Title: Work
1Work
Work is the product of the applied in the
direction of motion, and the of the
object. W x .
 The unit of work is called a Joule (J).
 One joule is the amount of work done when a force
of N acts over . m.  1J .
 12.m
 1kg.m2.s2
 Work is a quantity. (.. Not necessary)
 From the formula we see that if there is no
.. then there is no work done.  If the displacement is to the force
then there is no work done either.
F
2Work
Work is the product of the resultant force
applied in the direction of motion, and the
displacement of the object. W F ?xcos?
 The unit of work is N.m called a Joule(J).
 The joule is the amount of work done when a force
of 1N acts over 1m.  1J 1N.1m
 1kg.m.s2.m
 1kg.m2.s2
 Work is a scalar quantity. ( Direction not
necessary)  From the formula we see that if there is no
movement then there is no work done.  If the displacement is perpendicular to the force
then there is no work done either.
F
?
?x
3Energy Kinetic Energy
 Energy is the capacity to do ..
 Energy is a scalar quantity and has the same unit
as work viz. ...  When ENERGY is transferred . is done.
 If an object is accelerated from rest.
Energy of movement W f. F m.
gtW vf2 vi2 2a ?x but vi
0 gt ?x vf2 .... W gt EK
...
FORCE
m
m
a m.s2
m
m
4Energy Kinetic Energy
 Energy is the capacity to do work.
 Energy is a scalar quantity and has the same unit
as work viz. Joule.  When ENERGY is transferred WORK is done.
Energy of movement W f.?x F m.a
gtW ma?x vf2 vi2 2a?x but vi 0
gt ?x vf2 /2a W m.a.(vf2/2a) gt EK
1/2mvf2
FORCE
m
m
a m.s2
m
m
5Potential energy
Potential energy is the energy that an object has as a result of its ..or ...
 Object lifted to a height h.
 Energy gained (or transferred) .
 Ep of an object .. to lift the object to
that height  W
 F
 W .
 Ep .
 Where h is the displacement of lifted object.
h
6Potential energy
Potential energy is the energy that an object has as a result of its position or state.
 Object lifted to a height h.
 Energy gained (or transferred) work
done  Ep of an object work done to lift the object
to that height  W f.?x
 Fg mg
 W mg?x
 Ep mgh
 Where h is the displacement of lifted object.
h
7Potential energy Bouncing Efficiency
Observation A ball dropped from a height bounces back to a lower height than it was released from.
 Task
 Investigate the efficiency of the bounce of a
ball.  Theory
 The efficiency of the bounce can be expressed as
the of energy of the bounce over the original
potential energy of the ball. 
 Efficiency x100
 Outcomes
 Write up all the steps of the scientific method
and include Calculations of energy and
efficiency from at least five different heights.
Also show at least one calculation of the
velocity of the ball on impact with the surface.
Compare the efficiency of at least two different
balls.
h initial
Initial Potential energy (top) Potential energy
of the bounce
h bounce
8Mechanical Energy
An object dropped from REST
EK ____ Ep . Ep ____ Ek
.
 Mechanical energy is the SUM of the
 and
energy of an object at any given time.  E .
 The energy, which is converted or transferred, is
equal to the to do this.  If an object is moving and is brought to rest
then the to do this
is equal to the
.  At any point during the fall of an object the

is equal to the potential energy of the object
it began to fall.
9Mechanical Energy
EK 0 Ep mgh Ep 0 Ek (mgh)
 Mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic and
potential energy of an object at any given time.  E Ep Ek
 The energy, which is converted or transferred, is
equal to the work done to do this.  If an object is moving and is brought to rest
then the work done to do this is equal to the
change in kinetic energy. ?Ek work done  At any point during the fall of an object the
mechanical energy is equal to the potential
energy of the object before it began to fall.  If any energy is lost through work then
 E Ep Ek Work done
10Mechanical Energy
A 4kg ball is dropped 8m.
Any object that is above the ground has the
POTENTIAL to fall Down. The potential energy
EP mgh (Height) lost would be converted into
velocity (kinetic energy) EK. Ep()
Ek(.) If the object is lifted up then it
.. potential energy. At any time the .of
these two is called the MECHANICAL ENERGY  and
it stays .
E Ep Ek
4kg
m
Ep
Ek .J
E Ep Ek J
Ep Potential Energy LOST
8m
E Ep Ek . 320J
4m
EK kinetic energy .. Ep !
E Ep Ek ..J
Ep
m
Ek
11Mechanical Energy
4kg
m
Any object that is above the ground has the
POTENTIAL to fall Down. The potential energy
EP mgh (Height) lost would be converted into
speed (kinetic energy) EK. Ep(Top)
Ek(Bottom) If the object is lifted up then it
gains potential energy. At any time the sum of
these two is called the MECHANICAL ENERGY  and
it stays constant.
E Ep Ek 320 0 320J
Ep mgh
Ek 0J
Ep Potential Energy LOST
8m
E Ep Ek 160 160 320J
4m
EK kinetic energy gained Ep lost!
E Ep Ek 0 320 320J
Ep 0
m
Ek 320J
E Ep Ek
12Conservation of energy  Pendulum
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed but merely
transferred from one form to another.  Whenever there is energy conversion there is
done.
A
C
h
B
The of the pendulum is not required to
calculate the velocity.
Ep (Top) Ek (Bottom) .2 gt V
v..
13Conservation of energy  Pendulum
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed but merely
transferred from one form to another.  Whenever there is energy conversion there is work
done.
A
C
h
B
The mass of the pendulum is not required to
calculate the velocity.
Ep (Top) Ek (Bottom) Mgh 1/2mv2 gt V
v2gh
14A pendulum question
 A person of 60kg is lifted to a height of 30m on
a slingshot pendulum and then released what is
its maximum speed?
Total Mechanical Energy (Top)
ETop Ep EK mgh 1/2mv2
(60)(10)(30) 0 18000J
m
h
EBottom Ep Ek mgh
1/2mv2 18 000 0 1/2 (60)v2 v2
18000/30 600 v ?600 24.5 m.s1
15A pendulum
 A person of 60kg is lifted to a height of 30m on
a slingshot pendulum and then released what is
its maximum speed?
Total Mechanical Energy (Top)
ETop Ep EK mgh 1/2mv2
(60)(10)(30) 0 18000J
m
h
EBottom Ep Ek mgh
1/2mv2 18 000 0 1/2 (60)v2 v2
18000/30 600 v ?600 24.5 m.s1
16Power
 Power is the .. at which WORK is done.
 Power
 Units Watts (W)
Since v .., Power can be found by P .
If a force of 20N is exerted over a distance of
5m for a time of 30s the power used would be.
17Power
 Power is the RATE at which WORK is done.
 Power
 Units Watts (W)
Work time
Joules (J) Time (s)
Since v s/t, Power can be found by P F.v
If a force of 20N is exerted over a distance of
5m for a time of 30s the power used would be. W
F.?x (20).5 100J P W/t 100/30 3.3 W