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Terminology lesson 8


Terminology lesson 8 Structuring concepts Concept structure Terms represent specialised knowledge This knowledge is structured by the specialist The terminologist s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Terminology lesson 8

Terminology lesson 8
  • Structuring concepts

Concept structure
  • Terms represent specialised knowledge
  • This knowledge is structured by the specialist
  • The terminologists job is
  • to discover the structure
  • to make it explicit
  • by tree diagrams
  • by definitions
  • by relating terms one with another

Representing concept structure
  • Concept relationships can be accounted for using
    semantics (study of meaning)
  • To extract this knowledge from texts
  • Cf. LHomme (2004 156)
  • Three major types of relations
  • Hierarchical (generic)
  • isa relationship
  • Meronymical (partitive)
  • hasa relationship
  • Indirect (other)

Hierarchical relationships
  • Superordinate concept
  • Subordinate concept
  • Representation standardized (ISO)
  • frond
  • fertile frond infertile frond (?)
  • Not every frond has spores under it fronds that
    have the spores
  • are called fertile fronds.

Meronymic relations
  • Relationship of part to whole
  • Representation standardized (ISO)
  • fern
  • frond
  • pinna
  • The leafy branch of the fern is usually called a
  • The small leaflets that make up the whole frond
    are called pinnae.

Deducing meronymic relationships from texts
  • If you look underneath a fern frond, you will
    often see small clumps, spots or patches that
    look like they are stuck onto the under surface
    of the pinnae. These patches are where you find
    the spores. The spores grow inside casings called
    sporangia. The sporangia may clump together into
    what are called sori (singular sorus).
  • Take a look more closely at the spore structures
    under the pinnae of In some cases, you will see
    that each is composed of myriads of smaller
    structures. These are the sporangia - the spore
    casings that hold the spores. Some ferns protect
    their sporangia with thin semi-transparent
    membranes, often globular in shape, called
    indusia. Inside the indusium (if there is one)
    there are the sporangia.
  • fern
  • frond
  • pinna
  • sorus
  • indusium
  • sporangia
  • spore

Completing information
  • From the intial text, it is not clear what the
    relationship between sorus, indusium and
    sporangia is.
  • Find other texts which make this relationship
  • Eg Ontario Ferns http//ontarioferns.com/id/glossa

Added information
  • SPORES are tiny dust-like particles that grow in
    and are released from structures called SPORANGIA
    (singular SPORANGIUM plural SPORANGIA).
  • A group of SPORANGIA is called a SORUS (singular
    SORUS plural SORI).
  • SORI are sometimes covered by a flap referred to
    as an INDUSIUM.
  • From this we can deduce that there are several
    types of meronymic relationships
  • part of / containing
  • optional part/obligatory part (canonical/factultat
    ive Cruse 1986 162)
  • parameronyms (medical school is a parameronym
    of university)

Four main types of meronymy
  • M.-Cl. LHomme (2004 100) distinguishes between
    several types of meronymy
  • Functional part/whole
  • body, heart, ventricule telephone receiver,
  • Element/whole
  • Software library, software programs
  • Portion/mass
  • Slice, bread
  • Constituant/object
  • Tyre, rubber
  • Phase/activity
  • Water cycle evaporation, cloud formation,
  • Place/zone
  • Oasis desert

Hint label meronymic relationships
  • fern
  • frond
  • blade
  • pinna
  • indusium
  • sorus
  • sporangia
  • spore

Indirect relationships
  • chronological
  • functional
  • causal
  • and semantic predicates
  • Who does what?

Inducing indirect relationships from texts
  • What happens with a gametophyte can only be seen
    under a strong lens, as the gametophyte is small
    - usually less that half an inch across. The
    gametophyte has two sets of reproductive organs
    on its underside - the male parts called the
    antheridia, and the female parts called the
    archegonia. The antheridium contains sperm cells
    while the archegonium contains egg cells. They
    are each located on the gametophyte, a little
    separated from each other. If there is a film of
    moisture, the sperm cells from the antheridium
    swim towards the egg cells in the archegonium.
    This may be on the same gametophyte or an
    adjacent one.

Some known relationships
  • Meronymic
  • gametophyte
  • antheridium archegonium
  • sperm cell egg cell
  • The gametophyte has two sets of reproductive
    organs the male parts called the antheridia,
    and the female parts called the archegonia. The
    antheridium contains sperm cells while the
    archegonium contains egg cells.

Chronogical relations
  • spore
  • gametophyte
  • sporophyte
  • adult plant

Combining different relationships
  • spore
  • gametophyte
  • antheridium archegonium
  • sperm cell egg cell
  • sporophyte
  • adult plant

Other semantic issues
  • The metaphor in terminology
  • Inspired by cognitive linguistics
  • Lakoff Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By,
    University of Chicago Press.
  • Metaphor not just a figure of speech, it is
    incorporated throughout language and is
  • Your claims are indefensible.
  • He attacked my whole argument.
  • His criticisms were right on target.
  • I've never won an argument with him.

  • Source domain
  • Domain we draw from
  • e.g. war
  • Target domain
  • domain we try to understand
  • e.g. argument
  • Mapping
  • systematic correspondence between the two domains
  • Criticisms, etc. are weapons
  • Someone wins, someone loses

Metaphor as conceptual construction
  • Embodied/experiential metaphor understanding the
    world in terms of our body
  • up is happy
  • down is sad
  • so going on a high ?
  • conceptual metaphor understanding one conceptual
    domain in terms of another conceptual domain

Creating new terms
  • Metaphor is one of our most important tools for
    trying to comprehend partially what cannot be
    comprehended fully
  • (Lakoff Johnson 1980193)
  • Idealized cognitive model Temmerman 2000

  • Nucleotide sequences seen as a language
  • Translated to plain text of polypeptides
  • The scientist did not use a metaphor to name a
    concept s/he had identified
  • S/he used a metaphor to discover the principle
  • The language used remained in the name.
  • cf. splicing

Pervasive metaphors in LSP
  • Sylvie Vandaele
  • http//web.me.com/tris.kell.30/PageVandaels/Accuei
  • ICM used in conceptualising
  • structures des récepteurs à sept passages
  • Source domain movement target domain
    spatial positioning
  • The medial supraclavicular nerves run
    inferomedially across the external jugular vein 

Crochet terminologique
  • Identité des traits sémantiques trouvés dans
    plusieurs contextes et définitions
  • et prouvant l'uninotionnalité des données
    consignées sur une fiche terminologique.
  • La présence d'un crochet terminologique est
    habituellement nécessaire à la pleine validité
    d'une fiche terminologique bilingue.
  • Faute d'un crochet explicite, il faut que se
    dégage du sens global des contextes un crochet
    implicite qui atteste l'appariement des notions.
  • Généralement, seul un spécialiste peut juger de
    la validité d'une fiche sans crochet
    terminologique explicite.

  • The creation of concept systems is still often
    considered to be a necessary part of thematic
    terminology work, and the terminological
    relations that hold between elements of this
    system are some of the most important elements in
    the crochet terminologique (Dubuc 2002) that
    helps to establish equivalence between terms.
    However, all too often the extensive analysis of
    terminological relations required for this work
    (e.g. choosing terms and concepts to be included
    in terminological resources, evaluating
    equivalence between terms, and describing
    concepts) is minimised in term records,
    dictionaries or glossaries, or must be unearthed
    from definitions, contexts, or observations by
    attentive users
  • Elizabeth Marshman, Julie L. Gariépy Charissa
    Harms (2012), Helping language professionals
    relate to terms Terminological relations and
    termbases, The Journal of Specialised
    Translation, 18.
  • http//www.jostrans.org/issue18/art_marshman.php
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