Why Do We Care About Water?? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why Do We Care About Water??

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Building Your Stream Model Emphasize Relationships Visualize Your Stream The memory map Four ... Rivers and streams may be dammed to store water for dry seasons. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Why Do We Care About Water??


1
Why Do We Care About Water??
2
What are the resources?
  • More than 3.5 million miles of rivers and streams
    (including intermittent streams)

3
Beneficial uses of water
  • How do people use freshwater resources?

4
Beneficial uses Summary
  • Aquatic life and wildlife support
  • Fish/shellfish consumption
  • Drinking water supply
  • Recreation
  • Agriculture

5
Beneficial uses Aquatic life and wildlife support
  • The waterbody provides suitable habitat for
    survival and reproduction of desirable fish,
    shellfish, and other aquatic organisms

http//www.pnl.gov/breakthroughs/images/fall02/fis
h.jpg
6
Beneficial uses Fish and shellfish consumption
  • The water body supports populations that do not
    pose a human health risk to consumers
  • Fish free from contaminants
  • Shellfish free from toxicants and pathogens

http//seagrant.umn.edu/pubs/vgl/com3.html
http//hawaii.gov/health/eh/food/
7
Beneficial uses Drinking water supply
  • The water body can supply safe drinking water
    with conventional treatment

8
Beneficial uses Recreation
  • Primary contact recreation - Swimming
  • People can swim in the waterbody without risk of
    adverse human health effects (such as catching
    waterborne diseases from raw sewage
    contamination)
  • Secondary contact recreation
  • People can perform activities on the water (such
    as canoeing) without risk of adverse human health
    effects from occasional contact with the water

9
Beneficial uses Agriculture
  • Agriculture
  • The water quality is suitable for irrigating
    fields or watering livestock

10
Other beneficial uses
  • Landscaping
  • Power generation
  • Industrial processing and/or cooling

11
How Might Water Quality be Damaged?
12
Water quality degradation
13
Water quality degradation
  • Beneficial uses
  • Aquatic life and wildlife support
  • Fish/shellfish consumption
  • Drinking water supply
  • Recreation
  • Agriculture

14
Water quality degradation River stressors
  • Percentage of assessed river miles impaired by
    leading pollutants or stressors
  • (39 or 269,258 miles impaired)

15
Water quality degradation River pollutant sources
  • Percentage of assessed river miles impaired by
    specific sources
  • (39 or 269,258 miles impaired)

16
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution
  • What is it?
  • How does it differ from Point Source?

17
Nonpoint source pollution What is it?
  • ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/
    102-9/focusnonpoint.JPG

ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/
102-9/focusnonpoint.JPG
18
NPS pollution Characteristics
  • Occurs over extensive areas
  • Enters receiving water in a diffuse manner
  • Carried by water over land or through soil
    profile to receiving water
  • Difficult to trace to point of origin
  • Magnitude related to climatic events

http//dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/watersheds/green/img/Gr
een-River-Flooding-1995.jpg
19
NPS pollution Sources of pollutants
20
NPS pollution Impact from leading stressors
21
NPS pollution Urban storm water
  • From streets, yards, buildings, and construction
    sites
  • Grease, salts, animal wastes, nutrients,
    sediments, lead, others

22
NPS pollution
  • Agricultural
  • Nutrients, sediment, pesticides, herbicides

23
NPS pollution
  • Forestry / Logging
  • Sediments
  • Pesticides

http//www.nps.gov/jofl/resources/connie200x150.jp
g
http//www.em.gov.bc.ca/mining/Geolsurv/Surficial/
landslid/plate3.jpg logged
24
NPS pollution
  • Mining
  • Sediments
  • Drainage waters with low pH
  • Heavy metals and other hazardous mineral

25
NPS pollution
  • Atmospheric deposition
  • Carbon dioxide - acid rain
  • Pesticides, herbicides
  • Sediment
  • Mercury, PCBs, others

26
Fracking
27
How Do We Protect Our Water?
28
Nonpoint source pollution NPS
  • What can be done to manage the problem?

29
How Do We Know if We Are Successful?
30
Monitoring and Assesment
31
Beneficial uses
  • Water quality for the beneficial uses can be
    degraded by human actions or natural events
  • The US Environmental Protection Agency is a major
    federal agency responsible for monitoring and
    assessing water quality

32
Beneficial uses Monitoring program questions
  • What is the overall quality of waters in the
    State?
  • To what extent is water quality changing over
    time?
  • What are the problem areas and areas needing
    protection?
  • The State must identify impaired waters.
  • The State should also identify waters that are
    currently of high quality and should be protected
    from degradation
  • What level of protection is needed?
  • How effective are clean water projects and
    programs?

33
Beneficial uses Five levels of water use
  • Fully supporting overall use
  • All designated beneficial uses are fully
    supported
  • Threatened overall use
  • One or more designated beneficial uses are
    threatened and the remaining uses are fully
    supported
  • Partially supporting overall use
  • One or more designated beneficial uses are
    partially supported and the remaining uses are
    fully supported

34
Beneficial uses Five levels of water use
  • Not supporting overall use
  • One or more designated beneficial uses are not
    supported
  • Not attainable
  • The State has performed a use-attainability study
    and documented that use support of one or more
    designated beneficial uses is not achievable due
    to natural conditions or human activity that
    cannot be reversed without imposing widespread
    economic and social impacts

35
Water quality degradation River use support
36
Water quality Assessments problems
  • Not all bodies of water are assessed
  • Only a small percentage per year
  • Supposedly all within a 5 to 10 year window

37
Water quality Assessments problems
  • Intermittent and small tributaries are either not
    assessed or are very infrequently measured
  • States tend to focus on known problems
  • Random surveys are rare
  • States have varying standards
  • Concentration on 2 of 6 use supports
  • Fish advisories not included

38
What would You Assess?
  • What data would you want?

39
Can You Put Your Data in Categories?
40
Proposed Categories
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological

41
Are These Independent Variables?
  • How might they relateif they do?

42
Building Your Stream Model
  • Emphasize Relationships
  • Visualize Your Stream
  • The memory map

43
Lotic systems
  • Four dimensions
  • Longitudinal
  • Lateral
  • Vertical
  • Time

44
Variation in time and space
  • The shape, size and content of a river are
    constantly changing, forming a close and mutual
    interdependence between the river and the land it
    traverses.

www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/rivers/chintro.htm
45
The Delaware River Watershed Initiative
  • DRWI
  • You will be submitting data to ANS
  • Academy of Natural Sciences
  • Data retained forever
  • You will be presenting your data
  • Best presentation recognized by DRWI/ANS/PKC
  • You will work to protect our water
  • Part of something big
  • You Matter!

46
Water on the Web
  • This presentation includes material from Water on
    the Web (WoW)
  • WOW. 2004. Water on the Web - Monitoring
    Minnesota Lakes on the Internet and Training
    Water Science Technicians for the Future - A
    National On-line Curriculum using Advanced
    Technologies and Real-Time Data.
  • http//WaterOntheWeb.org).
  • University of Minnesota-Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812.
  • Authors Munson, BH, Axler, R, Hagley C, Host G,
    Merrick G, Richards C.
  • I would also like to thank Dr. Jewett-Smith for
    her contributions to this presentation
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