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Identifying Function-Based Interventions

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Title: Identifying Function-Based Interventions


1
Identifying Function-Based Interventions
2
Activity 6 Function Based Interventions
  • Complete Pre-Test

3
Behavior Support Planning FBA ? BSP
  • The most important purpose of conducting FBA is
    to inform the development of comprehensive
    Behavior Support Plans that directly address the
    FUNCTION of student behavior

4
Steps in Behavior Support Planning
  • Step 1 Develop Competing Behavior Pathway
  • Step 2 Develop Behavior Support Plan
  • Step 3 Implementation Plan
  • Step 4 Evaluation Plan
  • Step 5 Follow-up Meetings to Review Progress

5
Function Based Interventions
6
Function-Based Interventions
  • Start with FBA results Summary of Behavior
  • Summary of Behavior should include a detailed and
    specific description of
  • Targeted Routine
  • Antecedents triggering behavior
  • Problem Behavior
  • Consequence/Outcome of Problem Behavior
  • Function of Behavior

7
Analyzing the Summary of Behavior
  • Read over the Summary of Behavior, but pay
    special attention to the Function identified for
    the problem behavior
  • The Function of Behavior will be central to
    identifying effective interventions to address
  • Antecedent
  • Behaviors to Teach
  • Consequences

8
Start w/ Summary of Behavior from FBA
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Antecedent
Problem Behavior
9
FBA Summary of Behavior
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION
FUNCTION is where student behavior intersects
with the environment Function Learning Student
learns. When (A), if I (B), then (C) Function
how I benefit so I keep doing B
10
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION
Function should guide selection of consequences
() and (-)
Function should guide selection of prevention
strategies
Function should guide selection of alternative/
replacement behaviors
11
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION AVOIDING DIFFICULT TASK
Consequence () Reinforce (a) alternate behavior
w/ oppty to avoid task (b) desired behavior
(effort on task) (-) problem behavior should not
result in avoiding task redirect to Alt. behavior
Prevent Make task less difficult to avoid
difficult task
Alternate behavior Must allow student to avoid
difficult task
12
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION GETTING ADULT ATTENTION
Consequence () Reinforce both alternate behavior
desired behavior w/ adult attention (-) problem
behavior should not result in adult attention
redirect to Alt. behavior
Prevent Provide adult Attention in advance often
Alternate behavior Must give student access to
adult attention
13
Competing Behavior Pathway
14
Competing Behavior Pathway
Completed from FBA
15
So this is what we want.
Desired Behavior
Natural Consequence
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Antecedent
Problem Behavior
Alternate Behavior
But start with the Alternate Behavior? Why
cant we go right to the Desired Behavior?
16
Why the Alternate Behavior? Why cant we go
right to the Desired Behavior?
4. The student is going to need to gain the math
skills before being able to do this like peers
3. Look how different this is from whats
happening now
1. This is what were asking the student to do.
Complete math problem
Success, another problem
Given double digit addn problems
Sent back to table (escape task)
None identified
Throws a Tantrum
2. This is what the student wants now.
Raise hand ask for break
5. So in the meantime we use the alternate
behavior
17
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal to follow regular classrooms
    routines and norms, as independently as possible
    (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking
    as similar as possible to peers
  • Often requires a sustained, focused teaching
    effort to build missing skills
  • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding
    difficult tasks)
  • Example student avoids reading because 3 grade
    levels behind in reading requires intensive
    reading instruction to close gap
  • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking
    attention)
  • Example student seeks negative attention due to
    isolation from peers and adults resulting from
    aggressive behavior and limited social skills
    requires sustained, targeted social skill
    instruction generalized to natural context
  • Communication deficit
  • Example student screams and rocks vigorously
    back and forth due to limited communication
    skills which might result in getting a snack
    requires teaching communication skills (PECS,
    sign language, etc.)
  • Organizational/school skills deficits
  • Example student doesnt complete homework due to
    limited scheduling and organization strategies
    which might result in (a) task avoidance due to
    limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding
    negative interactions with teacher because
    homework is frequently not done requires
    teaching school skills

18
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION
Function should guide selection of alternative/
replacement behaviors
19
Understanding Alternate/ Replacement Behaviors
  • Alternate Behaviors are
  • an immediate attempt to reduce disruption
    potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom
  • Take some of the pressure off the teacher
  • designed to actively begin breaking the students
    habit of using problem behavior to meet their
    needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable
    alternate behavior

20
Essential Characteristics of a Replacement /
Alternate Behavior
  • An appropriate Replacement Behavior
  • Serves the same function as the problem behavior
  • Is easier to do and more efficient than the
    problem behavior
  • Alternate Behaviors require less physical effort
    provide quicker, more reliable access to
    desired outcome/response than problem behavior
  • Is socially acceptable

21
Which of the Following are Appropriate
Replacement Behaviors?
  • Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual
    disabilities, does not use words, and hits her
    head. Head hitting is maintained by adult
    attention during work periods.
  • Which is the best Replacement Behavior
  • hide under her desk and be ignored
  • sign for more to another student
  • take completed work up to show the teacher
  • move to sit by another student
  • Use picture communication system to request
    teacher help

Start w/ the Function
1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult
attn?
2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?
3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?
22
Which of the Following are Appropriate
Replacement Behaviors?
  • Jason is nine and cries when asked to do
    difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by
    avoiding or escaping difficult tasks.
  • Possible Replacement Behaviors
  • More rewards for doing tasks
  • Asking for an easier task/ worksheet
  • Asking to play w/ his Gameboy
  • Requesting adult attention
  • Asking to have soda after tasks are done

Start w/ the Function
2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?
1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult
attn?
3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?
23
Competing Behavior Pathway Alternative Behavior
  • Example Jason (from previous example)
  • Antecedent Problem Behavior
    Consequence

Avoid/Escape Difficult Task
Asked to do difficult tasks
Crying
Asking for an easier task/ worksheet
NOTE This antecedent is not specific enough
24
Identifying the Alternate Behavior
Yes or No? Why?
What are the critical features of an Alternate
Behavior?
1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult
attn?
2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?
3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?
25
Competing Behavior Pathway
26
Activity 7
  • With a partner go through each of the Competing
    Behavior Pathway options in Pre-Test 2 ? Yes or
    No Why

27
Developing Function-Based Interventions
28
Behavior Support Planning
Identify a range of interventions that address
prevention (A), teaching (B) consequences (C)
You may not use them all, but it is good to
identify multiple interventions options across A,
B C
29
Teaching BehaviorInterventions
30
Teaching Behavior
  • Teaching
  • Identify skill(s) to teach
  • Dual focus when teaching behavior
  • Alternate Behavior
  • Desired Behavior
  • ALWAYS START with the Alternative Behavior
  • -FIRST - Teach the alternate behavior you
    identified in Competing Behavior Pathway
  • -Teaching Review practice regularly
  • -THEN teach the Desired Behavior
  • -this may be something to focus on immediately,
    or only after the student is fluent with the
    alternative behavior

31
Teaching Behavior
  • Dont assume student already has Alternate
    Behavior in their skill set
  • Develop an observable definition of behavior
  • Identify examples non-examples
  • Model/ Lead/ Test
  • Schedule Review Practice of Skill/ Behavior
    Regularly

32
Teaching Behavior
What are the critical features of Teaching
Interventions?
1. First teach the Alternate Behavior
Yes or No? Why?
  • Does Alt. Beh.
  • Serve same Function?
  • Is it Easier?
  • Socially acceptable?

33
Example Teaching Behavior
  • A ? B ? C Teach Dexter to raise his hand
    ask for a break, instead of engaging in
    negative behavior.
  • By teaching Dexter an easier alternate behavior
    to get what he wants, were making the problem
    behavior Inefficient.
  • Dexter will need frequent practice,
    precorrections, and prompts to help him get in
    the habit of using the alternate behavior

34
Activity 8
With a partner go through each of the Teaching
Behavior options in Pre-Test 2 ? Yes or No
Why
35
Teaching Interventions Desired Behavior
  • Achieving the Desired Behavior most often
    requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to
    build missing skills
  • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding
    difficult tasks)
  • Example student avoids reading because 3 grade
    levels behind in reading requires intensive
    reading instruction to close gap
  • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking
    attention)
  • Example student seeks negative attention due to
    isolation from peers and adults resulting from
    aggressive behavior and limited social skills
    requires sustained, targeted social skill
    instruction generalized to natural context
  • Communication deficit
  • Example student screams and rocks vigorously
    back and forth due to limited communication
    skills which might result in getting a snack
    requires teaching communication skills (PECS,
    sign language, etc.)
  • Organizational/school skills deficits
  • Example student doesnt complete homework due to
    limited scheduling and organization strategies
    which might result in (a) task avoidance due to
    limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding
    negative interactions with teacher because
    homework is frequently not done requires
    teaching school skills

36
What do we need to teach student to achieve the
desired behavior?
2. Next, teach content required to support
student to achieve the Desired Behavior
37
Example Teaching Behavior
  • A ? B ? C We also may want to provide
    additional instruction in multi-digit
    multiplication division to help Dexter gain
    confidence in completing math problems
    independently
  • By providing Dexter additional instruction in
    multi-digit multiplication division, we can
    eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.

38
Antecedent Interventions
  • Prevent Prompt

39
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION
Function should guide selection of prevention
strategies
Function should guide selection of alternative/
replacement behaviors
40
Antecedent Interventions
  • Preventing Problem Behavior
  • Prevention- Change the trigger that sets off the
    problem behavior
  • Examine the Antecedent Function of the Problem
    Behavior
  • Change the antecedent so student will no longer
    need to use problem behavior (make the problem
    behavior Irrelevant)
  • The best choices for Antecedent changes
  • Directly address the identified antecedent
  • must address the function the problem behavior is
    serving

41
Antecedent Interventions Directly address the
identified antecedent
  • Antecedent Asked to read aloud in class
  • Potential options that more directly address the
    antecedent
  • Do not ask student to read aloud in class
  • Give student passage in advance to practice
    pre-reading
  • Let student read 1 sentence directions they are
    familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from
    the text
  • Non-examples (do not directly address antecedent)
  • Move student closer to the teacher
  • Attend a counseling group about anger management
  • Check-in with teacher before reading group
  • Now, why is Function important?

42
Antecedent interventions must the problem
behavior serves address the function
  • Antecedent Asked to read aloud in class
  • Function Avoid any public presentation (not
    about reading difficulty more related to social
    anxiety)
  • Does the Intervention address the Function of
    Behavior
  • Do not ask student to read aloud in class (or
    respond publicly)
  • Give student passage in advance to practice
    pre-reading
  • Let student read 1 sentence directions they are
    familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from
    the text

Does the intervention address the function of
behavior?
43
Antecedent Interventions
Critical features of Antecedent Interventions to
prevent the Problem Behavior?
  • Does the intervention directly address
  • the antecedent?
  • the Function of the problem behavior?

Yes or No? Why?
44
Antecedent Interventions
  • A ? B ? C Instead of giving Dexter the
    class math assignment of multi-digit
    multiplication division problems, lets give
    him an assignment he can be more successful with
    (e.g. 4 single digit mult/div problems for every
    1 multi-digit problem)
  • By changing A, we can PREVENT Dexters need to
    engage in negative behavior, making it Irrelevant

45
Activity 9
With a partner go through each of the Antecedent
Interventions options in Pre-Test 2 ? Yes or No
Why
46
2. Next, identify ways to prompt/ precorrect the
alternate desired behavior
47
Consequence Interventions
48
Function Based Interventions
When generating interventions we use Function to
develop ideas to change A, B C
Targeted Routine
Maintaining Consequence Function
Problem Behavior
Antecedent
FUNCTION
Function should guide selection of consequences
() and (-)
Function should guide selection of prevention
strategies
Function should guide selection of alternative/
replacement behaviors
49
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior
  • Reinforcement should focus on 2 different sets of
    behaviors ? Alternative Behavior Desired
    Behavior
  • Reinforcing the Alternative Behavior
  • When the student engages in the alternative
    behavior, quickly provide the student with an
    outcome that matches the outcome/ function of the
    problem behavior
  • E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier,
    substitute assignment in order to escape
    difficult tasks ? then quickly provide the
    student with the easier assignment

50
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior
  • Reinforcing the Desired Behavior(s), or
    approximations of the desired behavior
  • The ultimate plan is to have the student move
    beyond the alternative behavior to using the
    desired behavior
  • Reinforcing this progression should start from
    the beginning of the intervention

51
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
  • The goals expectations for desired behavior
    must be reasonable
  • Reasonable expectations of student behavior
  • EXAMPLE on a daily basis the student is out of
    seat off task the entire period has not
    turned in any work the entire term
  • Probably NOT a Reasonable Expectation student
    to be in seat the whole class period and turn in
    completed worksheets
  • More Reasonable approximations (Start Small
    Build on Success)
  • Turns in assignments 50 completed
  • On task and trying to complete work for 15
    minutes each period

52
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
  • The timeframe for goals expectations for
    desired behavior must be reasonable
  • In the Beginning try to Reinforce Every
    occurrence or approximation
  • Reasonable timeframes for Reinforcement
  • Probably NOT Reasonable Timeframes for
    reinforcement
  • If student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he
    will earn 15 min. in skate park on Friday
  • If student is in seat and on-task for the entire
    period, he will earn a candy bar
  • More Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
  • If student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3
    problems to cross off the worksheet
  • If student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4
    min. of computer time

53
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
  • The reinforcer must be valued by the student
  • The function of behavior is a good place to start
    when identifying valued reinforcers
  • e.g. If the function of behavior is to Gain Peer
    Attention, the reinforcer should give access to
    Peer Attention
  • e.g. if the function of behavior is to Avoid
    Difficult Task the reinforcer could be a Free
    Homework Pass

54
Consequence Intervention Reinforcing Positive
Behavior
Steps in Identifying Reinforcers?
Critical features of Reinforcers?
1. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the
Alternate Behavior
  • Is reinforcer valued? (start w/ function of
    behavior)
  • b) Are expectations timeframes reasonable for
    the student?

2. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the
Desired Behavior
Yes or No? Why?
55
Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem
Behavior
  • Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2
    things
  • Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior
  • Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior
  • Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior
  • When the student engages in the alternative
    behavior, quickly provide the student with an
    outcome that matches the function of the problem
    behavior
  • This should also help to prevent escalation
  • E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier,
    substitute assignment in order to escape
    difficult tasks ? then quickly provide the
    student with the easier assignment

56
Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem
Behavior
  • Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior
  • Make sure the problem behavior no longer works
    for the student If using a consequence as a
    response to negative behavior, make sure the
    consequence is not providing the desired function
    for the student

57
Consequence Intervention Responding to Problem
Behavior
Steps in Identifying Responses to Problem
Behavior?
Critical features of Responses to Problem
Behavior?
Yes or No? Why?
1. Prompt the Alternate Behavior at earliest
signs of problem behavior
  1. Make sure the response is not reinforcing the
    problem behavior

2. Identify a response to problem behavior that
does not reinforce the Problem Behavior
58
Example Consequence Interventions
  • A ? B ? C We must refuse to (C) let Dexter
    avoid difficult math tasks by (B)
    engaging in disrespectful behavior Instead
    prompt him to raise his hand and (C) reward him
    for (B) raising his hand asking for a break
    (Alternate Behvior)
  • By not providing Dexter w/ what he wants when he
    engages in disrespectful behavior we are making
    the problem behavior Ineffective.
  • It is important that we work hard to Reinforce
    Dexter for engaging in the alternate behavior, or
    he is likely to go back to escalate the problem
    behavior

59
Dexters Function-Based Intervention
60
Activity 10
With a partner go through each of the Consequence
Interventions options in Pre-Test 2 ? Yes or No
Why
61
Activity 11
  • Complete Post-test

62
Implementation Plans Treatment Fidelity
63
Who should attend FBA meetings?
  • Behavior Specialist (often School Psych or SpEd)
  • Principal
  • Teachers who work with student
  • Both Gen Ed SpEd
  • Other staff who work closely with the student
  • Parent
  • Student (if old enough team decision)
  • An FBA meeting for an IEP student is an IEP
    meeting, so all required attendees must be present

64
FBA Team members
65
Embedding Function-Based Support into School
Teams Leah Benazzi, 2005
  • Participants
  • School-based teams
  • Behavior specialists with knowledge of behavior
    theory
  • Participants developed behavior support plans
    (BSPs) based on description of students
  • Teams without a behavior specialist
  • Behavior specialist without the team
  • Teams and the behavior specialist together
  • All BSPs were evaluated for technical adequacy
    and contextual fit

66
Results
  • BSPs developed by behavior specialists alone,
    rated low on contextual fit
  • BSPs developed by teams alone, rated low on
    technical adequacy
  • Only BSPs developed by the team working with a
    behavior specialist rated high on both technical
    adequacy and contextual fit.

67
FBA Process -- Meetings
  • Day 1 ?
  • Next 2 wks
  • Day 14 ?
  • Next 2 wks
  • Day 28 ?
  • Ongoing ?
  • Initial FBA meeting
  • Team disburses and gathers functional assessment
    data
  • FBA/BSP meeting - team reconvenes to review
    assessment information develop behavior plan
  • Team implements behavior plan collects data
  • Behavior Plan Review - Team reconvenes to look at
    data to Review effectiveness and implementation
    of behavior plan
  • Continue to implement behavior plan or changes as
    needed
  • Review Meeting - Reconvene as needed depending on
    success of behavior plan

68
Supports that enable accurate durable
implementation of interventions
  • Ensure contextual fit
  • Organize adult responsibilities, tasks, etc.
  • Embed interventions in IEP
  • Establish effective, efficient, relevant
    school-wide behavior support systems

69
Support Plan Design
  • Ensure Contextual Fit
  • Implementers involved in design of plan
  • Plan consistent with values of implementers
  • Plan consistent with skills of implementers
  • Plan consistent with resources of implementers
  • Plan consistent with administrative structure
  • Plan perceived as (a) likely to be effective and
    (b) in the best interest of the focus individual

70
Implementation
  • Implementation Plan (Who will do what, when?)
  • Schedule prep activities (e.g. communication
    system development)
  • Schedule teaching times/curriculum
  • Schedule data system design/use
  • Schedule on-going times for assessment

71
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72
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73
Preparing Staff for Implementation
  • Who is implementing each part of the
    intervention?
  • How do staff implement it? (Requires specific
    instruction modeling)
  • When should it be implemented?
  • What if its not working (Back-up/crisis plans)?
  • Why should this work?
  • When will we meet again to review the plan and
    implementation?

74
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75
BSP Review Meeting
  • Make sure to review each step on implementation
    plan at Follow-up BSP meeting
  • Problem Solve around treatment fidelity
  • If were not implementing the plan with fidelity,
    we cannot evaluate if the plan is successful or
    not

76
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77
5
8
78
Intervention Cases Treatment Fidelity
  • Noell et al, 1997
  • Jones et al, 1997
  • Codding et al, 2005

79
Jones, Wickstrom, Friman (1997).
  • School-based behavioral consultation is a good
    talk spoiled
  • Typical interaction
  • consultant and teacher discussing a students
    inappropriate behavior, which can be very
    rewarding
  • Often, however, the student problem behavior is
    attributed to the inappropriate behavior of the
    teacher, and the consultant recommends a new
    response instead.
  • Often this new response requires greater effort
    than ignoring the consultants suggestions.

80
Mean Levels of Treatment Integrity( of 2 min.
intervals w/ pos. consequence issued by teacher,
contingent on student on-task behavior)
Ms D Ms B Ms W
Baseline 0-11 (4) 0-13 (3) 0-13 (3)
Consultation Alone 22-56 (37) 0-21 (9) 0-50 (22)
Performance Feedback 57-100 (83) 45-75 (60) 30-100 (66)
81
Results/ Discussion
  • Simply asking a teacher to implement consequences
    may result in inadequate level of integrity
  • Even w/ daily performance feedback overall mean
    of treatement integrity did not exceed 83 for
    any of the teachers
  • Study makes salient the difficult nature of
    assisting teachers in the delivery of treatments
    w/ a high level of integrity

82
Codding et al. (2005)
  • We suspect that periodic collection of treatment
    integrity data and subsequent performance
    feedback are necessary for high rates of
    intervention integrity to persist.

83
Beyond Talking -- Feedback
  • Make sure to train staff how to implement
  • Modeling/Role Playing the intervention is best
    method of instruction
  • People wont implement it if they dont
    understand how to do it, or if its not working
    because they doing the intervention incorrectly
  • Frequent follow-up check-in
  • Linking w/ permanent product to turn in can be
    helpful
  • Example point sheet w/ regular interval ratings
    (way of tracking teacher feedback to student)
  • Example daily Intervention checklist for
    teacher to self check implementation of plan
  • Email check-ins/reminders paired with periodic
    visits/observations are good

84
Evaluation Plans Measuring Outcomes
85
Evaluation PlanSetting Goals and Monitoring
Progress
86
Evaluation Plan
Data to be Collected Procedures for Data Collection Person Responsible Timeline
Is plan being implemented?
Is plan making a difference?
87
Evaluation Plan
Data to be Collected Procedures for Data Collection Person Responsible Timeline
Is plan being implemented? Are staff implementing tasks as assigned in BIP Implementation Plan? Staff monitor task completion daily with 3x5 inch notecard Review tasks at BIP Review meeting As assigned in BIP Implementation Plan Implement as of 2/27, ongoing Review at BIP Rev Mtg
Is plan making a difference? of tantrums/ week Student use of hand-raising to request escape math problems completed in class/ total problem Teacher notes occurrences of tantrums in math Teacher notes occurrences in math Teacher notes in class Teacher/Asst Teacher/ Asst Teacher/Asst 2/27 ongoing 2/27 ongoing 2/27 ongoing
Plan Review Date 5/31/05
88
Identifying Prioritizing Outcomes
  • What is most important to the referring teacher?
  • Define desired improvements
  • If the student increases/decreases this behavior
    you will feel like
  • your life is better
  • the student is improving
  • What is most important for the benefit of the
    student?

89
Competing Behavior Pathway
90
Develop an Evaluation Plan
  • Specify short term goal
  • Focus on use of alternative behavior reductions
    in problem behavior
  • Short term goals will continuously be revised in
    working toward the long-term goal
  • Specify long term goals
  • Focus on desired behavior reductions in
    identified problem behavior
  • Specify evaluation procedures
  • Point cards can be a good way to track progress
  • Other alternatives scatterplot, teacher grading
    records, attendance, referrals
  • Plan review date (within 2 weeks) to evaluate the
    effectiveness of plan

91
Competing Behavior Summary
Desired Behavior
Typical Consequence
Summary of Behavior
Antecedent
Setting Event
Maintaining Consequence
Problem Behavior
Alternate Behavior
92
Competing Behavior Pathway
  • Guide for Evaluation Plan
  • Identify
  • Short term goals and intervention
  • Alternate Behavior
  • Long-term goals and intervention
  • Desired Behavior
  • Set Reasonable Goals
  • Behavior Change is a Process requiring Breaking
    Habits and Learning new skills

93
Start with the Short Term Goals
  • Increasing the Alternate Behavior Decreasing
    Problem Behavior

94
Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures
Desired Behavior
Typical Consequence
Summary of Behavior
Antecedent
Setting Event
Maintaining Consequence
Problem Behavior
Alternate Behavior
  • Immediate Short Term Goals
  • Reduce Problem Behavior
  • Increase use of Alt. Behavior

95
Why the Alternate Behavior? Why cant we go
right to the Desired Behavior?
4. The student is going to need to gain the math
skills before being able to do this like peers
3. Look how different this is from whats
happening now
1. This is what were asking the student to do.
Complete math problem
Success, another problem
Given double digit addn problems
Sent back to table (escape task)
None identified
Throws a Tantrum
2. This is what the student wants now.
Raise hand ask for break
5. So in the meantime we use the alternate
behavior
96
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal to follow regular classrooms
    routines and norms, as independently as possible
    (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking
    as similar as possible to peers

97
Teaching Interventions Desired Behavior
  • Achieving the Desired Behavior most often
    requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to
    build missing skills
  • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding
    difficult tasks)
  • Example student avoids reading because 3 grade
    levels behind in reading requires intensive
    reading instruction to close gap
  • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking
    attention)
  • Example student seeks negative attention due to
    isolation from peers and adults resulting from
    aggressive behavior and limited social skills
    requires sustained, targeted social skill
    instruction generalized to natural context
  • Communication deficit
  • Example student screams and rocks vigorously
    back and forth due to limited communication
    skills which might result in getting a snack
    requires teaching communication skills (PECS,
    sign language, etc.)
  • Organizational/school skills deficits
  • Example student doesnt complete homework due to
    limited scheduling and organization strategies
    which might result in (a) task avoidance due to
    limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding
    negative interactions with teacher because
    homework is frequently not done requires
    teaching school skills

98
What do we need to teach student to achieve the
desired behavior?
2. Next, teach content required to support
student to achieve the Desired Behavior
99
Example Teaching Behavior
  • A ? B ? C We also may want to provide
    additional instruction in multi-digit
    multiplication division to help Dexter gain
    confidence in completing math problems
    independently
  • By providing Dexter additional instruction in
    multi-digit multiplication division, we can
    eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.

100
So back to a short term goal
  • Develop a goal to review in 2 weeks at initial
    follow-up meeting
  • Focus on
  • Reducing problem behavior
  • Increasing use of alternate behavior
  • How can we measure this in a feasible, but
    effective way?

101
Short term Goal
  • Reduce frequency of problem behavior
  • Increase use of alternative/replacement behavior
  • How do we measure this?
  • Depends on the frequency type of problem
    behavior

102
Identifying an Appropriate way to Measure
  • Must measure specific targeted/ prioritized
    behavior
  • (Fighting, disruption, off task, attendance, work
    completed, etc.)
  • Best way to measure (Objective v. Subjective)
  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Subjective rating (point card)
  • Balancing Accuracy Feasibility of Data
    Collection
  • Measure must be a feasible form of data
    collection for teachers/staff
  • What is the baseline?

103
Use Existing Data Forms when possible
  • Try to be consistent with point card forms that
    might be in use for Check-In/Check-Out programs
    if possible

104
Using Point Cards
  • Point cards are an easy way to track progress
    with a behavioral plan
  • Good for helping students learn to monitor their
    own behavior
  • Easily linked with Reinforcement Program
  • Flexible feasible for teachers

105
(No Transcript)
106
Individualized Point CardFill in more specific
behaviors
107
Identify a Short-term Goal Data Collection Plan
Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start
  • Reduction in Problem Behavior
  • Increase in Alternate Behavior
  • Do we have any baseline data?

108
Identify a Short-term Goal Data Collection Plan
Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start
  • Do we have any baseline data?
  • Point cards?
  • Discipline referral?
  • Teacher estimates of frequency/duration
  • Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal

109
Identify a Short-term Goal Data Collection Plan
Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start
  • Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal
  • Set initial goals that the student is able to
    achieve (early success)
  • Link incentives to data reasonable student
    progress (so goals must be reasonable)

110
Questions for Evaluation Plan
  • Does your evaluation plan focus on the
    prioritized behaviors of concern?
  • Reduction in problem behavior
  • Increased use of alternate and desired behaviors?
  • If the student meets the goal, will there be a
    noticeable difference in student behavior?
  • Is the evaluation plan clearly linked with the
    reinforcement program?
  • Is data collection feasible?

111
Initial Success Transitioning to Desired/
Long-Term Goals
112
Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures
Adjust Goals Over Time as Student exhibits
success
Longer Term Goals
Desired Behavior
Typical Consequence
Summary of Behavior
Antecedent
Setting Event
Maintaining Consequence
Problem Behavior
Alternate Behavior
  • Immediate Short Term Goals
  • Reduce Problem Behavior
  • Increase use of Alt. Behavior

113
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal - to function independently and
    follow normal classroom expectations
  • Likely to require intensive intervention that
    gradually removes support until student responds
    to classroom expectations without extra support

114
Consequence Interventions Measuring Behavior
  • Transition to Measuring the Desired Behavior(s),
    or approximations of the desired behavior
  • The ultimate plan is to have the student move
    beyond the alternative behavior to using the
    desired behavior

115
Linking Measurement Plans Reinforcement Plans
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
  • The goals expectations for desired behavior
    must be reasonable
  • Reasonable expectations of student behavior
  • EXAMPLE on a daily basis the student is out of
    seat off task the entire period has not
    turned in any work the entire term
  • Probably NOT a Reasonable Expectation student
    to be in seat the whole class period and turn in
    completed worksheets
  • More Reasonable approximations
  • Turns in assignments 50 completed
  • On task and trying to complete work 15 for 15
    minutes each period

116
Linking Measurement Plans Reinforcement Plans
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
  • The timeframe for goals expectations for
    desired behavior must be reasonable
  • Reasonable timeframes for Reinforcement
  • Probably NOT Reasonable Timeframes for
    reinforcement
  • If student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he
    will earn 15 min. in skate park on Friday
  • If student is in seat and on-task for the entire
    period, he will earn a candy bar
  • More Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
  • If student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3
    problems to cross off the worksheet
  • If student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4
    min. of computer time

117
Adjusting Goals while Modifying Supports
  • Increased Self Monitoring
  • Fading Antecedent supports
  • Fading/Refocusing Reinforcers
  • Decreasing frequency
  • Increased connection w/ natural reinforcers
  • Changing focus of goals reinforcers from
    reducing problem behavior to increasing desired
    behavior
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