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The Renaissance

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The Renaissance 1485 1660 * Renaissance Timeline 1558: Elizabeth I crowned 1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation 1588: English navy defeats Spanish ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
  • 14851660

2
Renaissance Timeline
3
What Was the Renaissance?
  • The Renaissance (French for rebirth) was a
    great revival of art, literature, and learning in
    Europe.
  • It began in Italy in the fourteenth century and
    spread across Europe to England over the next 100
    years.
  • Interest in the classical learning of ancient
    Greece and Rome was renewed.
  • The arts and sciences flowered.
  • The human spirit of curiosity and creativity
    seemed reenergized.

4
Characteristics of the Renaissance
  • People read ancient Greek and Roman texts to
    expand their understanding of the world.
  • A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on human
    life in the present as well as on eternity.
  • Printing made books more widely available.
  • The wealthy, growing merchant class began to
    challenge the power of the church and the
    nobility.
  • Scholarly Latin spread across Europe, aiding the
    sharing of ideas across cultures.

5
The Renaissance and the Arts
  • Art flourished during the Renaissance. Church
    officials, royalty, and wealthy families served
    as patrons to artists such as
  • Leonardo da Vinci (14521519)
  • Michelangelo (14751564)
  • Edmund Spenser (1552?1599)
  • William Shakespeare (15641616)

6
Humanism in the Renaissance
  • Humanists combined ideas from Latin and Greek
    classics with traditional Christian thought to
    teach people how to live and rule. They sought
  • to answer questions about lifeWhat is a good
    life? and How do I lead a good life?
  • to use the classics to strengthen, not discredit,
    Christianity
  • Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More were two
    well-known humanists who helped shape European
    thought and history.

7
The Invention of the Printing Press
  • In the early 1450s Johannes Gutenberg, a German,
    invented the printing press. His invention
    transformed the way information and ideas were
    exchanged.
  • Books no longer had to be copied by hand.
  • Books became more numerous, available, and
    affordable.

8
The Protestant Reformation
  • began with Martin Luther in Wittenberg, Germany,
    1517 and spread across Europe to England
  • Martin Luther believed that religion should be
    based on a personal understanding of the Bible,
    not on the authority of the Pope and his bishops.
  • gained momentum as the Catholic Church was
    criticized for corruption
  • had a financial component in England, where the
    English objected to the financial burdens placed
    on them by the Vatican in Italy

9
Henry VIII (r. 15091547)
  • split the Church of England from the Roman
    Catholic Church and declared himself head of the
    new church
  • had six wives
  • executed the humanist Thomas More
  • authorized creation of the Great Biblethe first
    official English translation of the Bible to be
    used in the Church of England
  • created the Royal Navy

10
The Reigns of Edward and Mary
Henry VIII was survived by three heirs each
ruled England in turn.
  • Edward IV (r. 15471553)
  • son of Jane Seymour
  • crowned at age nine
  • smart but sickly
  • ruled only in name
  • died of tuberculosis at age fifteen
  • Mary Tudor (r. 15531558)
  • daughter of Catherine of Aragon
  • restored power of Pope and Catholic Church
  • called Bloody Mary because she executed
    hundreds of Protestants

11
Elizabeth I (r. 15581603)
  • daughter of Anne Boleyn
  • regarded as a brilliant and successful monarch
  • reestablished Church of England
  • never married known as the Virgin Queen
  • patron of the arts

12
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
  • In 1588 King Philip of Spain assembled the
    powerful Spanish Armada and attacked England.
  • Englands Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish
    Armada.
  • The victory at sea was a turning point in
    history. It ensured Englands independence from
    the powerful Catholic countries of the
    Mediterranean.

13
Decline of the Renaissance
  • When Elizabeth died, she was succeeded by her
    second cousin, James, the king of Scotland.
  • James I (r. 16031625) loved literature and
    drama. He was a patron to Shakespeare and
    sponsored a new translation of the Bible.
  • However, he was unable to resolve religious and
    economic concerns, and his lavish dress and court
    life offended pious and thrifty merchants.

14
Decline of the Renaissance
Charles I (r. 16251649) succeeded James I, his
father.
  • Charless troubles with the English Parliament
    sparked the English Civil Wars (16421651), which
    ended in
  • dissolution of the monarchy
  • Charles beheading
  • flight of Charles II, his son and heir, to France

15
Puritans in Power (16491660)
  • Puritans ruled England under the guidance of
    Oliver Cromwell.
  • Cromwell was a shrewd ruler who led England to
    international prominence.
  • Puritans closed down theaters from 1642 to 1660.

16
What Have You Learned?
Match the achievement to the Renaissance ruler.
Elizabeth I James I Henry VIII
_____________ established the Church of England,
separate from the Roman church _____________
supported the arts but offended the English with
a lavish and costly lifestyle _____________
united England so that it could achieve military
victory over Spain
17
The End
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