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Title: Prologue: History and Approaches of Psychology


1
PrologueHistory and Approaches of Psychology
2
Crash Course Intro(10.54 mins)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvo4pMVb0R6M

3
Lets Begin
  • Do not expect to answer the ultimate questions of
    life.
  • The study of psychology will help you understand
    why people feel, think, and act the way they do.

4
History and Approaches Chapter Objectives
  • By the end of this chapter, I will be able to
  • Recognize how philosophical perspectives shaped
    the development of psychological thought.
  • Describe and compare different theoretical
    approaches in explaining behavior
  • structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism
    in the early years
  • Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and
    humanism emerging later
  • evolutionary, biological, and cognitive as more
    contemporary approaches.
  • Recognize the strengths and limitations of
    applying theories to explain behavior.
  • Distinguish the different domains of
    psychology
  • biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling,
    developmental, educational, experimental, human
    factors, industrialorganizational, personality,
    psychometric, and social.
  • Identify the major historical figures in
    psychology (e.g., Mary Whiton Calkins, Charles
    Darwin, Dorothea Dix, Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley
    Hall, William James, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget,
    Carl Rogers, B. F. Skinner, Margaret Floy
    Washburn, John B. Watson, Wilhelm Wundt).

5
Chapter Objectives
  • Lesson 1 Define psychology and trace its
    historical development.
  • Lesson 2 Explain how psychologys different
    perspectives contribute to a complete view of the
    human form.
  • Lesson 3 Identify the major subfields of
    psychology.

6
Lesson One Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Recognize how philosophical perspectives
    shaped the development of psychological thought.
  • 2. Describe and compare different theoretical
    approaches in explaining behavior
  • 3. Identify the major historical figures in
    psychology

7
Lesson 1 Roots of Psychology
  • What is psychology?
  • Turn to someone next to you. Talk about some
    words that you think of when you think of the
    word psychology.
  • What words did you come up with?
  • Why did you pick those words?

8
History of Psychology
  • People have been studying human behavior for
    thousands of years. (Examples Romans,
    Egyptians, Indians)
  • This was good, but was not done in an organized
    manner.
  • Psychology as a science has a very short history.
  • Some scientists still call psychology a soft
    science.

9
Roots of Psychology
  • Psychology The scientific study of behavior and
    mental processes.
  • Lets break down the definition
  • Behavior Anything that you do that can be
    observed.
  • Mental Processes Internal experiences such as
    thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions.
  • Systematic Study Systematic collection and
    examination of data (empirical evidence) to
    support or disprove hypotheses (predictions)
    rather than depending on common sense.

10
Key Players in the History of Psychology
  • Roots of psychology can be traced back 2000 years
    ago to the early philosophers, biologists, and
    physiologists of ancient Greece.
  • Hippocrates Greek Physiologist that thought the
    mind or soul resided in the brain.
  • He believed that it was not composed of a
    physical substance.
  • This is called mind-body-dualism seeing mind
    and body as two different things that interact.

11
Two historical roots of psychology are the
disciplines of
  1. Philosophy and chemistry
  2. Physiology and chemistry
  3. Philosophy and physiology
  4. Philosophy and physics

12
Today, psychology is defined as the
  1. Study of mental phenomenon
  2. Study of conscious and unconscious activity
  3. Study of Behavior
  4. Science of behavior and mental processes

13
Key Players in the History of Psychology
  • Plato (350 B.C.) Greek philosopher that
    believed that who we are and what we know are
    innate (inborn).
  • Aristotle Platos student believed that who we
    are and what we know are acquired from
    experience. (created)

Q What debate originated with these two
different philosophies?
14
Nature vs. Nurture Controversy
  • The debate about the extent to which our behavior
    is inborn or learned through experience is called
    the nature vs. nurture controversy.
  • Nature Certain elementary ideas are innate to
    the human mind not gained through experience
  • Men are born, not made

15
Nature vs. Nurture (cont.)
  • Nurture Anything that we know, we have learned
    through experience.
  • Our mind is like a blank slate (tabula rasa
    Locke) that the environment writes upon
  • Men are made, not born

Where do the Spartans fall into this nature vs.
nurture controversy?
16
Which of the following exemplifies the issue of
the relative importance of nature and nurture on
our behavior?
  1. The issue of the relative influence of biology
    and experience on behavior
  2. The issue of the relative influence of rewards
    and punishments on behavior
  3. The debate as to the relative importance of
    heredity and instinct in determining behavior
  4. The debate as to whether mental processes are a
    legitimate form of scientific study

17
Key Players in the History of Psychology
  • About 2000 yrs. later John Locke and Rene
    Descartes had a similar argument.
  • John Locke Believed that knowledge comes from
    observation, and what we know comes from
    experience.
  • He coined the term tabula rasa blank slate.
  • The mind is like a blank slate in which the
    environment writes upon.
  • Rene Descartes Believed that what we know is
    innate.
  • Focused much of his research on how the nervous
    system responds
  • I think therefore I am.

18
Book Check Question
  • Q Who is considered the founder of modern
    science?
  • A Francis Bacon

19
The 17th century philosopher who believed that
the mind is blank at birth and that most
knowledge comes through sensory experience is
  1. Plato
  2. Aristotle
  3. Descartes
  4. Locke

20
The Greek philosopher who believed that
intelligence was inherited was
  1. Aristotle
  2. Plato
  3. Descartes
  4. Simonides

21
Lesson Two Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe and compare different theoretical
    approaches in explaining behavior
  • structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism
    in the early years
  • Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and
    humanism emerging later
  • evolutionary, biological, and cognitive as more
    contemporary approaches.
  • 2. Recognize the strengths and limitations of
    applying theories to explain behavior.

22
Psychology Becomes a Science
  • Despite Descartes arguments and scientific
    breakthroughs at the time, psychology didnt
    become a recognized science until the mid 1800s.

23
Waves of Psychology
  • The science of psychology has gone through
    several waves since it started.
  • Waves are different ways of thinking over time.

24
Lesson Two Approaches and Schools of Psychology
  • Not all psychologists look at psychology the same
    way.
  • Some believe that you are who you are purely
    because of your genetics.
  • Some believe that experiences play a much bigger
    factor.
  • Psychology is a broad field that aims to answer
    questions from many different perspectives.
  • We are going to look at the different schools and
    approaches to psychology.
  • But first.. A quick poll to wake you up!

25
Lesson 2 Approaches and Schools of Psychology
  • By the late 1800s, psychology was beginning to
    emerge as a separate scientific discipline.
  • Biologist Charles Darwin came up with the theory
    of natural selection.
  • Psychology branched into two schools of
    psychology (structuralism and functionalism) and
    from there several approaches to psychology.

26
Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt
  • Wilhelm Wundt Credited as the founder of
    scientific psychology because in 1879 (psychs
    official b-day) he set up a research laboratory
    in Germany.
  • The lab was dedicated to the scientific study of
    conscious experiences and sensations.
  • Introspection the process of looking inward to
    identify how one feels, thinks, or acts.
  • he replicated his studies in different conditions
    with similar results.
  • Wundt helped found the School of Structuralism
    which aimed to focus on the structure of the mind
    and identify the basic elements of consciousness.

27
Stanley Hall
  • Studied under Wundt
  • 1884 established 1st research lab _at_ John
    Hopkins
  • 1883 created first American journal
  • 1892 1st APA president
  • APA today
  • Worlds largest org. devoted to advancement of
    psychology
  • 155,000 members

28
Book Check Question
  • Q Who is considered to 1st to introduce
    structuralism? (hint) he was a student of Wundt)
  • A Edward Bradford Titchener
  • Q Who was a good friend of Titchener? (hint) He
    is probably best know for authoring the
    Chronicles of Narnia.)
  • A C. S. Lewis

29
Titchener
C. S. Lewis
30
Functionalism William James
  • William James was a psychologist that felt that
    Wundt was asking the wrong questions.
  • James was more interested in the function or
    purpose of behavioral acts.
  • School of Functionalism Researchers that
    focused on how we adapt to our environments.
    (stream of consciousness)
  • Main Goal Explain human behavior
  • Also wrote first psychology textbook

31
Functionalism
The parts of the functionalist view of psychology
32
Women in Field
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
  • Studied under James
  • Was refused the Ph.D. she earned from Harvard
    because she was female
  • Invented widely used tech for studying memory
  • 1st APA woman president (1905)
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
  • 1st PhD in Psych for Women
  • Wrote The Animal Mind (1908)
  • Served as beginning of behaviorism
  • 2nd woman APA president

33
Women in Field
  • Leta Stretter Hollingworth (1886-1939)
  • Pioneered work in
  • Adolescent development
  • Mental Retardation
  • Gifted children
  • 1st to use word gifted to describe children who
    scored exceptionally
    well on intelligence tests
  • Tried to invalidate certain theories of her time
  • Women are inferior to men
  • Currently, women account for 2/3 or more of new
    psych Ph.D.s earned today
  • Eventually theory of functionalism led to
    development of behaviorism applied science

34
Book Check Question
  • Q William James was the 1st to admit a woman to
    his course of study at Harvard. What was the name
    of the woman he allowed to study psychology?
  • A Mary Whiton Calkins
  • Q What did Harvard deny Ms. Calkins?
  • A Her Ph.D. later awarded it posthumously

35
This German philosopher and psychologist was the
first to set up a laboratory to gather empirical
data related to psychology.
  1. Wundt, 1879
  2. James, 1890
  3. Freud, 1900
  4. Watson, 1913
  5. Wertheimer, 1950

36
Psychology Today
  • Psychology today arises from several
    perspectives
  • Biological
  • Evolutionary
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Behavioral
  • Gestalt
  • Humanistic
  • Developmental
  • Cognitive
  • Sociocultural
  • Trait views
  • Eclectic

37
Approaches to Psychology Biological
  • Biological Approach Examines how complex
    chemical and biological processes within the
    nervous and endocrine systems are related to the
    behavior of organisms.
  • Much research is being done today using this
    approach Brain based research.

38
Approaches to Psychology Evolutionary
  • Evolutionary Approach Attempts to explain
    behavior patterns as adaptations naturally
    selected to increase reproductive success.
  • This approach uses Darwins theory of natural
    selection as a basis.
  • Darwin wrote Origin of Species.

39
Approaches to Psychology Psychoanalytic /
Psychodynamic
  • Psychoanalytic Approach Focuses on unconscious
    internal conflicts to explain mental disorders,
    personality, and motivation.
  • Sigmund Freud developed this approach and focused
    on unconscious desires (Freudian slips, life and
    death instincts, libido, early life experiences.
  • Psychodynamic Approach Those that varied
    Freuds ideas but kept with the roots of
    psychoanalysis.

40
Book Check Question
  • Q What is a Freudian Slip?
  • A Allowing you subconscious mind to speak your
    true feelings.
  • Q Can you give an example of a Freudian slip?

41
Approaches to Psychology Behavioral
  • Behavioral Approach Focuses on measuring and
    recording observable behavior. (behavior results
    from learning)
  • Pavlov and his dogs, Watson and Baby Albert,
    Skinner and his rats. (rewards, punishments, and
    associations)
  • All these men believed that psychology should be
    the science of behavior.

42
In psychology, behavior is best defined as
  1. Anything a person says, does, or feels
  2. Any action we can observe and record
  3. Any action, whether observable or not
  4. Anything we can infer from a persons actions
  5. Sensations and Perceptions

43
This approach to psychology focuses on rewards,
punishments, and associations.
  1. Behavioral
  2. Socio-Cultural
  3. Neuroscience
  4. Biological
  5. Cognitive

44
This researcher used classical conditioning to
make dogs salivate by the sound of a bell.
  1. Skinner
  2. Pavlov
  3. Watson
  4. Freud
  5. Wundt

45
Approaches to Psychology Gestalt
  • Max Wertheimer founded Gestalt Psychology
  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts
  • Example A beautiful painting
  • A painting is more than just colors and line
    its an experience
  • So, each person has a completely different
    experience when viewing the world must be
    sensitive to this during therapy.

46
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47
This may seem like one picture, but it can be
perceived as 3 different faces. Can you find
them?
48
More Images
49
Approaches to Psychology Humanistic
  • Humanistic Approach Emphases the importance of
    peoples feelings and view human nature as
    naturally positive and growth seeking.
  • Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) and Carl
    Rogers (Unconditional Positive Regard) led the
    charge.
  • This approach came out the 60s and 70s.

50
According to Maslow, these needs must be met
before all others.
  1. Safety
  2. Self-actualizing
  3. Love and Belongingness
  4. Physiological
  5. Esteem Needs

51
This Humanistic psychologist encouraged his
clients to always focus on the positive.
  1. Watson
  2. Rogers
  3. Skinner
  4. Jung
  5. Rogers

52
Approaches to Psychology Developmental
  • The developmental view emphasizes changes that
    occur across our lifespan.
  • This is the question of nature vs. nurture. What
    has a bigger impact on us, heredity or
    environment?

53
Approaches to Psychology Cognitive
  • Cognitive Approach Emphasizes the importance of
    receiving, storing, and processing information.
  • It also focuses on thinking, reasoning, and using
    language to understand human behavior.
  • Cognition thinking and memory.

54
The way the mind processes, stores, and retrieves
information is the primary concern of this
approach to psychology
  1. Evolutionary
  2. Biological
  3. Socio-Cultural
  4. Behavioral
  5. Cognitive

55
Approaches to Psychology Socio-cultural
  • As time progressed more people were traveling and
    visiting other cultures.
  • Psychologists soon recognized the difference in
    cultural gestures, body language, and spoken
    language.
  • Socio-cultural Approach Examines the cultural
    differences in an attempt to understand, predict,
    and control behavior.

56
A psychologist who explores how Asian and North
American definitions of attractiveness differ is
working within this psychological perspective
  1. Behavioral
  2. Evolutionary
  3. Cognitive
  4. Socio-Cultural
  5. Eclectic

57
Approaches to Psychology Trait View
  • A psychological perspective that views behavior
    and personality as the products of enduring
    psychological characteristics.
  • Accordingly, the view says that behavior results
    from each persons unique combination of traits.
  • Ex. Introversion or extroversion vs. mood swings

58
Approaches to Psychology Eclectic
  • The most widely used psychological approach today
    is eclectic
  • Eclectic No one perspective can best explain
    all human behavior
  • SoEclectic psychologists use a combination of
    all the approaches

59
Can you name all approaches to psychology?
  1. Biological
  2. Evolutionary
  3. Psychoanalytic
  4. Behavioral
  5. Humanistic
  1. Developmental
  2. Cognitive
  3. Socio-Cultural
  4. Trait
  5. Eclectic

60
Lesson Three Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Distinguish the different domains of
    psychology biological, clinical, cognitive,
    counseling, developmental, educational,
    experimental, human factors, industrialorganizati
    onal, personality, psychometric, and social.

61
Lesson 3 Subfields of Psychology
  • Psychology is a broad field
  • There are many jobs available with a psychology
    degree
  • Historically though, this wasnt always the case.
  • Psychology saw a huge boom after World War II.
  • Many opportunities arose in clinical and
    counseling psychology.
  • In addition, school psychology started to become
    more popular as researchers data indicated that
    children perform better when they are taught
    using their respective learning style(s).

62
Subfields of Psychology
  • Clinical Psychologists Evaluate and treat
    mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
    (OCD, Schizophrenia)
  • Counseling Psychologists Help people adapt to
    change or make changes in their lifestyle.
    (Analyze This)
  • Developmental Psychologists Study psychological
    development throughout a lifespan. (Piaget)
  • Engineering Psychologists Do research on how
    people function best with machines. (assembly
    lines)

63
Subfields of Psychology
  • Educational Psychologists Focus on how
    effective teaching and learning take place.
    (consultants)
  • Forensic Psychologists Apply psychological
    principles to legal issues. (crimes)
  • Health Psychologists Concentrate on biological,
    psychological, and social factors associated with
    health and illness. (hospitals)
  • Industrial/Organizational Psychologists Aim to
    improve productivity and the quality of work life
    by applying psychological principles and methods
    to the workplace. (Panera)

64
Subfields of Psychology
  • Neuro-psychologists Explore the relationship
    between brain/nervous systems and behavior.
    (Laboratory research)
  • Psychometricians Focus on methods for acquiring
    and analyzing psychological data. (research
    based)
  • Rehabilitation Psychologists Help clients with
    mental retardation, developmental disabilities,
    and disabilities resulting from neurological
    injury. (stroke)
  • School Psychologists Assess and counsel
    students, consult with educators and parents, and
    perform behavioral intervention when necessary.

65
Subfields of Psychology
  • Social Psychologists Focus on how a persons
    mental life and behavior are shaped by
    interactions with other people. (can be workplace
    related)
  • Sports Psychologists Help athletes refine their
    focus on competition goals, increase motivation,
    and deal with anxiety and fear of failure.
    (Professional Athletes)

66
Which subfield is most directly concerned with
studying how marketing effects human behavior?
  1. Clinical
  2. Personality
  3. Engineering psychology
  4. Industrial- Organizational
  5. Counseling

67
Which of the following individuals is also a
physician?
  1. Clinical psychologist
  2. Psychologist
  3. Experimental psychologist
  4. Psychiatrist
  5. Developmental Psychologist

68
A person working within this subfield of
psychology might work closely with their local
police department to explain the behavior of a
suspect.
  1. Health Psychologist
  2. Criminal Psychologist
  3. Clinical Psychologist
  4. Forensic Psychologist
  5. Counseling Psychologist

69
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