Chapter%203:%20The%20Chemistry%20of%20Organic%20Molecules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter%203:%20The%20Chemistry%20of%20Organic%20Molecules

Description:

Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Organic Molecules Protein Structure: 2 models Denaturation When a protein loses its 40/30/20 structure. Renders a protein inactive. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 46
Provided by: Jeffc303
Learn more at: http://biomeyers.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter%203:%20The%20Chemistry%20of%20Organic%20Molecules


1
Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Organic Molecules
2
3.1 Organic Molecules
  • Organic Molecule A molecule that contains carbon
    and hydrogen it may also have O, N, P, or S.

3
Carbon
  • Has four electrons in outer shell, therefore make
    up to four covalent bonds with four other atoms.
  • It can also bond itself to form both chains and
    rings. Carbon chains make up the skeleton or
    backbone of organic molecules.

4
Functional Groups
  • Functional groups clusters of certain atoms,
    attached to the carbon back bone (see figure 3.2).

5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
  • Differences in the carbon backbone and attached
    functional groups cause an organic molecule to
    have different chemical properties.
  • (ex) molecules composed of only carbon and
    hydrogen are hydrophobic (not attracted to
    water). But the addition of a functional group
    like OH makes the molecule polar, or hydrophilic
    (attracted to water).

8
  • 4 classes of organic molecules carbohydrates,
    lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  • Each of these 4 types of macromolecules is a
    polymer, which is a long chain of covalently
    bonded unit molecules called monomers.

9
Monomers and Polymers
  • Carbohydrates polymer polysaccharide monomer
    monosaccharide
  • Proteins polymer polypeptide
  • monomer amino acid
  • Nucleic acids polymer nucleic acid
  • Monomer nucleotide

10
  • Condensation synthesis when a water molecule is
    removed in order to form a bond between two
    monomers. (an OH group is removed from one
    molecule and a hydrogen (H) is removed from the
    other.)
  • Hyrdolysis The means by which polymers are
    broken down. A water molecule is added to break
    the bond between monomers.

11
(No Transcript)
12
3.2 Carbohydrates
  • Energy storage compounds building materials.
  • Monosaccharides simple sugars, carbon back has
    3-7 atoms.
  • Glucose (C6H12O6) and fructose are both hexoses
    6-carbon sugars glucose found in blood of
    animals, fructose found in fruits. (isomers)
  • Ribose and deoxyribose are both pentoses
    5-carbon sugars found in DNA and RNA.

13
Disaccharides
  • Two monosaccharides joined by condensation.
  • Lactose contains galactose and glucose found in
    milk.
  • Maltose two glucose molecules result in starch
    digestion.

14
Polysaccharides
  • Long polymers of monosaccharides
  • Glycogen- have many branches of Glucose. Storage
    vessel for animals. Liver and Muscles. Allows for
    breakdown to happen at many points.
  • Starch- have many branches of glucose. Storage
    vessel of carbohydrates for plants. Seeds and
    roots. Allows for breakdown to happen at many
    points.

15
(No Transcript)
16
Polysaccharides
  • Cellulose Straight and Fibrous (structure
    support) glucose.
  • Hydrogen bonds.
  • Plant cell walls (cotton) (wood)

17
(No Transcript)
18
Polysaccharides Contd
  • Chitin Exoskeletons, amino group attached to
    each glucose.
  • Sutures

19
3.2 Lipids
  • Lipids organic molecules that are generally
    insoluble in water used as long-term energy
    storage compounds in plants and animals.

20
Fats and Oils
  • Glycerol compound with 3 hydroxyl groups (-OH)
    hydroxyl groups are polar which makes glycerol
    soluble in water.
  • Fatty Acids Long hydrocarbon chain with carboxyl
    group (-COOH)at one end
  • Formation of a fat/oil Condensation synthesis
    involving 3 fatty acids and one glycerol, forming
    a triglyceride.

21
  • Fatty acids carboxyl group is polar which makes
    fatty acid soluble in water.
  • Types
  • Saturated no double bonds between carbon atoms,
    causes molecule to be more rigid.
  • Unsaturated have double bonds in carbon chain,
    causes molecule to be more fluid.

22
Waxes
  • Waxes are long-chain fatty acid bonded to a
    long-chain alcohol.
  • Solid at room temp., hydrophobic, usually act as
    a protective coating in plants and animals. (ex.
    ear wax in humans for trapping dirt and dust
    particles, preventing them from reaching the
    eardrum.)

23
Phospholipids
  • Soluble in water contains a glycerol molecule, 2
    fatty acids, and one phosphate group.
  • Phosphate group is the polar head of molecule.
  • Fatty acid chains are nonpolar tails of
    molecule.
  • Plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells is a
    phospholipid bilayer.

24
The Phopholipid Bilayer of Plasma Membranes
25
Steriods
  • Backbone of 4 fused carbon rings, vary according
    to the types of functional groups bonded to the
    rings.
  • Cholesterol- component of animal cell membrane,
    precursor for other types of steroids (estrogen,
    testosterone).

Cholesterol is the molecule from which other
steroids, including the sex hormones, are
synthesized.
26
3.4 Proteins
  • Polymers of amino acids
  • Functions
  • Support / structure Keratin in hair and nails,
    collagen in ligaments, skin, tendons.
  • Regulation Enzymes that speed up reactions
    (catalyze), Hormones like insulin regulates
    levels of glucose in blood

27
Protein Functions contd
  • Defense Antibodies, and antigens
  • Motion contractile proteins (actin and Myosin)
    in muscles.
  • Transport Channel and carrier proteins in plasma
    membrane, hemoglobin (O2)

28
Monomers Of Proteins
  • Amino Acids Carbon Atom bonded to 3 functional
    groups.
  • Animo group (-NH2)
  • Carboxyl group (-COOH) (acidic)
  • R group remainder of molecule determines the
    20 different amino acids found in life unique
    properties.

29
(No Transcript)
30
Polymers of proteins
  • Polypeptides two or more amino joined by
    condensation
  • Peptide bond between Carbon of one amino acid
    and the nitrogen of another.
  • Most proteins are at least 150 A.A. long.
  • Some proteins can contain more than one
    polypeptide chain

31
Protein Structure
  • Primary Structure The sequence of amino acids
    joined by peptide bonds.
  • Secondary Structure Coiling or folding of
    polypeptide chain due to properties of A.A. w/in
    primary structure. (H-bonds b/w different A.A.)
  • Beta sheets
  • Alpha helix

32
(No Transcript)
33
Protein Structure Contd
  • Tertiary Structure The folding and twisting that
    results in the 3-D shape of polypeptide.
  • H-bonds, disulfide links (fxnl group?), Ionic
    bonds, and other molecular interactions between R
    groups.
  • Quaternary Structure arrangement of more than
    one polypeptide chain
  • Hemoglobin globular protein with 4 peptide
    chains
  • Some proteins

34
(No Transcript)
35
Protein Structure 2 models
36
Denaturation
  • When a protein loses its 40/30/20 structure.
  • Renders a protein inactive.
  • Caused when the environment that protein is in
    changes (temperature, pH)
  • Causes interactions/bonds to break
  • Proteins have optimal environments.
  • Renaturation when protein is place back into
    optimal environment it will reform into proper
    structure.

37
High temperatures or various chemical treatments
will denature a protein, causing it to lose its
conformation and hence its ability to function.
If the denatured protein remains dissolved, it
can often renature when the chemical and physical
aspects of its environment are restored to
normal.
38
Importance of Denaturation / Renaturation
  • Regulation This is a way for cells to regulate
    which chemical reactions will happen and when
    they will occur.
  • Not very efficient if cells are undergoing all
    reaction all at once.

39
Nucleic Acids
  • Three types of nucleic acids

40
1) DNA
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the genetic
    material that store information for replicating
    itself and the sequence of amino acids to make
    all of an organisms proteins
  • Monomers nucleotide
  • There are three molecules that make up a
    nucleotide
  • Phosphate functional group
  • Nitrogen containing base
  • Pentose monosaccharide deoxyribose
  • There are four types of nucleotides that are
    determined by the type of base each has
    Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, and Guanine

41
DNA Continued
  • The different nucleotides are joined together by
    a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide
    and the sugar of another. (SugarPhosphate
    Backbone) Process?
  • DNA has two strands of nucleotides that are
    joined together by hydrogen bond between
    different bases (A-T, T-A, C-G, G-C)
  • This results in the double-helix

42
(No Transcript)
43
2) RNA
  • RNA (ribonucleic acid) involved in the process
    of making proteins form DNA.
  • Similar to DNA except
  • Single Stranded
  • Ribose instead of Deoxyribose
  • Uracil instead of Thymine

44
3) ATP
  • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) supplies energy
    for synthetic reactions and for all energy
    requiring processes in cells. (a cells energy
    currency)
  • Adenosine ribose adenine
  • Triphosphate three phosphates bonded together

45
ATP Contd
  • High energy molecule due to the instability of
    phosphates.
  • ATP ? ADP P H20 (energy) Reversible reaction
    constantly recycled in cells
About PowerShow.com