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Latest techniques and Applications in Interprocess Communication and Coordination


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Title: Latest techniques and Applications in Interprocess Communication and Coordination

Latest techniques and Applications in
Interprocess Communication and Coordination
  • Xiaoou Zhang

  • What is Interprocess communication
  • Message oriented communication
  • Web Services
  • WCF

Inter-Process Communication
  • Inter-Process Communication (IPC) is a set of
    techniques for the exchange of data among two or
    more threads in one or more processes. Processes
    may be running on one or more computers connected
    by a network.

Distributed System Communication 1
  • Remote procedure call
  • a protocol that allows one application to
    execute another application or module on another
  • Message-oriented communication
  • Messages exchange between systems
  • Stream-oriented communication and multicast

Advantages of Using Messaging 2
  • Cross platform integration Messages can be the
    universal translator between various platforms
    and languages, allowing each platform to work
    with their respective native data type
  • Asynchronous communications both the sender and
    receiver can be running flat out and not be
    constrained by waiting on each other

Advantages of Using Messaging
  • Remote communication messages replace the need
    for the serializing and deserializing that occurs
    when one application makes a remote call to
    another application.
  • End-to-end security messages can transfer the
    complete security context to the consumer using a
    combination of headers and tokens

Web services
  • software system designed to support interoperable
    machine-to-machine interaction over a network.
  • web services are the standards-based way to
    realize Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

  • SOA is an example of the composite computing
  • The composite computing model is an architecture
    that uses distributed, discovery-based execution
    to expose and manage a collection of
    service-oriented software assets.
  • At the fundamental level, an SOA is a collection
    of service on a network that communicate with
    each other, the services are loosely coupled,
    have well-defined interfaces and are reusable. An
    SOA therefore has a higher-level view of
    coarse-grained application development that uses
    standard interfaces to hide the underlying
    technical complexity

SOA Internet protocols
  • The basic building blocks for using web services
    are the SOA and Internet protocols.
  • Web services can be represented, advertised,
    discovered and communicated within a dynamic
  • Web services are based on standards and
    standards-based technologies, which ensure that
    applications are compliant, thereby enabling
    program-to-program interoperability.

Main components
  • Web services protocol stack is based on
    standardized XML technologies. There are three
    main components
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
  • Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

  • SOAP is a lightweight communication protocol for
    web services.
  • It is used to exchange structured and typed
    information between systems.
  • SOAP allows users to invoke methods on remote
    machines without knowing specific detail of the
    platform or software running on those machines.
  • XML is used to represent the data, while the data
    is structured according to the SOAP schema.

  • The characteristics of a SOAP message are
  • It is extensible it allows various features such
    as reliability, security, to be layered via SOAP
  • It works across a number of standardized
    underlying network protocols.
  • It is independent of the underlying language or
    platform or programming model.

SOAP message
  • A SOAP message is an ordinary XML document
    containing the following elements
  • A required Envelope element that identifies the
    XML document as a SOAP message
  • An optional Header element that contains header
  • A required Body element that contains call and
    response information
  • An optional Fault element that provides
    information about errors that occurred while
    processing the message

SOAP message example
  • the following SOAP message represents a request
    to transfer funds between bank accounts
  • ltsoapEnvelope xmlnssoap"http//schemas.xmlsoap
  • ltsoapBodygt
  • ltxTransferFunds xmlnsx"urnexamples-orgbanki
  • ltfromgt22-342439lt/fromgt
  • lttogt98-283843lt/togt
  • ltamountgt100.00lt/amountgt
  • lt/xTransferFundsgt
  • lt/soapBodygt
  • lt/soapEnvelopegt

  • WSDL is a specification defining how to describe
    web services in a common XML grammar. WSDL
    describes four critical pieces of data
  • Interface information describing all publicly
    available functions
  • Data type information for all message requests
    and message responses
  • Binding information about the transport protocol
    to be used
  • Address information for locating the specified

  • UDDI is a platform-independent directory protocol
    for describing services and discovering and
    integrating services via the Internet. It
    describes the details of the services using WSDL
    and communicates via SOAP

Implementing Web Services
  • A service provider creates a Web service
  • The service provider uses WSDL to describe the
    service to a UDDI registry
  • The service provider registers the service in a
    UDDI registry
  • Another service or consumer locates and requests
    the registered service by querying UDDI.
  • The requesting service or user writes an
    application to bind the registered service using
  • Data and messages are exchanged as XML over HTTP

Web services protocols
Window Communication Foundation (WCF) 2
  • WCF is a programming framework used to build
    distributed applications that inter-communicate.
    WCF is the part of the .NET Framework dedicated
    to communications.
  • Three main design goals of WCF
  • Unification of existing technologies
  • Interoperability across platform
  • Service-oriented development

Interoperability across platform 4
  • WCFs fundamental communication mechanism is
    SOAP-based web services.
  • WCF use SOAP messages to interact with any other
    application which supports standard web service.
  • when a WCF process communicates with another WCF
    process, the SOAP messages can be encoded in an
    optimized binary format.

Interoperability across platform
  • To allow more than just basic communication, WCF
    implements Web services technologies defined by
    the WS- specifications to achieve seamless
    Interoperability across platform. Those
    specifications covers
  • Messaging WS-Addressing defines additions to the
    SOAP header for addressing SOAP messages, which
    frees SOAP from relying on the underlying
    transport protocol, such as HTTP, to carry
    addressing information. Message Transmission
    Optimization Mechanism (MTOM) defines an
    optimized transmission format for SOAP messages
    with large binary data contents based on the
    XML-binary Optimized Packaging (XOP)

Interoperability across platform
  • Metadata WS-Policy allows specification of more
    dynamic aspects of a services behavior that
    cannot be expressed in WSDL, such as a preferred
    security option. WS-MetadataExchange allows a
    client to directly request descriptive
    information about a service, such as its WSDL and
    its policies, using SOAP.
  • Security WS-Security, WS-SecureConversation,
    WS-Trust, and WS-Federation all define additions
    to SOAP messages for providing authentication,
    data integrity, data privacy, and other security
  • Reliability WS-Reliable Messaging defines
    additions to the SOAP header that allow reliable
    end-to-end communication, even when one or more
    Web services intermediaries must be traversed.

  • 1 Distributed Systems Principles and
    Paradigms, Andrew S. Tanenbaum and Maarten Van
    Steen, Prentice Hall, 2007
  • 2 Pro WCF practical Microsoft SOA
    implementation, Chris Peiris, Springer, 2007
  • 3From P2P TO Web Services and Grids, Ian J.
    Taylor, Springer, 2005
  • 4What is Windows Communication Foundation?,