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The Somali Civil War

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Title: The Somali Civil War


1
The Somali Civil War
2
Geography
  • Capital Mogadishu
  • Coastline 2,720 km
  • Horn of Africa
  • North
  • hilly
  • Central South
  • flat

"Somalia Map - African Countries, Map of Somalia
Facts Landforms - World Atlas." World Atlas
including Geography Facts, Maps, Flags -
Worldatlas.com. Web. 07 Jan. 2012.
lthttp//www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/afric
a/so.htmgt.
3
Somalia Geography
  • Pay close attention here.
  • Somalia is the easternmost country in all of
    Africa.
  • Together with Ethiopia, Somalia occupies what is
    called The Horn of Africa.
  • The Horn of Africa takes its name from the fact
    that if you look at this part of Africa (on a
    map), it looks like the horn of a rhinoceros.
  • On your maps, label (1) Somalia (2) Mogadishu (3)
    The Horn of Africa

4
Geography
  • Mogadishu, at 1.5 million people, is the largest
    and most important city in Somalia. It is a
    coastal city (shown in the picture). Somalia has
    a predominantly desert climaterain is irregular,
    and the weather is hot year-round. One last
    thing is that Somalia is mostly flat. The only
    highlands in Somalia are in the northern part of
    the country.

5
Climate
  • Annual Rainfall
  • NE Less than 4 inches
  • Central 8-12 inches
  • SW and NW 20-24 inches
  • Seasons
  • Gu (rainy) April-June
  • Hagaa (dry) July-September
  • Day (rainy) October-November
  • Jiilaal (dry) December-March

6
Climate (cont.)
  • Somalia mainly has a desert climate.
  • They experience irregular rainfall.
  • The northeast experiences monsoons from December
    through February. The southwest region
    experiences monsoons from May to October.
  • Hot and humid periods exist between monsoons.
  • Moderate temperatures exist in the north, and hot
    temperatures in the south.

7
Natural Disasters
  • Droughts
  • A recurring disaster in Somalia
  • Dust Storms
  • Usually occur over the eastern plains during the
    summer season
  • Floods
  • Only occur during the rainy season

8
Environmental Issues
  • Famine
  • The UN declared a famine in 5 southern regions of
    Somalia in 2011
  • 3.2 Million people survive on food aid
  • 2.8 million of those live in Southern Somalia
  • Use of Contaminated Water
  • Costal Contamination
  • Loss of Biodiversity

9
Land Degradation
  • Deforestation
  • Overgrazing
  • Soil erosion
  • Desertification

10
People
  • There are only 10 million people in Somalia.
    Somalia is sparsely populated due to the
    desert-like climate and history of civil war.
    Almost all Somalis are Muslim. They worship
    Allah. Pictured is an Islamic mosque in
    Mogadishu.

11
People
  • 60 nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists
    (north)
  • 25 farmers who live mainly in the fertile
    agricultural zone (south)
  • 15 urban

" Somalia Tips." Somalia Tips. N.p., n.d. Web. 7
Jan. 2012. lthttp//somaliatips.files.wordpress.com
"Understanding Somalia." MercatorNet promoting
human dignity. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2012.
lthttp//www.mercatornet.com/articles/
12
(No Transcript)
13
Somalia Population
Year Population Rank Percent
Change Date of Information 2008
9,558,666 85 4.82
July 2008 est.
urban population 37 of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization 4.2 annual rate of
change (2005-2010)
Population growth rate 2.824 (2008 est.) Age
structure 0-14 years 44.7 (male
2,143,758/female 2,132,869) 15-64 years 52.8
(male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879) 65 years and
over 2.5 (male 100,655/female
138,943) (2008 est.)
14
Population
  • Birth rate 44.12 per 1,000 persons in the
    population
  • Death rate 15.89 per 1,000 persons in the
    population

Median age total 17.5 years male 17.4 years
female 17.6 years (2008 est.) Infant mortality
rate total 110.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male 120.17 deaths/1,000 live births female
101.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
15
Population
  • Total fertility rate 6.6 children born/woman
    (2008 est.)
  • Life expectancy at birth total population 49.25
    years male 47.43 years female 51.12 years
    (2008 est.)
  • Sex ratio at birth 1.03 male(s)/female under
    15 years 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years 1
    male(s)/female 65 years and over 0.72
    male(s)/female total population 1
    male(s)/female (2008 est.)

16
Population of Somaliland
  • Estimated at 3.5 million
  • Average population growth rate
  • Estimated at 3.1
  • Average life expectancy for males 50
  • females 55

17
People
  • Ethnic groups Somali 85, Bantu and other
    non-Somali 15 (including Arabs 30,000)
  • Religions Sunni Muslim
  • Languages Somali (official), Arabic, Italian,
    English

18
People
  • Somalis maintain Islamic traditional norms about
    handshaking, limiting physical contact to persons
    of the same sex.

Not all people from Somalia are ethnic Somali.
The Bantus, in particular, may have special
needs because of their historical marginalization
in Somalia and distinct language and culture.
19
People
  • Social Structure, Family, and Gender
  • The family is deeply valued in Somali culture
  • Approximately one-fifth of the population lives
    in polygamous households
  • Marriages traditionally have been arranged, but
    marriages based on love are increasingly
    permitted.
  • The previous socialist regime made some efforts
    to improve opportunities for women so that Somali
    women generally have more freedom to learn, work,
    and travel than most other Muslim women.

20
People
  • Somali Clans can serve as a source of conflict or
    solidarity
  • They often form alliances for protection, access
    to water, or political power
  • These alliances are very important to many
    Somalis and can outweigh their allegiance to a
    unified country of Somalia

21
Economy
  • Somalia is poor, yeah. . .Did you expect it to be
    rich? Per capita GDP is around 600. Somalia is
    a very large livestock producer. Many Somalis
    were nomads and pastoralists who work their
    livestock. Livestock produces about 40 of GDP
    and 65 of export earnings. Somalia currently
    has very little industry.

22
Economy
  • GDP (purchasing power parity) 5.387 billion
    (2007 est.)
  • GDP - real growth rate 2.6 (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 600 (2007 est.) GDP -
composition by sector agriculture 65
industry 10 services 25 (2000 est.)
23
Economy
  • Currency Somali shilling
  • Exchange rates Somali shillings per US dollar -
    1,438.3 (2006) official rate the unofficial
    black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per
    dollar as of February 2007
  • Labor force 3.7 million (few skilled laborers)
    (1975 estimate)
  • Labor force - by occupation
  • agriculture 71 (reminder arable land 1.64)
    industry and services 29
  • (1975 estimate)

24
Economy
  • Exports 300 million f.o.b. (2006)
  • Exports - commodities livestock, bananas, hides,
    fish, charcoal, scrap metal
  • Exports - partners UAE 50.7, Yemen 21, Oman
    6.1 (2007)

25
Economy
  • Imports 798 million f.o.b. (2006)
  • Imports - commodities manufactures, petroleum
    products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
  • Imports - partners Djibouti 34.4, India 9.1,
    Kenya 9, Oman 6, UAE 5.6, Yemen 5.5 (2007)

26
Child labor
  • UNICEF estimates 41.9 of children (5 to 14
    years) working.
  • Most worked in agriculture and domestic service.
  • Children used for forced labor or sexual
    exploitation.

27
Social Well-Being Indicators
  • Poverty Rate
  • Extreme Poverty 43
  • General Poverty 73
  • Income Inequality
  • Literacy
  • Total 37.8
  • Male 49.7
  • Female 25.8

28
Education
  • Primary Education Attendance
  • Male 24
  • Female 22
  • Secondary School Attendance
  • Male 8
  • Female 4

Lowest in the World! !
29
Education
  • No government operated public school system or
    required education since1991.
  • 62 of primary schools in Somalia required
    students to pay fees.

School in Somali Refugee Camp ?
30
Access to Water and Sanitation
  • Access to improved drinking source 29
  • Access to improved sanitation 25
  • High prices 7
  • Long walks 20km
  • Prioritizing
  • Children and IDPs
  • diarrheal diseases

31
Health
  • Malnutrition
  • Maternal Health
  • Communicable Diseases
  • HIV/AIDS
  • STIs

32
Colonial Background
  • Britain and Italy colonized Somalia
  • After WWII Italy had to give its holding to
    England
  • In 1960, Somalia declared independence
  • Despite sharing the same language, ethnicity and
    religion there are deep divisions
  • A system of rival clans and sub-clans made
    establishing a stable government almost impossible

33
History
  • Clans
  • Imperialism (late 1800s)
  • Britain,Italy,France
  • Independence (June 26th,1960)
  • United Republic of Somalia
  • Abdullahi Issa Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
  • Abdirashid Ali Shermarke

34
History (cont.)
  • Assassination of President Sharmarke
  • Army seizes power, 1969
  • General Siad Barre leads overthrow regime

35
History
  • Somalia was formed in 1960.
  • Military takeover in 1969.
  • Mohamed Siad Barre became dictator.
  • Overthrown in 1991.

36
Civil War
  • Socialist dictator, Muhammad Siad Barre, is
    president from 1969-1991, when he is deposed in
    military coup
  • Essentially, the parties involved are
  • 1. the US supported Transitional Federal
    Government
  • 2. the Union of Islamic Courts which has a
    militant wing
  • 3. various warlords

37
Republic of Somaliland
  • Declared its own local government in 1991.
  • Remains unrecognized by any international
    organization.
  • Rebelled against the Siad Barre style
    dictatorship.

38
Rise of Siad Barre
  • Scientific Socialism
  • Marxism Koranic interpretation
  • Expansionist Somali nationalism
  • Homogenous, centralized nation-state
  • Unstable because of clans
  • Attempted to reclaim territory from Ethiopia

39
Siad Barre's Dictatorship
  • Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC)
  • End "tribalism, nepotism, corruption, and
    misrule"
  • Aligned with Soviet Union
  • National Security Services (NSS)
  • 'Somali Gestapo'
  • Clan favoritism
  • M.O.D (the Mareehaan, Ogaden and Dulbahante)

40
Ogaden War (1977-1978)
  • Ogaden region in Ethiopia
  • Somali National Army
  • 3 years after fall of Ethiopias Emperor Haile
    Sellasie
  • Soviet Union Cuba alliance change
  • Supported new Marxist Ethiopia
  • Withdrew support from Barre

41
Ogaden War (1977-1978) cont.
  • Effects of the war
  • 1983 ? 1.3 million refugees in Somalia
  • Economy in the north
  • Clan favoritism resentment
  • Issaq clan
  • Ogadeen clan

42
Brief History of Somalia
  • Post-World War II
  • Was a protectorate of Great Britain
  • 1960
  • Achieved independence
  • 1970s
  • Military dictatorship
  • Under Mohamed Siad Barre
  • 1980s
  • Somalia's strategic importance was diminished due
    to end of the Cold War
  • Government became even more totalitarian

43
Uprising in the NW (1978-1982)
  • Majeerteen clan
  • The Red Berets
  • Destroyed water reservoirs
  • 2,000 Majeerteen died from thirst
  • Violence against women/children

44
Overthrow of Siad Barre
  • United States government provided 163.5 million
    to Barre
  • Lost Iranian ally
  • 1979 revolution
  • Horn of Africa to Gulf oil shipping routes
  • Barre's army 120,000 troops
  • Somali National Movement (SNM)
  • 1979
  • Isaaq exiles
  • 1980s ? Ogadeen refugees in (north) Isaaq clan
    territory
  • 1988 SNM raided refugee camp
  • Barre civilian assault

45
Overthrow of Siad Barre (cont.)
  • United Somali Congress (USC)
  • 1989
  • Hawiye clan exiles
  • Red Berets
  • Violence against Hawiye and Isaaq clans
  • Bombing of Hargeisa, 2nd largest city, 70
    destroyed, 400,000 fled to Ethiopia
  • January 27th,1991 ? USC fought back
  • Drove Siad Barre out of Mogadishu

46
The Result
  • Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali National Movement (SNM)
  • NW
  • Mohammad Ibrahim Egal ? president of Somaliland
  • United Somali Congress (USC)
  • Seized Mogadishu
  • Siad Barre dies in exile 4 years later ? Nigeria

47
Civil War
  • The civil war disrupted agriculture and food
    distribution in Somalia.
  • The tribes waged vicious wars against each other
    to control water, and pasture, and cattle.
  • With the country embroiled in a civil war,
    famine struck, and many Somalis began to diean
    estimated 300,000.

48
Famine and Starvation in Somalia
  • When Somalias government collapsed in 1991, the
    resulting civil war led to severe disruptions in
    food production and distribution.
  • An estimated 300,000 Somalis starved to death.

49
Somali Civil War 1991
  • Results of the Somali Civil War
  • Barre is ousted from leadership
  • Disrupted agriculture, food water distribution
  • Based on clan allegiances and competition for
    resources

50
Somali Civil War 1991
  • More Results
  • Famine approx. 300,000 dead
  • UN Security Council authorized the limited
    peacekeeping operation
  • Completely disregarded by the warring factions

51
More Violence in Somalia
  • USC has no plans for permanent government
  • No reconciliation between factions and armed
    groups
  • USC splits
  • Muhammad Fara Aidid Ali Mahdi
  • Mahdi ? Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA)
  • Declared himself president of Somalia

52
Warlords
  • The country was ruled by a number of warlords
  • A person with power who has military and civil
    control over a an area
  • Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a
    central government
  • Alliance of warlords was formed in 1992
  • Operated under the authority of Mohamed Farrah
    Aidid
  • Declared himself President of Somalia

53
More Violence in Somalia (cont.)
  • Somali National Front (SNF)
  • Siad Barre's supporters
  • Guerbaharre
  • 1991 ? 6 months open combat between groups
  • September 1991 ? USC dominated, more street
    fighting in Mogadishu

54
Effects of Turmoil
  • Government civil society decayed
  • Food distribution collapsed
  • Drought exacerbated the effects
  • Famine in south
  • 1992, international aid
  • 80 food shipments looted by armed groups
    government
  • The United Nations decides to intervene

55
Role of United Nations
  • In 1992, the United Nations (UN) authorized a
    peacekeeping force, whose objective was to
    provide food supplies to Somalia and a safe,
    orderly way of distributing that food.
  • In a way, the UNs actions in Somalia were
    similar to what see saw in Rwanda. Remember
    that?
  • The difference in Somalia is that UN forces were
    there to provide food during a famine.
  • The problem the UN encountered, though, was that
    the warring tribes simply attacked the UN food
    supplies, stole the food, and then sold it
    themselves, making lots of .
  • The worst of these thieves was a ruthless warlord
    named Mohammed Farah Aidid.

56
United States Response
  • In December of 1992, President Bush ordered
    Operation Restore Hope
  • Primary mission of restoring order in Somalia
  • President Bill Clinton took office in January
    1993 and continued the Operation

57
The United States in Somalia
  • Operation Restore Hope
  • August October 1992

58
Mohammed Farah Aidid / Operation Restore Hope
  • Mohammed Farah Aidid was a tribal warlord at the
    center of Somalias civil war in 1991-1993.
  • Aidid became notorious for attacking and
    plundering UN food and medical supplies.
  • While thousands of Somalis were starving to
    death, Aidids forces were stealing relief
    supplies, then selling them make money.
  • In December 1992, under President George HW Bush,
    the United States organized a military coalition
    whose objective was to stop the warlords
    (including Aidid) and to create a safe
    environment in Somalia so that food and medicine
    could be distributed.
  • This mission was called Operation Restore Hope.
  • Initially, Operation Restore Hope was successful.
    The famine was alleviated, and by May 1993, most
    of the US troops were withdrawn.
  • Aidid did not give up, however, and after May
    1993 he devised new attacks on the UN
    peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in
    Somalia.
  • The US then made the fateful decision to either
    kill or capture Aidid.
  • This set the stage for what became known as
    Blackhawk Down.

59
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (April 1992
- March 1993)
  • Monitor cease fire
  • Escort delivery of humanitarian supplies
  • Resolution 751 (1992)
  • Mission strengthens
  • Resolution 767 (1992)
  • Operational zones Berbera, Bossasso, Mogadishu
    and Kismayo
  • Military of 750 units, all ranks
  • Worked with United Task Force (UNITAF)
  • Resolution 794 (1992) All means necessary
  • 24 countries led by the USA

60
US Involvement
  • UN and US begin to provide humanitarian and
    nation building aid prior to 1993
  • In June of 1993 24 UN workers were brutally
    murdered prompting the UN to demand the arrest
    and trial of those responsible
  • US led air raids resulted in the death of
    respected clan leaders and resentment

61
UNOSOM I (cont.)
  • 100-Day Action Plan
  • massive infusion of food aid
  • aggressive expansion of supplementary feeding
  • provision of basic health services and mass
    measles immunization
  • urgent provision of clean water, sanitation and
    hygiene
  • provision of shelter materials, blankets and
    clothes
  • simultaneous delivery of seeds, tools and animal
    vaccines with food rations
  • prevention of further refugee outflows
  • institution-building and rehabilitation of civil
    society.
  • Factions shelled and hijacked supply ships and
    vehicles

62
The Home-Front
  • Many Somalis resented the international forces
  • Many took up arms and actively resisted the UN
    and US
  • On June 5, 1993, one of the deadliest attacks on
    UN forces in Somalia occurred
  • 24 UN soldiers were killed in Mogadishu
    (controlled by Aidid)

63
The UN Responds
  • The next day, the UN issued Resolution 837
    calling for the arrest and trial of those
    responsible for the ambush
  • US and UN began an attack on Aidids control
  • Aidid remained defiant, and the violence between
    Somalis and UN troops escalated

64
The Battle of Mogadishu
  • Fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu,
    Somalia
  • Operation was to capture top officials to Aidid

65
Blackhawk Down (1993)
  • Essentially, the US put together an elite team of
    soldiers called Task Force Ranger to hunt down
    and kill or capture Mohammed Farah Aidid and
    Aidids top lieutenants.
  • On October 3, 1993, the US knew that Aidid was in
    a building in the city of Mogadishu (the capital
    city of Somalia).
  • Task Force Ranger attempted to execute a complex
    snatch and grab mission to capture Aidid.
  • As part of this mission, several Blackhawk
    helicopters were used to drop elite US forces off
    at specific locations in Mogadishu.

66
)
  • Task Force Ranger was not expecting to encounter
    hostile resistance from Aidids men.
  • However, as the Blackhawk helicopters began
    dropping the US soldiers into Mogadishu, the
    Americans ran into one hell of a firefight.
  • Some of the Somalis were using RPGs
    (Rocket-Propelled Grenades), and they used these
    weapons to shoot down 2 of the Blackhawks.

67
  • For the next 24 hours, US forces scrambled to
    save the crews of the two downed Blackhawks.
  • This became a red-hot firefight between American
    forces and Somali tribal soldiers.
  • 19 Americans were killed.
  • One of slain Blackhawk pilots was dragged
    through the streets of Mogadishu, footage that
    sickened Americans.

68
The Battle of Mogadishu
  • During the operation, two US Black Hawk
    helicopters were shot down
  • Some soldiers were trapped at the crash sites
  • A combined task force was sent to rescue the
    trapped soldiers
  • Results
  • US Forces
  • 19 Killed
  • 84 Wounded
  • Somali Forces
  • Est. 700 Killed
  • Est. 1,500 Wounded

69
Fallout from Mogadishu
70
Black Hawk Down
  • Somalis shot down a Black Hawk helicopter killing
    the soldiers on board and the US withdrew-policy
    during Clinton Administration
  • After 9/11 the US was very concerned about
    terrorism and the strategic location of Somalia
    as a breeding ground for terrorists
  • US began aiding warlords, training Ethiopian
    forces and providing counter-terrorism training
    to other nations in the region

71
Black Hawk Down
Black Hawk Down A Story of Modern War by Mark
Bowden
"Black Hawk Down (2001) - IMDb." The Internet
Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 07 Jan. 2012.
lthttp//www.imdb.com/title/tt0265086/gt.
Web. 07 Jan. 2012. lthttp//inquirer.philly.com/pa
ckages/somalia/gt
72
Fallout from Mogadishu
  • American Foreign Policy
  • Became a cautionary influence on US policy
  • When US considers sending soldiers into foreign
    crisis zones remember Somalia
  • Americans were repulsed at the images of
    soldiers' corpses being dragged through the
    streets

73
Reconciliation
  • January 1993, meeting convened by the
    Secretary-General
  • 14 Somali political movements agreed on a
    ceasefire
  • pledged to hand over all weapons to UNITAF and
    UNOSOM
  • General Agreement of 8 January 1993
  • Agreement On Implementing The Cease-fire And On
    Modalities Of Disarmament
  • Agreement On The Establishment Of An Ad Hoc
    Committee
  • The Conference on National Reconciliation in
    Somalia (March 1993)
  • leaders of 15 political movements endorsed an
    accord on disarmament, reconstruction and the
    formation of a transitional government.

74
Transition to UNOSOM II
  • Supplanted UNITAF
  • To help ensure a secure environment in Somalia
  • Rebuild and reestablish
  • Infrastructure
  • Economy
  • Chapter VII, Resolution 814 (1993)

75
UNOSOM II (cont.)
  • Soldiers killed by factions ? disregarded
    agreements of ceasefire
  • Resolution 837 (1993)
  • Take all necessary measures to defend armed
    attacks
  • Quick Reaction Force
  • Nairobi Declaration Addis Ababa Agreement
  • Peace throughout Somalia ceasefire
  • Factions/clans broke agreement
  • Secretary-General urged another conference to
    appoint new government

76
UNOSOM II(March 1993 - March 1995)
  • Transition of operational control from UNITAF
  • Effective deployment and consolidation of United
    Nations operational control throughout Somalia
    and the border regions
  • Reduction of UNOSOM II military activity, and
    assistance to civil authorities in exercising
    greater responsibility
  • Reduction of UNOSOM II force

77
End of UNOSOM II
  • Secretary-General only the Somalis themselves
    could establish acceptable peace
  • International community could help the process ?
    can't be sustained indefinitely
  • Withdraw of UNOSOM II force ? March 28,1995
  • United Nations agencies and organizations
  • NGOs

78
The End of International Involvement
  • Withdrawal
  • President Clinton called for a full withdrawal by
    March 1994.
  • Marines were completely removed from the area by
    1995
  • The UN also withdrew forces
  • Ended the UN effort to help a country in anarchy
    and civil war

79
The End of International Involvement
  • Results
  • Secretary of Defense Les Aspin resigned
  • Blamed for denying the US Army permission to use
    tanks
  • US politicians didnt want tanks in Somalia
  • Thought it would look bad for peacekeeping

80
Post UNOSOM Somalia
  • Central government
  • Law system

81
TNG and the ICU
  • International Conferences
  • Area of conflict
  • ICU dominance
  • Effect of ICU rule

Al-Shabaab declares black Islamic flag in Somalia
82
ICU and Ethiopia
  • ICU's power spread
  • Ethiopian outlook
  • African Union

83
ICU-TNG Conflict
  • African Union thwarted
  • Arms buildup
  • Jihad
  • Baidoa

84
Puntland State of Somalia
  • Claimed autonomy in 1998
  • Do not want to be fully independent of Somalia.
  • Have developed at a greater rate than mainland
    Somalia.

85
Population of Puntland
  • Estimated at 2.4 million
  • Population growth rate of Puntland State is
    currently very high due to the influx of people
    from war-torn southern Somalia and from
    neighboring countries.

86
Puntland Signs of Development
  • Ministry of Women Development and Family Affairs
  • Ministry of Finance
  • Ministry of Health
  • Ministry of Education

87
Somalia
  • Overall, the government has little control and is
    instable.
  • Forbes magazine ranked Somalia as the most
    dangerous destination in the world.

88
Presently
  • Somalis are worried they will wind up being ruled
    by the Ethiopians-resentful of the standing
    Ethiopian army occupying their country
  • Ethiopia is concerned about Eritrea using the
    situation (instability in Somalia) to invade them
    and use Somalia to launch attacks against them

89
Ethiopia Invades
  • Their civil war in the 1990s destroyed the
    country's government
  • In 2006 Ethiopia invaded Somalia (with help from
    the United States) to prevent it from becoming an
    Islamist government

90
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91
Ethiopian Invasion
  • Victory
  • ICU's Fate

92
Islamist Groups
  • Al-Shabaab
  • Hizbul Islam
  • Islamic Courts Union

93
War Leads to Piracy
  • As a result of that, foreign fishing ships
    started fishing in Somali waters for its tuna,
    which caused economic problems in Somalia's
    fishing industry.
  • The fishermen, with access to small arms and
    portable rockets, went out to sea to attack the
    foreign cargo, and cargo ships.
  • This eventually turned into organized piracy

94
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95
Pirates ??
  • Due to the extreme limited opportunities to make
    a living in Somalia many have turned to Piracy in
    the Gulf of Aiden.
  • Began when neighboring countries began illegally
    fishing in Somali waters
  • Angry Somali fishermen boarded and demanded
    fees
  • Called themselves Coast guards, organized like
    a military

96
  • Today Somali pirates seize anything from
    freighters to luxury cruise liners
  • Pirates in 2008 pulled in as much as 150
    million, placing it as Somalias biggest industry
  • Bosses can pull in 2 million/year

97
  • http//www.marinebuzz.com/marinebuzzuploads/Somali
    PiratesHowRansomCollectedisSpent_2191/Somali_pirac
    y.jpg

98
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Why and how they do it
  • They captured merchant ships off the coast of
    Yemen, Somalia, and Kenya and hold them for
    ransom
  • The ship owners and the insurance companies pay
    the ransom because it is cheaper to pay it than
    to lose the ship and its cargo

100
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101
Piracy
  • Ships from the United states, United Kingdom,
    Russia, and India patrol the Somalia coats and
    try to stop the piracy
  • Ships are now arming themselves to protect
    against attack from pirates

102
How to Handle the Piracy Issue
  • Some people have suggested to use amphibious or
    air attacks on the pirates
  • Others think we should pay them off
  • The best solution is to get a functioning
    government in Somalia to control it citizens

103
Coalition Government
  • Moderate Islamists and the TNG
  • Mogadishu
  • Technocratic government

104
Recent Occurences
  • Drought and famine
  • Al-Shabaab
  • Possible AU peacekeeper increase
  • Kenya
  • UN

105
Problems that the UN face in Somalia
  • United Nations aid workers in the country are
    limited as there is no established protection on
    site. Aid workers face the constant threat of
    kidnapping for ransom.
  • International aid has been routinely looted due
    to a variety of factors including government
    corruption and desperate food and health
    conditions.
  • Islamist groups view the United Nations with
    distrust and deny it access to their land,
    believing that the United Nations has a political
    agenda.

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UN Role In Somalia
  • No large-scale United Nations peacekeeping
    operation in the
  • country since the UNOSOM II.
  • Passed Resolution 1838, in which an anti-piracy
    fleet is
  • sanctioned to operate off of Somalia's lawless
    coastline.
  • The World Food Programme (WFP), a United Nations
    program, also has a presence in the country.
  • A United Nations program designated towards
    establishing a functioning government in Somalia
    called the United Nations Political Office for
    Somalia is currently active in Kenya.

107
Solutions
  • UN Peacekeepers
  • Offensive action
  • Protection of aid
  • Protection of government institutions
  • United Nations Political Office for Somalia
  • Development
  • IMF

108
Solutions (cont.)
  • 3. International Help
  • AU
  • Anti-insurgency
  • Monetary goals
  • 4. Political Unification
  • TNG
  • Puntland
  • Somaliland
  • 5. End to Piracy
  • 6. Alleviate the Effects of the Famine
  • Long term and short term goals

109
Bibliography
  • 1. The United Nations' database on the UNOSOM I
    UNOSOM II
  • lthttps//www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past
    /unosomi.htmgt
  • lthttp//www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/
    unosom2backgr1.htmlgt
  • 2. From United Nations Political Office for
    Somalia
  • lthttp//unpos.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid1
    911gt
  • 3. Somalia Infrastructure, Power, and
    Communications
  • lthttp//www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Afr
    ica/Somalia-INFRASTRUCTURE-
  • POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.htmlgt
  • 4. GlobalSecurity on the Somalia Civil War
  • lthttp//www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war
    /somalia.htmgt
  • 5. From AllAfrica, information pertaining to the
    Islamist's stance on the United Nations was
  • obtained.
  • lthttp//allafrica.com/stories/201107260329.htmlgt
  • 6. General history of the Somali Civil War
  • lthttp//www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0861179.htm
    lgt
  • 7. Information on the Somali Civil War was taken
    from Conciliation Resources.
  • lthttp//www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/somalia/endle
    ss-war.phpgt
  • 8. GlobalSecurity on the far-reaching
    consequences of the Somalia Civil War
  • lthttp//www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war
    /somalia.htmgt
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