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Chapter 13 Geologic Time 13.1 Evolution and Geologic Time Precambrian - Longest geologic time unit in Earth s history. Began: 4600mya (4.6bya) Ended: 570mya 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%2013%20


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Chapter 13 Geologic Time
  • 13.1 Evolution and Geologic Time

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  1. The geologic time scale is a record of Earths
    history that shows events, time units and ages.

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2. It is subdivided into smaller units based
on 1. The types of life-forms living at the
time. 2. Geologic events occurring at the
time.
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3. Eras- largest based on life-forms. Periods-
divide eras based on life-forms and geologic
events. Epochs- divide periods- smallest amount
of time.
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4. Organic evolution the change in life-forms
through time.
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5. Species- a group of organisms that normally
reproduce only among themselves.
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6. When 2 different species breed their
offspring are unable to reproduce.
Tigon male tiger female lion
Liger male lion female tiger
Males are sterile in both species
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Albert's Squirrel South Rim Grand Canyon
Kaibab Squirrel North Rim Grand Canyon
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7. Natural selection organisms with traits that
are suited to a certain environment have a better
chance of surviving to reproduce. First proposed
by Charles Darwin in 1836.
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8. The main cause of evolution of new species is
1. changes to environments 2. competition
with others for resources
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9. The Earth process most responsible for
changing environments is plate tectonics.
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10. Endangered when only a small number of
members are living. 11. Extinct when none of
its members are living.
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12. 3 ways humans contribute to extinctions. 1.
destruction of habitat 2. competition for same
food supply 3. overhunting
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  • Precambrian - Longest geologic time unit in
    Earths history.
  • Began 4600mya (4.6bya)
  • Ended 570mya

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  • 2. Precambrian fossils are sparse because
  • Rocks are deeply buried or eroded away.
  • Rocks have been changed by heat and pressure.
  • Early organisms were soft-bodied no hard parts.

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  • 3. Cyanobacteria bacteria algae. They
    photosynthesize. Form stromatolites.
  • Appeared 3.5 billion years ago
  • Take in CO2
  • Release O2

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  • 4. Cyanobacteria were important because They
    changed Earths atmosphere by adding free O2 to
    the air. The ozone layer formed protecting
    organisms from UV rays. Single-celled organisms
    evolved into complex organisms.

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  • Invertebrate- animal without a backbone.
  • Appeared near the end of the Precambrian.
  • Ex jellyfish, sponges, worms

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  • Evolutionary advancement that marked the
    beginning of the Paleozoic
  • when organisms developed hard parts.

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  • Paleozoic ancient life.
  • Life-forms that were most abundant during the
    Paleozoic- ocean dwelling (marine ) organisms.
  • Why? Warm, shallow seas covered most of the
    Earth.
  • Ex trilobites, brachiopods, cephalopods,
    crinoids.

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  • Vertebrate animals with a backbone.
  • Appeared Ordovician Period
  • Ex jawless fishes, bony fishes, reptiles, mammals

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  • 10. Amphibian vertebrates that live on land but
    must return to water to reproduce (lay eggs).
  • Appeared Devonian Period
  • Ex frogs, salamanders

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  • 11. Reptiles vertebrates that live entirely on
    land eggs have a leathery or mineralized
    covering.
  • Appeared Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian
    Period)
  • Ex tortoises, snakes, lizards, crocodiles.

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  • 12. Appalachian Mountains formed at the end of
    the Paleozoic.
  • 13.What marked the end of the Paleozoic?
  • Largest mass extinction in Earths history.
  • Formation of Pangaea.

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Mesozoic Middle Life aka Age of Dinosaurs
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  • All continents are
  • still together as Pangaea

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3. Laurasia North America, Europe, Asia,
Greenland
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3. Gondwanaland South America, Africa,
Antarctica, India, Australia
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  1. Small dinosaurs first appeared in the Triassic
    Period.

Sellosaurus
Coelophysis
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  • 5. Evidence that dinosaurs were warm-blooded
  • Tracks indicate they were fast-
  • moving.
  • 2. They traveled in herds and
  • nurtured their young.
  • 3. Bone structure resembles
  • warm-blooded animals.

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6. Birds first appear in the Jurassic Period
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7. Archaeopteryx had wings and feathers like a
bird, but teeth, claws and a tail like a dinosaur.
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8. Mammals first appeared in the Triassic Period.
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9. Traits allowing mammals to survive 1. Hair
or fur covering their bodies.
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2. They are warm-blooded. 3. Produce milk to
feed their young.
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10. Gymnosperms "naked seed plant", no fruit
covering their seeds.
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First appeared Devonian Period Ex ferns, palms,
ginkgos, pines
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11. Angiosperms flowering plants. Produce seeds
with a hard outer covering and/or fruit. First
appeared Early Cretaceous Period
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Ex fruits, vegetables, flowers, flowering trees
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11. The end of the Mesozoic Era was marked
by Break-up of Pangaea, seas drained from lands,
extensive volcanism, extinction of dinosaurs.
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12. Cenozoic "Recent Life" aka "Age of Mammals"
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13. The Alps in Europe form from collision
between African and Eurasian plates.
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14. The Himalaya Mountains formed from the
collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates.
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15. Placental mammals nourish their young
internally from a placenta. Offspring born live
independent. First appeared Cretaceous Period
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Ex rodents, bats, dogs, cats, cows, humans
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16. Marsupials offspring are born immature
must complete development in a pouch. First
appeared Cretaceous Period
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Ex kangaroo, koala, wombat, opossum
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17. Australia has the greatest number of
marsupials.
The size of a Koala just after birth, crawling to
the pouch.
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Monotremes egg-laying mammals
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18. Homo sapiens first appeared about 500,000
years ago. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis appeared
about 250,000 years ago. Homo sapiens sapiens
appeared about 100,000 years ago. We see the
emergence of specifically human activities, such
as art and religion.
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19. Humans have been the dominant life form for
the past 10,000 years.
Starting about 10,000 years ago, agriculture, the
domestication of animals, cities, and writing
soon followed.
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