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Literary Theory

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Title: Literary Theory


1
Literary Theory
  • Class Three

2
  • Gérard Genette
  • ??.???

3
Gérard Genette
  • Narrative Discourse. 1972. Trans. Jane E. Lewin.
    Itaca, NY Cornell UP, 1980.
  • Narrative Discourse Revisited. 1983. Trans. Jane
    E. Lewin. Itaca, NY Cornell UP, 1988.
  • ??? III?, ????????, ????, 2003

4
Genette (1) Mode ??
Mimetic ?? Diegetic ??
Showing Staging a scene Slow motion Telling Summarizing Fastforward
What is done and said is staged for the reader, creating the illusion that we are seeing and hearing things for ourselves. A rapid summary of a long sequence of events, but all taking place off-stage, as it were.
(Barry 231-32)
5
Genette (1) Mode ??
Mimetic?? Diegetic??
???????,????????,?????????,???????,??????????????????????????,??????????????,??????,????????Ray-Ban???????????????????????? ??????,??????????????????????,??????????????? ????, ????????, ????????????????? ??????, ??, ????????????????????? ??????!??????? ???,??,????? ?????????????? (??? ????? ??? 76-77) ???????????,??????????????????,????,????,??????????????,???????,???,?????????????????,??????????????,?????????????????,????? ????,????. . . .????,??????,??????,??????????,????????????,??????????? (??? ????? ??? 93)
6
Genette (2) Focalization ??
(viewpoint or perspective)
External focalization ??? The viewpoint is outside the character depicted. (observable to a witness of the event)
Internal focalization ??? What the character think and feel. (inaccessible to a witness)
Zero focalization ??? Omniscient narration The narrated is presented in . . . a nonlocatable, indeterminable perceptual or conceptual position (Prince 103)
7
Genette (2) Focalization ??
(viewpoint or perspective)
External focalization ??? ????????????????????,??????????????????????,?????,??????????,??????????????!?????????!? ??????,??????,????????? ??????????????????????????????????,?????????,????????????????? (??? ??????? ???? 110)
Internal focalization ??? ?????????????,????????????????????? (??? ??????? 173) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????,????????????,?????????????(??? ??????? 175)
Zero focalization ??? ????,???????????,?????????????????????????????????,????????????????????? ?(??? ??????? 185)
8
Genette (3) Voice ??
authorial persona (covert) (effaced) A mere telling medium which strives for neutrality and transparency. Ex. ????????Ceremony A mere telling medium which strives for neutrality and transparency. Ex. ????????Ceremony
character-narrator (overt) (intrusive) (dramatized) Hetero- Diegetic ??? The narrator is a character outside the story s/he narrates. Ex. Wuthering Heights, The Great Gatsby
character-narrator (overt) (intrusive) (dramatized) Homo- Diegetic ??? The narrator is a character in the story s/he tells. Ex. The Oval Portrait, The Aspern Papers, Heart of Darkness
9
Genette (4) Order ??
Analepsis ?? Back-take Flashback ?????,??????????????,??????,??????,?????????,???????????????,??????????????????,?????????????????????????????,???,???????????????????,???????, ????????????, ?????????????????, ?????, ?????, ???????????, ????????? (??? ???? ??? 315)
Prolepsis ?? Fore-take Anticipation ?????????????,????????????,???????????,?????????????????,??????????,????????,?????,???????????????? (?? ????? ????? 107)
10
Genette (5) Story Levels ??
Frame narratives Single-ended The frame is not returned to at the end of the embedded. (e.g. The Turn of the Screw)
Frame narratives Double-ended The frame is re-introduced at the end of the embedded. (e.g. Heart of Darkness)
Frame narratives Intrusive (an alienation device) The embedded is occasionally interrupted to revert to the frame. (e.g. Heart of Darkness)
Embedded narratives Or the meta-narrative, a narrative within the narrative. Its the main story. (e.g. individual tales of The Canterbury Tales.) Or the meta-narrative, a narrative within the narrative. Its the main story. (e.g. individual tales of The Canterbury Tales.)
11
Genette (6) Speech
Direct Speech Tagged ??????????????????????????????? (182)
Direct Speech Untagged ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (181)
Direct Speech Selectively tagged ???????????????,???????????????????,?????????????,????????(183)
Indirect Speech Tagged indirect speech ?????????????????????????,?????????? (183)
Indirect Speech Free indirect speech ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????,????????????? (177)
(??? ??????? )
12
Free Indirect Discourse
  • FID narrated monologue
  • pensée avec
  • FID is often taken to contain mixed within it
    markers of two voices (a narrators and a
    characters).

13
Free Indirect Discourse
  • Definition the technique for rendering a
    characters thought in his own idiom while
    maintaining the third-person reference and the
    basic tense of narration (Cohn 100).

14
Free Indirect Discourse
  • FID is often marked by such contextual features
    (1) general markers of colloquialism (such as
    ejaculations, lexical fillers) (2) more specific
    markers of a group or class to which a character
    belongs (3) a characters personal idiom (4)
    markers of social-role relationships (Prince
    35-36).

15
Example 1
  • Direct discourse
  • Tom said, Gosh, I am tired.
  • (2) Indirect discourse
  • Tom said that he was tired.
  • (3) Free indirect discourse
  • Gosh, he was tired.

  • (Fludernik 74)

16
Example 2
  • She Lily started up and looked forth on the
    passing streets. Gerty!they were nearing Gertys
    corner. If only she could reach there before this
    laboring anguish burst from her breast to her
    lipsif only she could feel the hold of Gertys
    arms while she shook in the ague-fit of fear that
    was coming upon her!
  • (The House of Mirth I, xiii Wharton 1962 173)
  • (quoted in Fludernik 78)

17
Example 3
  • The trader was not shocked nor amazed . . . .
    He had seen Death many times . . . and so he only
    swore that the gal was a baggage, and that he was
    devilish unlucky, and that, if things went on in
    this way, he should not make a cent on the trip.
  • (Uncle Toms
    Cabin, xii Stowe 1981 130)
  • (quoted in
    Fludernik 116)

18
Recommended References on Free Indirect Discourse
  • http//osf1.gmu.edu/dkaufman/narrative.htm
  • http//www.ualberta.ca/dmiall/ShortStory/Mansfiel
    d-Woolf.htm
  • http//www.literaryencyclopedia.com/php/stopics.ph
    p?rectrueUID444

19
  • Jacques Derrida

20
  • ???? (Word/Logos), ?????, ????. . . . ?????,
    ??????. (??. ????)
  • ?????(Shaun)???? (Tristan) ???? ??????,
    ????????????, ???????. ????????????, . . . .
    ????????. ????????, ???. (??? ???)
  • Payne, Michael. ????. ????. ??. 2005.
    ?171-72.

21
  • Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the
    Human Sciences (1966)

22
  • Structure

23
Centered Structure
  • All notions of structure have a centre. It is a
    sign the transcendental signifier -- that
    will give meaning to all others.

24
Logocentrism ??????
  • This desire for a center is called
    logocentrism.
  • Western though has developed innumerable terms
    which operate as centering principles God, the
    Idea, the World spirit, the Self, and so on.
    (Eagleton 131)

25
Center Presence Logos
  • Logos (Greek for word) is a term which in the
    New Testament carries the greatest possible
    concentration of presence In the beginning was
    the Word. Being the origin of all things, the
    Word underwrites the full presence of the world
    . . . . (Selden 88)

26
Centers in Literary Texts
  • Typical concepts of centre in literary criticism,
    for instance, would include the author, the
    historical context, the reader, the ideology of a
    political economy, each of which provide a ground
    outside the text for limiting interpretation.
  • http//courses.nus.edu.sg/course/elljwp/deconstruc
    tion.htm

27
The center rests upon a paradox.
  • The center is, paradoxically, within the
    structure and outside it. The center is at the
    center of the totality, and yet, since the center
    does not belong to the totality (is not part of
    the totality), the totality has its center
    elsewhere. The center is not the center.

28
Food for Thought
  • Give concrete examples to support Derridas claim
    that the definition of structure is
    contradictory, namely that the center is both
    inside and outside a structure.

29
  • ???? ????,
  • ???????,
  • ??????? ???
  • ???? ???
  • ???? ????,
  • ???????,
  • ???? ??
  • ??????
  • ???? ????,
  • ???????,
  • ???? ??
  • ??????

30
  • ???? ???
  • ????
  • ???1137???? ?????
  • ????????
  • ??(00)7127?998?
  • ????????
  • ?????
  • ?,?????
  • ??????,EchoECHO
  • ???
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  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ???? (??
    lt??????gt ????)

31
  • Différance ??

32
Roots in Structuralism
  • "In language there are only differences"
    (Saussure, Course in General Linguistics).
  • The distinctive doctrine of structuralism the
    belief that the individual units of any system
    have meaning only by virtue of their relations to
    one another (Eagleton, Literary Theory, 94).

33
Not binary opposition but différance
  • Derrida points out that a binary opposition is
    algebraic (ab, a equals not-b), and that two
    terms can't exist without reference to the
    other--light (as presence) is defined as the
    absence of darkness, goodness the absence of
    evil, etc. . . .
  • http//www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/199
    7derridaA.html

34
Not binary opposition but différance
  • Deconstruction wants to erase the boundaries (the
    slash) between oppositions, hence to show that
    the values and order implied by the opposition
    are . . . not rigid.
  • http//www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/199
    7derridaA.html

35
Différance ??
  • (1) It means to differ to be separate from to
    discriminate
  • (2) It wishes to defer to delay to postpone

36
Différance
  • The one, take note, implies spatiality
    (difference) while the other implies temporality
    (deferral).
  • http//courses.nus.edu.sg/course/elljwp/deconstruc
    tion.htm

37
Différance
  • Différance is what prevents the sign from being a
    full presence.
  • When we cannot make present a thing, take hold
    of it, show it, we use a sign we signify a
    deferred presence, something absent (Gras 279).

38
  • ?????? ???
  • ???????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????????
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  • ?????????
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  • ???????????
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  • ??????,??????
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  • ?????????
  • ???????
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • ???,?????
  • ???????????

39
A is a supplément ?? to B (1)
  • A writing
  • B God, Truth, love . . . .
  • A is added to B.
  • A substitutes for B.
  • A is a superfluous addition to B.
  • A makes up for the absence of B.
  • A usurps the place of B.

40
A is a supplément to B (2)
  • A makes up for Bs deficiency.
  • A corrupts the purity of B.
  • A is necessary so that B can be restored.
  • A is an accident alienating B from itself.
  • A is that without which B would be lost.

41
A is a supplément to B (3)
  • A is that through which B is lost.
  • A is a danger to B.
  • A is a remedy to B.
  • As fallacious charm seduces one away from B.
  • A can never satisfy the desire of B.
  • A protects against direct encounter with B.

  • (Johnson 45)

42
  • ?????,???????????(the original)
    ?????????,??????????,??????????????,?????????????
    ?????????????????,?????????????????????????????,??
    ?????
  • ??????????????????????,??????????????????????,????
    ???????????????????????,??????????????????????????
    ??????????(unconsciousness) ?
  • Payne, Michael. ????. ????. ??. 2005. ?189-90.

43
An Example Identity
  • The deconstructionist wants to show that the
    notion of identity, which seems so basic, so
    "present," actually depends upon the notion of
    difference. Identity is only comprehensible in
    terms of difference, just as difference can only
    be understood in terms of identity.
  • http//independent-bangladesh.com/news/sep/17/1709
    2005ft.htm

44
An Example Identity
  • Identity can be considered as an essential and
    integrated unity (my identity involves my name,
    my status, my hair colour and the number of my
    fingers, among many other things). The idea of a
    unity broken into differences is one possible
    traditional idea.
  • http//courses.nus.edu.sg/course/elljwp/deconstruc
    tion.htm

45
An Example Identity
  • Another one would be the idea of an identity that
    could be contrasted to other identities as its
    differences (and for which it too would be
    different). I am different from my colleagues,
    my students, my family and friends and my
    enemies.
  • http//courses.nus.edu.sg/course/elljwp/deconstruc
    tion.htm

46
An Example Identity
  • What was thought to be foundational (identity) is
    itself dependent upon the concept it was
    privileged over (difference). The conclusion that
    neither term is foundational, but that both are
    mutually dependent upon each other, is precisely
    the conclusion that Derrida wants us to reach.
  • http//independent-bangladesh.com/news/sep/17/1709
    2005ft.htm

47
  • Deconstruction as a Critical Approach
  • 3 Stages
  • (Barry 74-76)

48
The Verbal Stage
  • Close Reading
  • Identify contradictions or paradoxes.
  • The polarity of common binary oppositions (like
    male and female, day and night, light and dark)
    is reversed. And then the second term, rather
    than the first, is shown to be privileged and
    regarded as the more desirable.

  • (Barry 74)

49
The Verbal Stage
  • Here's the basic method of deconstruction find a
    binary opposition. Show how each term, rather
    than being polar opposite of its paired term, is
    actually part of it. Then the structure or
    opposition which kept them apart collapses . . .
    . Ultimately, you can't tell which is which, and
    the idea of binary opposites loses meaning, or is
    put into "play. http//www.colorado.edu/English/E
    NGL2012Klages/1997derridaA.html

50
The Textual Stage
  • Look for shifts or breaks in the continuity of
    the text (shifts in focus, shifts in time, or
    tone, or point of view, or attitude, or pace, or
    vocabulary) these shifts reveal instabilities of
    attitude, and hence the lack of a fixed and
    unified position.
  • Omissions are important here, that is, when a
    text doesnt tell us things we would like to be
    told. (Barry
    75)

51
The Linguistic Stage
  • Look for linguistic oddities, or moments in the
    text when the adequacy of language itself as a
    medium of communication is called into question.

52
  • ??????????????????,???????????,???????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????,??????,??????????
    ????,?????????????????????????????????,
    ???/?????????,??????????????,???????????,?????????
    ???,???????,??????????????????????,???????????????
    ????????,?????????????????????
  • Payne, Michael. ????. ????. ??. 2005. ?175-76.

53
Structuralism vs. Deconstruction
  • Whereas structuralism finds order and meaning in
    the text as in the sentence, deconstruction finds
    disorder and a constant tendency of the language
    to refute its apparent sense. Hence the
    approachs name texts are found to deconstruct
    themselves rather than to provide a stable,
    identifiable meaning (Guerin et al. 255)
  • See Barry 63-65 for a more comprehensive list.

54
  • The End
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