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THE SECOND WORLD WAR

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Title: THE SECOND WORLD WAR


1
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  • 1941-1945
  • Dowloaded from the following site
  • http//americanhistory.pbworks.com/w/page/12568488
    /PowerPoint20Presentations

2
GUIDING QUESTION
  • To what extent did the Second World War bring
    about lasting change in the American society,
    economy and government?

3
WAR ON THE HOME FRONT
4
MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
  • 1. Industrial Production
  • War Production Board (later Office of War
    Mobilization)
  • By 1944, war production double that of all Axis
    powers
  • cost-plus basis
  • Results
  • end of Depression
  • consolidation of
    U.S.
    industry

5
Effects of War Spending
6
MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
  • 2. Rationing and Price Controls
  • Office of Price Administration
  • rationing
  • Anti-Inflation Act
  • 3. Controlling Labor
  • no-strike pledges
  • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (War Labor
    Disputes Act) (1943)
  • personal income
  • union membership major increase

Labor Union Membership, 1920-1960
Ration Card
7
MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
  • 4. Farmers farm income doubled, as in World War
    I
  • 5. Financing the War 321 billion total! cost
    100 billion for 1945 alone
  • Income Tax (Revenue Act of 1942

    94!, everyone, withholding)
  • Liberty Bonds

Military Expenditures and the National Debt,
1929-1945
War Bond
8
MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
  • 6. Propaganda
  • Office of War Information
  • Result largely avoided anti-German hysteria of
    WWI
  • anti-Japanese hysteria on West Coast

9
MOBILIZING THE ECONOMY
10
Effects on Society
11
EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
  • End of the Depression
  • High employment
  • Farm crisis ended
  • personal income
  • rationing
  • savings
  • Union membership
  • Corporate consolidation

12
EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT IMPACT ON SOCIETY
Demographic Shifts
  • Urbanization
  • Migration to West, esp. California
  • rapid industrialization of some western states
    (California)
  • Henry J. Kaiser Kaiser Steel
  • South military posts and defense installations

Population Shifts 1940-1950
Wartime Army Camps, Naval Bases, and Airfields
13
EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT WOMEN, WORK AND FAMILY
  • Armed Forces - 200K women non-combat roles
    clerical jobs in WACS and WAVES.
  • Work Force - 6.5 million women entered (57
    increase)
  • concentrated in government clerical jobs
  • "Rosie the Riveter"
  • Families 8-hour orphans, juvenile
    delinquency, crime
  • Surveys of time real concern that families were
    negatively impacted by war

14
IMPACT ON SOCIETY Minorities Rights
  • Second Great Migration
  • Race riots - Detroit and New York (1943)
  • Armed Forces Million served in segregated
    units
  • Efforts to end discrimination black unions,
    threatened marches (A. Philip Randolph on
    Washington 1942) - pressure on companies with
    govt contracts
  • FDRs response
  • Executive order prohibiting discrimination in
    defense plants
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission to
    investigate discrimination
  • Results
  • Significant decrease in number willing to accept
    status of second class citizens.
  • Repudiation of Nazi racism strengthened civil
    rights efforts

15
Segregated Units
16
EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT IMPACT ON MINORITIES
CIVIL RIGHTS
  • Braceros
  • Zoot Suit Riots (Los Angeles 1943)
  • Native Americans

Washington, D.C. Soldier inspecting a couple of
"zoot suits" at the Uline Arena during Woody
Herman's Orchestra engagement there (Library of
Congress)
17
EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT IMPACT ON MINORITIES
CIVIL RIGHTS
  • Japanese Americans
  • Internment
  • Executive Order 8066
  • Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
  • In re Endo (1944)

Japanese American Internment Camps
18
Japanese-American Internment
Japanese-American store
Members of the Mochida family awaiting
evacuation bus
Awaiting baggage inspection upon arrival at
Assembly Center, Turlock, CA, May 2, 1942
Crowd of onlookers on the first day of evacuation
from the Japanese quarter in San Francisco
19
Japanese-American Internment
War Relocation authority center, Manzanar,
California. July 3, 1942
Newly arrived evacuees outside of mess hall at
noon, Tanforan Assembly Center. San Bruno, CA,
April 29, 1942. (National Archives and Records
Administration)
The Hirano family, Colorado River Relocation
Center, Poston, AZ
20
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS EXPANSION OF GOVERNMENT
POWER
  • New Deal programs - partially eliminated (Ex
    WPA, CCC).
  • Vast expansion of power for federal government
  • Election of 1944
  • FDR ran for unprecedented fourth term
  • Thomas E. Dewey (Rep Gov NY) biggest issue
    govt control over peoples lives
  • Harry S Truman

Employees in the Executive Branch, 19011995
Presidential Election of 1944
21
WAR IN EUROPE
22
(No Transcript)
23
DEFEATING GERMANY
  • Operation Torch (1942-May 1943)
  • Gen. George C. Marshall
  • Second front in France?
  • Stalingrad (Dec 1942/Jan 1943)
  • Air War
  • incendiary raids on Hamburg, Berlin and Dresden
  • Invasion of Italy
  • Mussolini

24
D-Day
25
Invasion of Normandy
Eisenhower Meets with Paratroopers before D-Day
D-DAY LANDING JUNE 6, 1944
After the Normandy Invasion
26
DEFEATING GERMANY
  • Allied invasion of France
  • Normandy - D-Day (June 6, 1944)
  • Battle of the Bulge (late December 1944)
  • Fall of Germany
  • Berlin (June 2, 1945)
  • Hitler suicide (April 30)
  • Surrender June 7, 1945 (V-E Day)

27
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
28
GUIDING QUESTION
  • Why did the United States decide to use atomic
    bombs against Japan?
  • (strictly military measure to end the war? or
    diplomatic measure designed to intimidate the
    Soviet Union in the postwar era?)

29
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
  • Philippines
  • Bataan Death March
  • Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942)
  • Midway (June 4-7, 1942)
  • Island-hopping
  • Gen Douglas MacArthur
  • Admiral Chester Nimitz
  • Solomon Islands Guadalcanal

30
Island-Hopping in the Pacific
American Troops Before Amphibious Landing
US troops wading ashore Butaritari, November 1943
Attempting to Secure a Beachhead on Pacific Island
Sprawled bodies on beach Tarawa
31
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
  • Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944)
  • kamikazes
  • Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945)
  • Okinawa (April June 1945)

Flag Raising on Iwo Jima
32
BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE
  • FDR death (Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945)
  • Harry S Truman (President 1945-53)

Churchill, Roosevelt Stalin at Yalta, Feb. 1945
President Truman addressing Congress after
Roosevelts death
33
BEGINNING THE ATOMIC AGE
  • Manhattan Project (begun 1942)
  • Alamagordo, NM, July 16, 1945
  • Unconditional surrender or face utter
    destruction
  • Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)
  • Nagasaki (August 9, 1945)
  • Japan surrender September 2, 1945 (V-J Day)

Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., the ENOLA GAY
Atomic Bombs Little Boy Fat Man
34
Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945
35
Hiroshima After the Bomb Blast, August 6, 1945
36
Hiroshima after the atomic bomb, August 6, 1945
37
Nagasaki atomic bombingAugust 9, 1945
38
Aftermath of Nagasaki bombing
39
ATOMIC BOMB
  • Arguments for use
  • Japanese refused to surrender. It was estimated
    an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to bring
    the war to an end.
  • US officials estimated conquest of Japans empire
    would last an additional 18 months to 2 years.
  • US officials estimated Allied casualties at 1/2
    to 1 1/2 million, in addition to huge Japanese
    losses if there was an invasion of Japan.
  • Japanese leadership was informed of the
    destructive power and nature of the bomb and
    offered a period to surrender but declined.
  • Arguments opposed
  • Bombs were untested and their destruction unknown
  • Neither city was a major military target and the
    attacks would mainly kill Japanese civilians.
  • Radiation poisoning, birth defects and
    contamination would have negative effects on the
    population.
  • Would set a precedent about using weapons of mass
    destruction in war

40
Surrender ceremonies on the USS Missouri
41
Japanese Surrender on the USS Missouri Sept 2,
1945
42
RESULTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  • 300,000 dead, over 800K wounded
  • 320 billion cost
  • National debt rose from 50 Billion in 1941 to
    250 billion by 1945
  • End of Depression
  • Joined United Nations
  • Only major power without significant physical
    damage

43
7 Future American Presidents Views of the World
Were Formed by Service in WWII
44
WWII Memorial, Washington, DC
Dedicated on April 29, 2004
45
SOURCES
  • Brinkley, American History A Survey 10e
  • America Pathways to the Present (2003)
  • National Archives and Records Administration
  • Thomson Wadsworth US History Image Bank -
    http//www.wadsworth.com/history_d/special_feature
    s/image_bank_US/1931_1945.html
  • Teaching Politics, http//teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_p
    ol_hist/_browse1950.htm
  • American Journey Online
  • Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7th Ed.
  • Nash, The American People 6e http//wps.ablongman
    .com/long_nash_ap_6/0,7361,592970-,00.html
  • Faragher, Out of Many 3e http//wps.prenhall.com/h
    ss_faragher_outofmany_ap/
  • Jones, Created Equal
  • Kennedy, American Pageant 13e
  • Susan Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY
  • Henretta, Americas History 5e,
    http//www.bedfordstmartins.com/mapcentral
  • Roark, American Promise 3e, http//www.bedfordstma
    rtins.com/mapcentral
  • http//www.printmini.com/printables/mil/index.shtm
    l (camouflage)

46
Franklin Roosevelt in wheelchair
47
Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, Tehran, 1943
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