Chapter%207:%20Civilizations%20of%20the%20Americas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter%207:%20Civilizations%20of%20the%20Americas

Description:

Chapter 7: Civilizations of the Americas Section 1: Civilizations of Middle America Geography: The Americas 30,000 years ago, small family groups of Paleolithic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:41
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: weeblyCom
Learn more at: http://kmschroeder.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter%207:%20Civilizations%20of%20the%20Americas


1
Chapter 7 Civilizations of the Americas
2
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Geography The Americas
  • 30,000 years ago, small family groups of
    Paleolithic hunters and good gatherers reached
    North America from Asia.
  • Great Migrationlast ice age
  • Water frozesea level dropped exposed a land
    bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
  • 10,000 BCEarth grew warmer..ice meltedcovering
    the land bridge

3
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Geography The Americas
  • North America
  • The Rocky Mountains
  • Middle (Central) America
  • East Sierra Madre
  • West Sierra Madre
  • South America
  • Andes

2 of the 3 longest rivers on Earth are located in
the Americaswhat are they?
4
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Farming may have been a response to the
    disappearance of large mammals.
  • Had to cultivate the land and domesticate the
    animals.
  • Farming people settled into villagespopulation
    expanded and developed into cities.

5
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Legacy of the Olmecs
  • Tropical forests along the Mexican Gulf Coast
    1400-500 BC
  • Very little knownbut rich tombs and temples
    point towards a powerful class of priests and
    aristocrats.
  • Built ceremonial centers
  • Giant carved heads
  • Calendar

6
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • The World of the Mayas
  • AD 300-900
  • Farmers cleared the forests and built raised
    fields that caught the rain.
  • Tikal (Present-day Guatemala)
  • Wealth was gained from trade
  • Largest structures in the Americas until 1903
    (Flatiron building)

7
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Social Classes
  • Each Mayan city had its own ruling chief.
  • Surrounded by nobles who served as military
    leaders and officials who managed public works,
    collected taxes, and enforced laws.
  • Priests held great power
  • Elaborate ceremonies to ensure good harvests.

8
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Advances in Learning
  • Hieroglyphic writing system
  • Scribes kept their knowledge in books made of
    bark
  • Developed two calendars
  • Developed a numbering system that included zero.
  • Mayan Ball Game (Pg. 161)
  • Video

9
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • The Decline
  • A.D. 900 the Mayans abandoned the cities.
  • Not sure on the exact reason but maybe
  • Frequent warfare
  • Overpopulationover farming the land
  • Heavy taxespeasant revolts

Remnants still existpeople still speak Mayan
Languages.
10
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • The Valley of Mexico
  • Teotihuacan (A.D. 100-750)
  • Well planned, wide roads, massive temples, and
    large apartment buildings.
  • Citizens worshipped a powerful nature goddess and
    rain god.
  • Eventually fell to invaders.

11
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Arrival of the Aztecs
  • Moved in from the North
  • Tenochtitlan (Present-day Mexico City)
  • Chinampas Artificial islands made of earth that
    would float on water.
  • Video

12
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Conquering an Empire
  • Expanded their territory
  • Over most of Mexico (Gulf Pacific)
  • By 1500 30 million people
  • Tribute Payment from conquered peoples.
  • Helped the Aztecs turn their capital into a
    magnificent city.

13
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • The World of the Aztecs
  • Spanish reached Tenochtitlan in 1519 and Cortes
    was awestruck with its magnificence.
  • Geography History (pg. 163)

14
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Government and Society (Aztecs)
  • Had a single ruler who was chosen by a council of
    nobles and priests to lead in war.
  • Below the ruler, nobles served as officials,
    judges, and governors of conquered provinces.
  • Warriors could rise to noble status by killing or
    capturing enemy soldiers
  • Commoners farmed the land
  • Slaves (criminals or POW) could buy their freedom
    and land.

15
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Were a class apart
  • Performed rituals needed to please the man Aztec
    gods.
  • Chief Aztec god was Huitzilopochtli (sun god)
  • Giant pyramid
  • Battled forces of darkness each night and was
    reborn each morning.
  • Legend of the Five Suns (pg. 158)
  • Human Sacrifices

16
Section 1 Civilizations of Middle America
  • Education and Learning
  • Priests were the keepers of Aztec knowledge
  • Recorded laws and historical events
  • Ran schools
  • Illness was a punishment from the gods

17
Section 2 The World of the Incas
  • Read aloud in class
  • Group guides (Due FRIDAY!)
  • Geography
  • Government
  • Communication
  • Economy Religion
  • Chosen Women

18
Section 3 Peoples of North America
  • The Desert Southwest Anasazi
  • 4 corners
  • AD 900-1300
  • Built large villages (later called pueblos)
  • Complex with 800 rooms
  • Terraces served as roads
  • Center was the plaza
  • Kiva Large underground chamber used for
    religious ceremonies.
  • Attacked by Navajos Apaches
  • Traditions survived among the Hopi other Pueblo
    Indians

19
Section 3 Peoples of North America
  • The Mound Builders
  • Mississippi Ohio Valleys farming cultures
    emerged as early as 700 BC
  • Adena Hopewell (Ohio Valley)
  • Build mounds
  • Mississippians built clusters of earthen mounds
  • Cahokia (Illinois)
  • Left no written records

20
Section 3 Peoples of North America
  • Diverse Regional Cultures
  • Iroquois League An alliance of five nations who
    spoke the same language and shared similar
    traditions.

21
Group Assignment
  • Culture Pamphlet
  • Tri-fold
  • Pictures Information
  • You will be graded on how it looks!!
  • Imagine that this pamphlet will be handed out at
    a historical Native American Indian site.
About PowerShow.com