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Birth and the Newborn Baby

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... How Birthing Has Changed Home Deliveries Midwives Reducing ... Vaginal Versus Cesarean Delivery Vaginal is ... factors Newborns and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Birth and the Newborn Baby


1
Birth and the Newborn Baby
  • Chapter 5

2
Childbirth and Culture How Birthing Has Changed
  • Home Deliveries
  • Midwives
  • Reducing the Risks of Childbirth
  • Antibiotics
  • Safe anesthesia
  • Improved hygiene
  • Drugs for inducing labor

3
Childbirth and Culture How Birthing Has Changed
  • Contemporary Settings for Childbirth
  • Hospital
  • Home births with a trained nurse-midwife
  • Homelike birth centers
  • Rooming-in policies
  • Demedicalizing and humanizing the experience

4
The Birth Process
  • Labor
  • Parturition
  • Begins about two weeks before delivery
  • Uterine, cervical and other changes occur
  • False contractions (Braxton-Hicks)

5
The Birth Process
  • Stages of Childbirth
  • Dilation of the cervix
  • Lasts 12 to 14 hours
  • Descent and emergence of the baby
  • Lasts 1 to 2 hours
  • Expulsion of the placenta
  • Lasts 10 minutes to 1 hour

6
The Birth Process
  • Electronic Fetal Monitoring
  • Tracks the fetuss heartbeat during labor and
    delivery
  • Externally or internally
  • Telometry
  • Sends information remotely

7
The Birth Process
  • Vaginal Versus Cesarean Delivery
  • Vaginal is the usual method
  • Reasons for Cesarean
  • Labor progresses too slowly
  • Fetus seems to be in trouble
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Breech or transverse position of baby

8
The Birth Process
  • Medicated Versus Nonmedicated Delivery
  • Natural childbirth
  • Lamaze method
  • Medicated
  • Local
  • Pedunal block
  • Analgesic
  • Regional
  • Epidural or spinal

9
The Newborn Baby
  • Adrenaline and Noradrenaline Are Produced by the
    Babys Body During Birth
  • Causes lungs to clear
  • Mobilizes stored fuel to nourish cells
  • Sends blood to the heart and brain
  • May promote bonding with the mother

10
The Newborn Baby
  • Size and Appearance
  • Neonates in the U.S. average about 7 ½ pounds and
    20 inches long
  • Large head ¼ the body length
  • Red skin
  • Birthmarks
  • Receding chin

11
The Newborn Baby
  • Size and Appearance
  • Misshapen head (lasts about 1 week)
  • Soft spots (fontanels)
  • Lanugo
  • Vernix caseosa

12
The Newborn Baby
  • Body Systems
  • Most babies begin breathing soon after they are
    exposed to air
  • If over 5 minutes ?anoxia or hypoxia
  • Most other systems begin functioning 4 to 6 hours
    after delivery
  • Nourishment
  • Elimination of waste
  • Temperature regulation

13
The Newborn Baby
  • Medical and Behavioral Assessment
  • Apgar Scale
  • Appearance (color)
  • Pulse (heart rate)
  • Grimace (reflex irritability)
  • Activity (muscle tone)
  • Respiration (breathing)

14
The Newborn Baby
  • States of Arousal and Activity Levels
  • State of arousal is inborn
  • Most new babies spend 75 of their time asleep
  • Alternates between quiet and active sleep
  • As the child grows into toddlerhood its sleep
    time decreases
  • Sleep schedules vary across cultures

15
States of Arousal
16
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Low Birth Weight
  • Usually from inadequate prenatal nutrition
  • Preterm (premature) infants ? under 37 weeks of
    gestation
  • Small-for-date
  • 12.5 percent of U.S. infants are preterm
  • 8.1 percent have low birth weight
    (under 5 ½ pounds)

17
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Low Birth Weight
  • Factors concerning having a low-birth-weight baby
  • Demographic and socioeconomic factors
  • 13.7 percent of African American babies have low
    birth weight
  • Medical factors predating the pregnancy
  • Prenatal behavioral and environmental factors
  • Medical conditions associated with the pregnancy

18
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Low Birth Weight
  • Immediate treatment and outcomes
  • Feeding intravenously
  • Place infant in an isolette
  • Administering surfactant

19
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Low Birth Weight
  • Long-term outcomes
  • Adult-onset diabetes
  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • In extremely low-birth-weight infants
  • Neurological
  • Sensory
  • Cognitive
  • Educational
  • Behavioral

20
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Postmaturity
  • 42 weeks gestation
  • Tend to be long and thin
  • Complicates labor
  • Risk of brain damage or death
  • Induction of labor is common

21
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Stillbirth
  • Death of a fetus at or after the 20th week of
    gestation
  • Perinatal death
  • Death of a baby within 24 hours after childbirth
  • Women over 35 or under 20 have higher risk

22
Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath
  • Can a Supportive Environment Overcome Effects of
    Birth Complications?
  • Infant Health and Development Program
  • Kauai Study
  • Protective factors

23
Newborns and Parents
  • Childbirth and Bonding
  • Mother-infant bond
  • Ethological approach
  • Evolutionary perspective
  • Imprinting
  • Konrad Lorenz

24
Newborns and Parents
  • What Do Newborns Need From Their Mother?
  • Harry Harlows experiment
  • Comfort of close bodily comfort
  • Fathers Role
  • Differs by culture
  • Changed much since mothers began to work outside
    the home
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