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Modern Evolutionary Classification


Title: Modern Evolutionary Classification Author: User Last modified by: User Created Date: 8/23/2011 11:40:25 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Modern Evolutionary Classification

Modern Evolutionary Classification
Get your textbooks ready... Open to page 516!
  • Hints for understanding Chapter 18.2

Remember the Classification Challenge!
  • During our classification challenge we put
    objects in three groups...
  • Your turn Explain the classification challenge
    game to Manuela!
  • What three ways did we discuss for classifying
  • Physical characteristics
  • Behavioral characterisitics
  • Evolutionary relationships

What does phylogeny mean?
  • Look on page 516... What definition does it give?
  • Phylogeny is the study of how organisms are
    related through evolutionary relationships
  • Why is this a good way to classify organisms?
  • Some ideas are
  • It helps you understand how traits changed over
  • It tells you about which organisms share
  • It helps explain similarities between groups

What is a cladogram?
  • A cladogram is like a family tree... It groups
    organisms based on their evolutionary
  • Organisms closer together in the tree are more
    closely related
  • Which organism is the Chimp
  • most closely related to?
  • The Mouse!

An example...
  • Look at the cladogram ?
  • Which two are most closely related?
  • A and B
  • B and E
  • A and D
  • Which are more closely related?
  • A and B
  • A and E
  • A is equally related
  • to both B and E

B and E evolved from the same common ancestor.
They separated more recently, so they show a
branch closer together.
A shared a common ancestor with the ancestor of
B and E. Later, this ancestor separated into two
groups B and E.
Looking closer at cladograms...
  • You can show derived characters on a cladogram
  • A derived character is...
  • A trait an ancestor had that it passed on to all
    the organisms that came after it... Eg. lungs

All of these animals have lungs.
This is when lungs developed
Explain what these words mean... Read the
definition, then use the picture as an example
  • A clade is...
  • A name for a monophyletic group
  • A monophyletic group is...
  • A group where all the organisms come from the
    same ancestor

Class Aves (birds) Just one part of Clade
Clade Reptilia all have the same ancestor
A class is a group of organisms that share
similarities, but some organisms from the
ancestor might be left out.
  • Now complete the worksheet on chapter 18.2!
  • Use your textbook to help you!
  • You will only know the answers if you READ the
  • Work on your own and write in your own words...
  • ask Manuela for a hint if you need it!
  • Ms. Marcos is still available via email if you
    have a specific question that you cant answer as
    a class.