
????(Regression)
  • ????
  • ?????yabx,?a(??)4.71,b1.48(??)??
  • Constant P-Value
  • H0??????(0,0)
  • H1????????(0,0)
  • ???????H0,??4.71????0

297
????(Regression)
  • ????P-Value
  • H0Lot size????(or???)
  • H1Lot size?????( or???)
  • ?????P-Value0.00,?????????
  • S????????,????????????????????
  • R-Sq ?????????????

298
????(Regression)
  • R-Sq(adj)???????????????
  • Fitting????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ??????????????

299
????(Regression)
  • P150

300
????(Regression)
  • P151

301
????(Regression)
  • ????
  • LOT???(X)???????(Y)???
  • ?R-Sq98.5,????????????(?????R-Sq???65)
  • ????????????????(P-Value0.269, Normality Test)

302
??(Control)
303
????
  • ????????
  • Project(??)?????,?????????????
  • ???????????????,?????????????????
  • ????process????????????????
  • ?process?????????????????
  • ????process,?????

304
????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????????,??????/??????
  • ??????
  • ??/??????
  • ??????????????
  • Process Foolproof?(?????)
  • ??????????
  • ????????project ????

305
????
  • ????????
  • ????????????????,????????????????????
  • ???????????????????,???????????????
    ???????????????????????????

306
????
  • Six Sigma????
  • ??????Y?CTQ(???????)
  • ??System?????
  • ??sampling(??)??
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????
  • ???????????????,??????Know-how???
  • ??????

307
????
  • Six Sigma???????????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????????
  • ??????
  • ?????Mechanism???
  • ??????????,???????????

308
????
  • ????Six Sigma?????
  • ?????????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ???????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????

309
???(Control Chart)
  • ??????????(SPCStatistical Process)?
  • Statistical?????????????process???????????
  • Process?????????????
  • Control????????????????

310
???(Control Chart)
  • ???????(SPCStatistical Process)?????
  • ??????????(White Noise)?????(Black
    Noise)???,?????????????????????
  • ??????????????????,?????????????????
  • ???????????,???????????

311
???(Control Chart)
  • ??????????Process(??)????????????(Subgroup?)??????
    ???
  • ?????????????????????????????
  • ??????????Process??,??????(???Process????????)
  • ???????????,???subgroup????????,????subgroup??????
    ?
  • ?????????Process????,?????????????????????????

312
???(Control Chart)
  • SPC(Statistical Process Control)?Logic

??? Output
????
Controller
SAMPLE
INPUT
OUTPUT
Process
  • ????????
  • ????
  • ?????
  • Noise
  • ?????
  • ???????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ?????

313
???(Control Chart)
  • ????,??????????????????????????????,??Y??????
  • Six Sigma?????Input?????????????Y???

314
???(Control Chart)
  • ???Process????????
  • ?????????????Output??????????????????????????,????
    ?????
  • ????????????,?Process??????????

315
???(Control Chart)
  • Process??????
  • ?Process?output????????,???????????
  • ?????????????????????????????,????,?????????????
    ??????
  • ????????????????,?????????????????????,???????????
    ?????

316
???(Control Chart)
????????
UCL X LCL
???Process????
(????????)
????????
  • ??Process????????,?????output,??3s????????????

317
???(Control Chart)
  • ??????(Control Chart)?
  • ????????????????,?????????????????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ?????????????(??,??,??)
  • ?????????????(????,???)

318
???(Control Chart)
  • ???????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????
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