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Information Systems

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Unit 02. Information Systems. LO4 Be able to use IT tools to produce Management Information – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Systems


1
Unit 02
  • Information Systems

LO4 Be able to use IT tools to produce
Management Information
2
Assessment Criteria
  • P1 Explain how organisations use Information
  • P2 Discuss the Characteristics of Good
    Information
  • M1 Assess the improvements which can be made to
    an identified organisations Business Information
    Systems
  • P3 - Explain the issues related to the use of
    information
  • D1 Compare Legal, Ethical and Operational
    issues that may affect organisations.
  • P4 Describe the features and functions of
    Information Systems
  • P5 Identify the information systems used in a
    specified organisation
  • M2 Illustrate the input and output if
    Information within a specified functional areas
    of an organisation
  • D2 Analyse the legal and ethical implications
    of the illustrated inputs and outputs.
  • P6 Select Information to support a business
    decision-making process
  • P7 Use IT tools to produce management
    information.
  • M3 Explain the value of a management
    information system.

3
LO4 Assessment Criteria
  • P6 - Evidence could be in the form of a
    spreadsheet containing information taken from
    business scenario the learners have worked with.
    The learner must illustrate their ability to
    select information accurately to support the
    decision making process for a specified
    organisation. The learner must explain their
    choices for the types of information selected.
  • P7 - Evidence could be in the form of graphs or
    charts to illustrate their use of IT tools but
    the learner must justify their presentation
    format. Graphs or charts or the presentation
    format must show the detail of the data along
    with clear labelling of content and the purpose
    of the produced information should be clearly
    explained. Learners must check to ensure the data
    is valid and accurate.
  • M3 - For the merit criterion M3 which could be an
    extension of P7, learners must explain the value
    of the management tool they selected and the
    business decisions based on it which may follow.

4
LO4 - Assessment Scenario
  • Be able to use IT tools to produce management
    information
  • The tutor should ensure that learners are aware
    of a range of IT tools that they can use to
    produce management information. They should
    understand the potential sources of information
    and the reliability of that information source.
    An example that learners could consider would be
    an organisation with a product which sells well,
    or a product that cannot sell at all and this
    must be part of the companys contingency plans
    and decision making process. The company must
    consider faulty products which need to be
    returned. This can be illustrated in a range of
    formats but a simple spreadsheet displaying a
    variety of products which have sold, returned or
    stock that is clearly not selling is a very
    visual example for learners. The tutor should
    discuss with the learners what decisions they
    would make to help to keep the business
    profitable.
  • Using the data discussed as part of their
    investigation into the decision making process
    learners could create graphs or charts or
    presentations to illustrate and back up good
    decision making for the business. They should be
    taught to check their information and sources to
    ensure the data they use is valid and accurate.
    In class discussion, explore the usefulness of
    such a management tool and the outcomes which may
    follow.

5
P6.1 Application of Information
  • There are several different types of software
    applications available to use in order to collect
    and manage information. Each of these has their
    purpose and each has their inner tools that can
    be used to portray that information to the client
    or customer. These are the widely known and
    widely used applications that have become common
    forms of tools that we use in our day, common to
    the point where we name the company as the tool
    rather than the application, Word instead of Word
    Processing, Excel instead of Spreadsheet etc.
  • Task 1 P6.1 Explain the different types of IT
    Tools that can be used, with examples of use.
  • Using a range of IT tool(s), create, annotate and
    evaluate the techniques used for
  • Apps
  • Communication Software
  • Computer-Aided Manufacturing Software
  • Data Management Software
  • Desktop Publishing Software
  • Graphical Software
  • Multimedia Software
  • Spreadsheet Software
  • Word Processor
  • Utility Software
  • Others
  • This can be done in the form of a presentation or
    report and must highlight the applications data
    management and display in a range of examples.

Apps Communication Software Computer-Aided Manufacturing Software Data Management Software
Desktop Publishing Software Graphical Software Multimedia Software Spreadsheet Software
Word Processor Utility Software Internet searches and facilities Others
6
P6.2 Analysis of Information
  • There are several different types of higher level
    applications available for companies to use in
    order to analyse data and prepare information
    results. Each of these has their purpose and each
    has their advantages that makes them useful to
    portray that information to the client or
    customer.
  • Customer relationship management (CRM) is a model
    for managing a companys interactions with
    current and future customers. It involves using
    technology to organise, streamline with computer
    interfaces or automatic recognition, and link
    together sales, marketing, customer service, and
    technical support. Basically it does all the
    management of information under one package.
  • Marketing - CRM systems can track and measure
    campaigns over different media, such as email,
    search, social media, telephone and direct mail.
    These systems track clicks, responses, leads and
    deals.
  • Customer service and support - CRM systems can be
    used to create, assign and manage customers
    requests, such as call centre software which
    helps direct customers to agents. CRM software
    can also be used to identify and reward loyal
    customers over a period of time.
  • Appointments - CRM systems can automatically
    suggest suitable appointment times to customers
    via e-mail or web browsers. These can then be
    synchronised with the representative or agent's
    calendar
  • Social media - CRM often makes use of social
    media to build customer relationships. Some CRM
    systems integrate social media sites like
    Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook to track and
    communicate with customers sharing opinions and
    experiences with a company, products and services.

7
P6.2 Analysis of Information
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is business
    management software that a company uses to manage
    business processes, including
  • Product planning and development
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing and sales
  • Inventory management
  • Shipping
  • ERP provides an single package live view of core
    business processes, using common databases
    maintained by a database management system. ERP
    systems track business resources such as cash,
    raw materials, production capacity etc. and the
    status of business functions orders, purchase
    orders, and payroll. The applications that make
    up the system share data across the various
    departments such as manufacturing, purchasing,
    sales, accounting, etc. that entered the data.
    ERP facilitates information flow between all
    business functions, and manages connections to
    outside stakeholders.
  • Knowledge Management System refers to a
    (generally IT based) system for managing
    knowledge in organizations for supporting
    creation, capture, storage and dissemination of
    information.
  • The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to
    have ready access to the organisation's
    databases, sources of information, and solutions.
    For example a typical claim justifying the
    creation of a KM system might run something like
    this an engineer could know the metallurgical
    composition of an alloy that reduces sound in
    gear systems. Sharing this information
    organisation wide can lead to more effective
    engine design and it could also lead to ideas for
    new or improved equipment.

8
P6.2 Analysis of Information
  • Artificial intelligence and expert systems are a
    computer system that emulates the decision-making
    ability of a human expert. Expert systems are
    designed to solve complex problems by reasoning
    about knowledge, like an expert, and not by
    following the procedure of a developer. The first
    expert systems were created in the 1970s and then
    proliferated in the 1980s.
  • An expert system has a unique structure,
    different from traditional computer programming.
    It is divided into two parts, one fixed,
    independent of the expert system the inference
    engine, and one variable the knowledge base. To
    run an expert system, the engine reasons about
    the knowledge base like a human. Benefits
    include
  • Quick availability and opportunity to program
    itself - As the rule base is in everyday
    language, expert system can be written much
    faster than a conventional program.
  • Ability to exploit a considerable amount of
    knowledge - The expert system uses a rule base,
    unlike conventional programs, which means that
    the volume of knowledge to program is not a major
    concern.
  • Reliability and Consistency - The reliability of
    an expert system is the same as the reliability
    of a database, i.e. good, higher than that of a
    classical program. Expert systems are apt to
    consistently make the same decisions. If the
    knowledge base is set up with no ambiguity or
    subjectivity, then the expert system (with the
    same input criteria) will always deliver the same
    output. This is useful for expert systems used to
    make decisions that need to have no bias
  • Scalability - Evolving an expert system is to
    add, modify or delete rules. Since the rules are
    written in plain language, it is easy to identify
    those to be removed or modified.
  • Pedagogy - The engines that are run by a true
    logic are able to explain to the user in plain
    language why they ask a question and how they
    arrived at each deduction. In doing so, they show
    knowledge of the expert contained in the expert
    system.
  • Preservation and improvement of knowledge -
    Valuable knowledge can disappear with the death,
    resignation or retirement of an expert. Recorded
    in an expert system, it becomes eternal. To
    develop an expert system is to interview an
    expert and make the system aware of their
    knowledge. In doing so, it reflects and enhances
    it.

9
P6.2 Analysis of Information
  • Predictive modelling and forecasting is a process
    used in predictive analytics to create a
    statistical model of future behaviour using a
    process of data mining in order to forecast
    probabilities and trends. A predictive model is
    made up of a number of predictors, which are
    variable factors that are likely to influence
    future behaviour or results. In marketing, for
    example, a customer's gender, age, and purchase
    history might predict the likelihood of a future
    sale.
  • In predictive modelling, data is collected for
    the relevant predictors, a statistical model is
    formulated, predictions are made and the model is
    validated (or revised) as additional data becomes
    available. The model may employ a simple linear
    equation or a complex neural network, mapped out
    by sophisticated software.
  • Predictive modelling is used widely in
    information technology. In spam filtering
    systems, for example, predictive modelling is
    sometimes used to identify the probability that a
    given message is spam. Other applications of
    predictive modelling include customer
    relationship management, capacity planning,
    change management, disaster recovery, security
    management, engineering, meteorology and city
    planning.
  • Task 2 P6.2 Explain the different types of
    higher levels of IT Tools that can be used to
    analyse information with examples of use.

software (e.g. databases such as CRM, ERP, KMS) artificial intelligence and expert systems predictive modelling and forecasting
10
P6.3 Preparation of Information
  • Cube Systems is an IT company with a range of
    Mobile Data Collecting devices on the market.
    After a period of years their hand scanners for
    Optical Character recognition have not become
    cost effective to continue producing and a
    decision has been made to calculate the cost of
    discontinuing production. The product that cannot
    sell at all and this must be part of the
    companys contingency plans and decision making
    process.
  • In doing so, the company must consider what will
    happen to faulty products which need to be
    returned or replaced. This eventual analysis of
    sales against discontinuing can be illustrated in
    a range of formats but a simple Spreadsheet
    displaying a variety of products which have sold
    against Scanner sales, returned or stock that is
    clearly not selling is a very visual method of
    proposing the discontinuation to management. The
    proposal needs to highlight what decisions they
    would make to help to keep the business
    profitable if it changes the current product
    range.
  • Task 3 P6.3 - Using a range of IT tool(s) to
    evidence the following purposes (create,
    annotate and evaluate the techniques used)
  • An article for the company newsletter that
    focuses on the discontinuation of older
    technologies to a make way for newer technologies
    already embraced by the industry. (DTP)
  • A memo to the director, regarding an emergency
    boardroom meeting to discuss the breakdown of the
    results of the predictive Modelling Program on
    company sales and the impact of continuing
    production of loss leaders. (Word processing
    software)
  • A chart/graph to represent the sales of the
    product/services offered by your business
    (Spreadsheet software) Information can be created
    from the Database.
  • Find a list of alternative scanning technologies
    on the market and future developments that might
    assist the company in making a decision on
    production and RD (Internet)
  • A searchable list of recent and prior product
    sales in report and query form (Database)
  • Present this information as a presentation using
    the gathered information and forms above.
    (Powerpoint)

DTP Word processing Spreadsheet Database Internet Powerpoint
11
P6.4 Prediction of Solutions
  • The reliability of information from external
    sources is vital for the correct decisions within
    a company to be made. The aim of trustworthiness
    in a qualitative inquiry is to support the
    argument that the inquirys findings are worth
    paying attention to. In any qualitative research
    project, four issues of trustworthiness demand
    attention credibility, transferability,
    dependability, and confirmability.
  • Credibility is an evaluation of whether or not
    the research findings represent a credible
    conceptual interpretation of the data drawn from
    the participants original data.
  • Transferability is the degree to which the
    findings of research can apply or transfer beyond
    the bounds of the project.
  • Dependability is an assessment of the quality of
    the integrated processes of data collection, data
    analysis, and theory generation.
  • Confirmability is a measure of how well the
    inquirys findings are supported by the data
    collected.
  • The trustworthiness and validity of a qualitative
    study can be increased by maintaining high
    credibility and objectivity. We all know that
    Wikipedia is not trustworthy but we still go
    there, it is credible, it looks true but this is
    not a guarantee. Its on the Internet so it must
    be true is the common saying
  • Task 4 P6.3 - Using domain tools, evidence and
    discuss the reliability of your sources use to
    prepare and present selected information.
  • Task 5 - M3.1 - Explain the value of a management
    information system that could be used to predict
    future results. (CRM, ERP, KMS, AI Expert System
    or Predictive Modelling)

12
Task List
  • Task 1 P6.1 Explain the different types of IT
    Tools that can be used, with examples of use.
  • Task 2 P6.2 Explain the different types of
    higher levels of IT Tools that can be used to
    analyse information with examples of use.
  • Task 3 P6.3 - Using a range of IT tool(s) to
    evidence the following purposes (create,
    annotate and evaluate the techniques used)
  • Task 4 P6.3 - Using domain tools, evidence and
    discuss the reliability of your sources use to
    prepare and present selected information.
  • Task 5 - M3.1 - Explain the value of a management
    information system that could be used to predict
    future results. (CRM, ERP, KMS, AI Expert System
    or Predictive Modelling)
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