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Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Matter

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Title: Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Matter


1
Chapter 10 The Kinetic Theory of Matter
  • Section 10.2 Kinetic Energy and Changes of
    State

2
  • Main Idea Matter changes states when energy is
    added or removed
  • A) Interpret changes in temperature and changes
    of state of a substance in terms of the kinetic
    theory of matter
  • B) Relate Kelvin and Celsius Temperature scales
  • C) Analyze the effects of temperature and
    pressure on changes of state

3
Temperature and Kinetic Energy
  • Particles move in random directions at different
    rates
  •  
  • Temperature- measure of the average kinetic
    energy of the particles that make up the material
  •  
  • As gas is heated, the average kinetic energy and
    speed of its particles increases ? temperature
    increases
  •  
  • As gas is cooled, the average kinetic energy and
    speed of its particles decreases ? temperature
    decreases

4
Kelvin Scale
  • Kelvins SI unit of temperature (divisions on a
    Kelvin scale)
  •  
  • Water freezes at 273.15 K and boils at 373.15 K
  •  
  • The temperature at which a substance would have
    zero kinetic energy is called Absolute zero
  •  
  • Absolute zero has never been reached because
    submicroscopic particles are in constant motion
  •  
  • It is defined so that the temperature of a
    substance is directly proportional to the average
    kinetic energy of the particles and so the zero
    on the Kelvin scale corresponds to zero kinetic
    energy

5
Celsius Scale
  • used throughout the world
  • Water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C

6
Fahrenheit Scale
  • used by weather reporters, household ovens
  •  
  • Water freezes at 32F and boils at 212F

7
Temperature Conversions
  • The divisions of the Fahrenheit and Celsius are
    called degrees, but the divisions of the Kelvin
    scale are called Kelvins
  •  
  • Celsius to Kelvin
  • Tk (Tc 273) K
  •  
  • Kelvin to Celsius
  • Tc (Tk - 273) C
  • http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/tempera
    ture-units-converting-between-kelvins-and-celsius.
    htmllesson

8
  • Examples
  • 25C ? K 298 K ?C
  • Tk (25 273) K Tc (298 - 273) C
  • Tk 298 K Tc 25C

9
Changes of State
  • Dependent on temperature
  •  
  • Include Evaporation, Sublimation, Condensation,
    Melting, Freezing, Deposition

10
Evaporation
  • the process by which particles of a liquid form a
    gas by escaping from the surface
  • The area of the surface, temperature, and
    humidity affect the rate of evaporation
  •  
  • Liquids that evaporate quickly are volatile
    liquids
  • Example perfume

11
Sublimation
  • process by which solid goes to a gas
  •  
  • occurs when the solid to liquid state is skipped
  •  
  • Example of material that sublimes dry ice
    (solid CO2)

12
Deposition
  • The opposite of sublimation
  •  
  • Gas goes into a solid

13
Condensation
  • the reverse of evaporation (gas ? liquid)
  •  
  • the gas particles come closer together (condense)
    and form a liquid

14
Melting Point
  • the temperature of the solid when its crystal
    lattice begins to disintegrate
  •  
  • When more heat is applied after the melting
    point, energy is used until the crystal lattice
    collapses and becomes a liquid

15
Freezing Point
  • If a liquid substance is cooled, the temperature
    falls, and the liquid becomes a solid
  •  
  • The temperature of a liquid when it begins to
    form a crystal lattice and becomes a solid

16
During Phase Changes
  • Because energy is always conserved, energy is
    released when vapor changes to a liquid
  •  
  • As with boiling and condensing, the kinetic
    energies of the particles of a substance do not
    change during melting or freezing

17
Mass and Speed of Particles
  • Particles of greater mass have greater kinetic
    energy
  • Particles with greater speed have greater kinetic
    energy
  • Motions of gas particles cause them to spread out
    to fill containers uniformly

18
Diffusion
  • process by which particles of matter fill a space
    because of random motion (ex food coloring
    moving in water)
  •  
  • The rate of diffusion of a gas depends upon its
    kinetic energy- mass and speed of its molecules
  • http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/diffusi
    on-and-effusion-grahams-law.htmllesson

19
Vapor Pressure
  • The liquid water that is left in a closed
    container will not all evaporate. The liquid in
    a closed container comes to equilibrium with its
    vapor
  • When equilibrium is reached, the pressure exerted
    by vapors reaches its final, maximum value
    (volume of liquid will not change)
  •  

20
Vapor Pressure (cont)
  • Vapor pressure - The pressure of a substance in
    equilibrium with its liquid (rates of
    evaporation and condensation are equal)
  •  
  • The value of vapor pressure of a substance
    indicates how easily the substance evaporates
  • High vapor pressure more volatile
  • Low vapor pressure less volatile
  • Higher temperatures greater vapor pressure
  • Lower temperatures less vapor pressure

21
Boiling point
  • Temperature of the substance when its vapor
    pressure equals the pressure exerted in on the
    surface of the liquid
  •  
  • Normal boiling point is the temperature at which
    liquid boils in an open container at normal
    atmospheric pressure

22
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXoOQNwcrDWE

23
Boiling point (cont)
  • Boiling point of a liquid increases when pressure
    increases
  •  
  • Boiling point of a liquid decreases when pressure
    decreases
  • Example Sea level 100C High altitude
    96C
  •  
  • Because the temp of the boiling water is lower at
    high elevations, it takes longer to cook foods.
  •  
  • ? altitude ? pressure ? boiling point

24
Heat of Vaporization
  • energy absorbed when 1 kg of a liquid vaporizes
    at its normal boiling point
  • Joule (J) -SI unit of energy required to lift a
    1-kg mass 1 meter against the force of gravity
  • 2.26 x 106 J is the energy needed to move
    molecules in 1 kg of water far enough apart that
    they form water vapor
  • Heat of vaporization of water 2.26 x 106 J/kg

25
Heat of Vaporization (cont)
  • Example How much energy is absorbed if a 500g
    sample of water vaporizes?
  •  
  • 0.5 Kg x 2.26 x 106J 1.13 x 106 J
  • 1 Kg

26
Heat of Fusion
  • The energy released as 1 kg of a substance
    solidifies at its freezing point
  • Heat of fusion of water 3.34 x 105 J/kg

27
Heat of Fusion (cont)
  • Example How much energy is released if a 5000g
    sample of water solidifies?
  • 5 Kg x 3.34 x 105J 1.67 x 106 J
  • 1 Kg

28
Heating and Cooling curves
  • http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/phase-c
    hanges-and-heating-curves.htmllesson
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