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Modern Evolutionary Classification

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Title: Modern Evolutionary Classification Author: User Last modified by: User Created Date: 8/23/2011 11:40:25 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Modern Evolutionary Classification


1
Modern Evolutionary Classification
Get your textbooks ready... Open to page 516!
  • Hints for understanding Chapter 18.2

2
Remember the Classification Challenge!
  • During our classification challenge we put
    objects in three groups...
  • Your turn Explain the classification challenge
    game to Manuela!
  • What three ways did we discuss for classifying
    organisms?
  • Physical characteristics
  • Behavioral characterisitics
  • Evolutionary relationships

3
What does phylogeny mean?
  • Look on page 516... What definition does it give?
  • Phylogeny is the study of how organisms are
    related through evolutionary relationships
  • Why is this a good way to classify organisms?
  • Some ideas are
  • It helps you understand how traits changed over
    time
  • It tells you about which organisms share
    ancestors
  • It helps explain similarities between groups

4
What is a cladogram?
  • A cladogram is like a family tree... It groups
    organisms based on their evolutionary
    relationships
  • Organisms closer together in the tree are more
    closely related
  • Which organism is the Chimp
  • most closely related to?
  • The Mouse!

5
An example...
  • Look at the cladogram ?
  • Which two are most closely related?
  • A and B
  • B and E
  • A and D
  • Which are more closely related?
  • A and B
  • A and E
  • A is equally related
  • to both B and E

B and E evolved from the same common ancestor.
They separated more recently, so they show a
branch closer together.
A shared a common ancestor with the ancestor of
B and E. Later, this ancestor separated into two
groups B and E.
6
Looking closer at cladograms...
  • You can show derived characters on a cladogram
  • A derived character is...
  • A trait an ancestor had that it passed on to all
    the organisms that came after it... Eg. lungs

All of these animals have lungs.
This is when lungs developed
7
Explain what these words mean... Read the
definition, then use the picture as an example
  • A clade is...
  • A name for a monophyletic group
  • A monophyletic group is...
  • A group where all the organisms come from the
    same ancestor

Class Aves (birds) Just one part of Clade
Reptilia
Clade Reptilia all have the same ancestor
A class is a group of organisms that share
similarities, but some organisms from the
ancestor might be left out.
8
?
  • Now complete the worksheet on chapter 18.2!
  • Use your textbook to help you!
  • You will only know the answers if you READ the
    text!
  • Work on your own and write in your own words...
  • ask Manuela for a hint if you need it!
  • Ms. Marcos is still available via email if you
    have a specific question that you cant answer as
    a class.
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