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Is overseas volunteering 'the new colonialism'? An analysis of benefits

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Title: Is overseas volunteering 'the new colonialism'? An analysis of benefits


1
Is overseas volunteering 'the new
colonialism'?An analysis of benefits
  • Bosco Volunteer Action (UK)

2
Outline
  • Aims
  • Context of volunteering
  • Current situation
  • Criticisms and counter criticisms
  • A method of analysing benefits
  • Towards positive outcomes for all
  • Educational theories
  • Conclusions what does this mean for you?

3
Aims
  • To consider some of the criticisms faced by
    overseas volunteering
  • To suggest a method of analysing the benefits for
    the different actors involved
  • To propose a number of possible ways to make it
    beneficial for all

4
Context
  • Working overseas
  • Missionaries (including students, doctors etc.)
  • Professionals (VSO etc.)
  • Gap year/volunteer projects
  • Travel
  • Pilgrimage
  • Grand Tour
  • Back-packers/travellers
  • Service learning (USA)
  • Alternative- and eco-tourism

National Service / national youth service,
sometimes as an alternative to military service
5
Current situation
Organisation Features
Professional volunteering (e.g. VSO, Progressio) Longer term placements (1-2 years) with training Volunteers have work experience Volunteers paid by organisation
Gap Year volunteering organisations/ companies (e.g. Raleigh International, i-to-i) Short term, limited training Inexperienced volunteers Volunteers pay to take part
The gap year, and volunteering in particular, has
become mainstreamed in the UK between 60 and
350 thousand a year (2010)!. It has been
encouraged by the government and universities.
Both Prince William and Prince Harry took part in
gap year volunteer projects in the developing
world.
6
Criticisms
  • VSO accuse volunteering of being the new
    colonialism (2006)
  • Horror stories about inappropriate behaviour and
    work by volunteers
  • Nothing but enhanced tourism? (Simpson 2004,
    p55)
  • Gap refers to the empty space between the ears
    of over privileged teenagers. Or the chasm
    between materialistic students dripping with
    iPods and the impoverished subjects of their
    misguided charity. (Guardian 2006)

Private Eye 2003, p.13
7
and counter criticisms
  • Use of emotive language is it correct that
    anyone with youthful zest for "helping" should
    be made to feel like a mustachio-twirling,
    cane-swishing, savage-taming colonialist?
    (Guardian 16/8/2006)
  • VSO volunteers as neo-colonialists? (Roberts
    2004, p46)
  • Majority white - Salvation from the outside
  • DFID funding - Professional status
  • Imperfect, but based on skill-sharing, on-going
    support and excellent training.
  • Gap year and less comprehensive volunteer
    projects can certainly be exploitative.

8
A method of analysis Who benefits?
  • Volunteer
  • Profits financially (or receives value for money)
  • Personal growth/ global education
  • CV experience
  • Enhanced tourism experience
  • Fun(?)
  • Host
  • Financial gain (or not loss)
  • Skills/experience gain
  • Work carried out
  • Sending Organisation
  • Financial gain (if for profit)
  • Longer term gains (in terms of continued
    involvement/ relationship)

Best situation all actors win
Volunteer
Host Community
Sending Organisation
9
A method of analysis Who benefits?
  • Volunteer
  • Financial loss (or does not receive value for
    money)
  • Limited or no personal growth/ global education
    or useful experience
  • Host
  • Financial loss (volunteer a drain)
  • No work or experience gained
  • Sending Organisation
  • Financial gain

Sending Organisation Wins
Volunteer
Host Community
Sending Organisation
10
Towards positive outcomes for all
  • Standards for sending organisations (Tourism
    Concern and Comhlámh)
  • The hosts voice expectations and
    understandings of reasons for accepting
    volunteers
  • Realistic expectations for volunteers
  • An educational approach
  • Simpson argues that any meaningful social
    agenda or attempt to engage with global awareness
    necessitates a pedagogy based on social justice
    (2004, p1).
  • Experiential Education
  • Social Justice Education

11
Educational Theories
  • Experiential Education (1930s)
  • Originally involved having theories to test and
    reflection
  • Became over-simplified let the mountains speak
    for themselves
  • It is the reflection process which turns
    experience into experiential education (Joplin
    1981, p18)
  • Social Justice Education
  • Education linked to action (Freire)
  • Three stages (Wade)
  • Personal experience
  • Critical reflection
  • Action

12
Conclusions
  • We have seen that
  • Overseas volunteering must be understood within a
    particular historical and cultural context
  • It is in the mainstream has become
    institutionally acceptable
  • It can take unfair advantage of both the
    developing world and volunteers
  • There are a number of possible ways to reduce
    this exploitation and make it beneficial for all

13
So what does this mean for you?
  • Needs to be an educational experience
  • How to do this?
  • Needs to be a stimulus/gateway to continued
    involvement
  • Your reactions
  • Is it fair?
  • Were you aware of these issues?
  • Long term commitment?

14
References
  • Joplin, L. (1981). On Defining Experiential
    Education. Journal of Experiential Education
    4(1).
  • Roberts, T. (2004). Are Western Volunteers
    Reproducing and Reconstructing the Legacy of
    Colonialism in Ghana? An Analysis of the
    Experiences of Returned Volunteers (unpublished).
  • Simpson, K. (2004). Broad Horizons? Geographies
    and Pedagogies of the Gap Year. Unpublished Ph.D.
    thesis, University of Newcastle. Available from
    www.gapyearresearch.org/simpsonprofile.htm
  • Websites
  • Guardian Online www.guardian.co.uk
  • VSO www.vso.org.uk
  • Tourism Concern www.tourismconcern.org.uk
  • Comhlámh's volunteering options
    www.volunteeringoptions.org
  • Gap year research www.gapyearresearch.org
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