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New Vehicle Technologies

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Title: New Vehicle Technologies


1
New Vehicle Technologies
  • Peter Robertson
  • General Manager
  • Vehicle Safety Standards (VSS)
  • (Administrator of Vehicle Standards)

2
Topics covered
  • Evolution of safety technology
  • New Vehicle Technologies
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
  • Alternative Control
  • Other Innovations
  • Potential impact of technologies

3
The Evolution of Safety Technology
1950s
1990s
4
The Evolution of Safety Technology
1924 Safety glass standard on Cadillacs 1950s
-Toughened glass introduced 1950 Disc brakes
available on Chryslers 1951 Crumple zones
patented by Mercedes Benz 1954 Seatbelts
optionally available on some US cars 1959 Three
point seatbelts available on Volvos 1959
Safety body with crumple zones produced by
Mercedes Benz 1962 Split service brake systems
introduced 1967 Energy absorbing steering
columns introduced 1968 Head restraints
introduced
5
The Evolution of Safety Technology
  • 1971 Three point inertia reel seatbelts
    introduced
  • 1974 Airbags introduced
  • 1983 Airbags available on US cars
  • 1985 Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) available on
    US cars
  • 1991 Side Impact Protection System (SIPS)
    airbags introduced by Volvo
  • 1995 Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
    introduced produced by Bosch
  • 1995 Seatbelts with tensioners and integrated
    force limiters introduced in Mercedes Benz
  • 1996 Brake Assist System (BAS) introduced in
    Mercedes Benz

6
New Technologies
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) traction
    control, ABS, ESP, ESC, HUD
  • Alternative control - steer-by-wire,
    drive-by-wire, brake-by-wire, joysticks
  • Other innovations alternative fuels, hybrids,
    fuel cells, regenerative braking, LED lamps,
    distributed light sources, wiperless windows,
    Tweels, gas discharge headlamps, multiplexing,
    camera mirrors

7
New Technologies
System System Type Type
Traction Engine Transmission Fuel Running gear Variable valve timing, Tiptronic transmission, Hybrids, Fuel cells, LPG/CNG, Traction control Drive-by-wire, Emissions SCR, Run-flat tyres
Braking Service Parking ABS, EBFD, Traction control, Regenerative systems Brake-by-wire
8
New Technologies
System System Type Type
Chassis Suspension Steering ESC ESP Steer-by-wire, Tweels, Composite materials, Multiplexing
9
New Technologies
System System Type Type
Driver/ vehicle interface Headlamps Cornering lamps Fog lamps Mirrors Demister Windscreen wipers Sun visors Instruments Controls Gas discharge headlamps, Advanced windscreens, Night vision, Collision avoidance, Lane Keep Support, SatNav, HUD, Pedestrian awareness, Cruise control, Joystick control. Distributed light sources, LED lamps, See-by-wire (camera mirrors)
10
New Technologies
System System Type Type
Conspicuity Position lamps Stop lamps Indicators Registration lamps DSRC (toll, theft, collision reporting) Distributed light sources, LED lamps
Occupant protection Seatbelts Child restraints Airbags Headrests Pre-tensioners, Side airbags, Curtain airbags Intelligent airbags, Collision mitigation airbag controls
11
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
On-board systems that utilise information that
is received from direct sensing and/or
telecommunications via the road infrastructure or
other source (WP.29)
12
ITS Research
  • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe
    (ADASE)
  • SAVE-IT (SAfety VEhicles using adaptive Interface
    Technologies) Intelligent Vehicles Initiative
    (IVI)
  • ASV Advanced Safety Vehicles
  • Japan Automobile Manufactures Association (JAMA)
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM)

13
ITS Research
  • Universal Traffic Management Society of Japan
    (UTMS) - Infrastructure beacon warning systems
  • Association of Radio Industries Businesses
    (ARIB) (Japan) - Information systems
  • Automotive Multimedia Interface Collaboration
    (AMIC) Standardisation of mobile information
    entertainment

14
ITS Industry
  • Manufacturers
  • Toyota, Ford (Volvo, LandRover, Jaguar, Lincoln,
    Mercury, Mazda, Aston-Martin), GM, Renault, BMW,
    Mercedes-Benz, DaimlerChrysler, Mitsubishi,
    Porsche, Volkswagen, Peugeot, Nissan, Subaru,
    Honda and others.
  • Support Industries
  • Bosch, TRW, Delphi Continental Tevis
  • Delphi, IBM, Motorola, Siemens VDO Automotive and
    others.
  • Texas Instruments, Philips Semiconductors, and
    others.
  • Partnerships
  • Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP)
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM)
  • Japan Automobile Manufactures Association (JAMA)
  • Telematics Valley

15
ITS Government
  • UN ECE WP.29-ITS
  • Working Group IHRA-ITS
  • Intelligent Transport Systems Joint Programs
    Office (ITS-JPO), part of US-DOT (FHWA, NHTSA,
    FTA, FRA, FMCSA, MARAD)

16
ITS Categories
  • (WP.29)

Information Collection Information Collection
Driving Assistance Information Support
Driving Assistance Assistance for Control
Automatic Drive Automatic Drive
17
ITS Information Collection
  • Systems that collect and/or distribute
    information, not relating to assisting the driver
    in controlling the vehicle
  • Information Entertainment
  • Telematics (Integration of internet / phone /
    PDA / BlueTooth technology)
  • Information for Infrastructure
  • Probe information systems (Fleet management)
  • Real-time online diagnostics of vehicle
  • Electronic Toll Collection (eTag)
  • Automatic Roadside Assistance (eCall, OnStar)
  • Event Data Recorders (EDR)

18
AUTOMATIC CRASH NOTIFICATION100 fitment to GM
in USA 2007 100 fitment in all marques in
EU by 2009
ITS Information Collection
Source ITS AUSTRALIA
19
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • designed to assist part of the drivers
    recognition and decision-making by utilising
    advanced technologies (WP.29)
  • Collision Avoidance
  • Forward / Rear Collision Warning (FCW, RCW) (CMS,
    FOREWARN, ADA)
  • Lane Keep Support (AFIL)
  • Side Obstacles Advisory System (ASV)
  • Intersection (beacon from infrastructure)
  • Low speed maneuverability (parking)

20
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • Lane Keep Support (Nissan)

21
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
www.seeingmachines.com
22
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
www.seeingmachines.com
23
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • Visibility Assistance
  • Advanced Frontline Systems (AFS) (DRL GM)
  • Night Vision Systems (Night Vision GM, Autoliv)
  • Advanced Windscreens
  • Head Up Display (HUD) (Eye Cue GM)
  • Blind-spot visibility (Volvo BLIS)
  • Driver Awareness
  • Navigation Systems
  • Direct driver to location
  • Crash / Traffic avoidance
  • Road Barcode Systems (Peugeot)

24
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • Night Vision Assistance
  • http//www.gm.com/company/gmability/safety/avoid_c
    rash/new_features/night_vision.html

25
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • Night Vision Assistance
  • http//www.autoliv.com/

26
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
27
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • designed to assist part of the drivers control
    (automatically) by utilising advanced
    technologies (WP.29)
  • Vehicle Positioning
  • Controls the position of the vehicle on the road
  • Conventional cruise control
  • Active speed limit management
  • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Stop and Go
    (AICC ALERT, DISTRONIC, ADC)
  • Crash Mitigation (CMS braking)
  • Lane Keep Support (LKS)
  • Parking assistance (eg Toyota Prius)

28
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Adaptive Cruise Control

29
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
30
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
Vehicle Control Assist in the performance of the
vehicle through feedback
  • Assistance for Stopping
  • Anti-lock braking (ABS)
  • Electronically distributed braking (EBD)
  • Emergency braking assist (EBA, SBC)
  • Assistance for Traction
  • Traction Control (TRAC)
  • Advanced traction control (Terrain Response)
  • Assistance for Steering
  • ESC Electronic Stability Control (ESP,
    StabilTrak, AdvanceTrac, DSC, CSC, DSTC, VDIM,
    ICCS, AHCCS VSA, ASC)
  • Assistance for Stability
  • Roll Stability (RSC)

31
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Electronic Stability Control

32
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Electronic Stability Control

33
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Research
  • Page, Y. Cuny, S. (2004) Is ESP effective on
    French Roads? 1st International ESAR (Expert
    Symposium on Accident Research) Hannover, Germany
    - September 3-4.
  • Tingvall, C., Krafft, M., Kullgren, A. Lie, A.
    (2004) The Effectiveness Of ESP (Electronic
    Stability Programme) in Reducing Real Life
    Accidents, Traffic Injury Protection, vol 5, pg
    37-41.
  • Farmer, C. (2004) Effect of Electronic Stability
    Control on Automobile Crash Risk Traffic Injury
    Protection, vol 5, pg 317-25.
  • Dang, J.N. (2004) Preliminary Results Analyzing
    the Effectiveness Of Electronic Stability Control
    (ESC) Systems, US-DOT NHTSA, Evaluation Note DOT
    HS 809 790, September 2004.

34
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Vehicle Configuration
  • Alters vehicle configuration to change
    performance
  • Suspension
  • Adjustable suspension (AIRMATIC, Terrain Control,
    AMVAR)
  • Active suspension (Mercedes-Benz ABC, Delphi
    MagneRide)
  • Adaptive Head Restraint Systems (AHR)
  • 2nd Generation Airbags (Intelligent Deployment)
  • Pedestrian safety (Active Hoods)

35
ITS Automatic Drive
  • Automatically control vehicle without direct
    driver responsibility, using a combination of ITS
    technologies
  • Automatic Drive
  • Convoy Pilot Systems US Army TARDECE research
    on autonomous ground vehicle navigation

36
ITS Automatic Drive
37
Alternative Control
  • steer-by-wire, drive-by-wire, brake by-wire,
    joysticks

38
Alternative ControlTypes
  • Electrical/electronic systems in place of
    traditional mechanical systems
  • Steer by Wire (Hy-Wire AUTOnomy)
  • Throttle (By-Wire Chassis Technology including
    Throttle-by-wire, Quadrasteer)
  • Braking (Delphi hybrid hydraulic/electric)

39
Alternative ControlTypes
40
Other Innovations
  • alternative fuels, hybrids, fuel cells,
    regenerative braking, LED lamps, distributed
    light sources, advanced windscreens, Tweels, gas
    discharge headlamps, multiplexing, camera mirrors

41
Other InnovationsTypes
  • New designs in place of traditional designs
  • Non-Conventional Tyres (Run-flat, Tweel)
  • Alternative Fuel Systems (Fuel cells, Hydrogen
    ICE, Hybrid-Electric, Clean Diesel, Biofuels,
    Natural Gas, Propane)
  • Alternative Seatbelts (Volvo four-point
    seatbelts)

42
Other InnovationsTypes
Michelin Tweel
43
Other InnovationsTypes
Fuel cell vehicle schematic
Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicle
44
Other InnovationsTypes
Toyota Prius Hybrid
45
Other InnovationsTypes
Volvo X4 and V4 four-point seatbelts
46
Impact of New Technologies
  • Is operation likely to lead to, or reduce,
    injury, theft or emissions (machine factors)?
  • Protection of occupants
  • Ability to stop and manoeuvre (includes
    reliability and failure mode)
  • Compatibility with other vehicles/infrastructure.
  • Resistance to theft
  • Quantity and/or type of emissions
  • Is Human Machine Interface likely to lead to, or
    reduce, injury (human factors)?
  • Ability of driver to operate effectively
    (operation, distraction)
  • Clarity of operation between different systems

47
Impact of New Technologies
  • Improved Performance Technology that improves
    the performance of a vehicular system with new
    features or better outputs. Typical examples are
    traction control or intelligent airbags
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is a major
    grouping of technologies of this type
  • Improved Design Technology that serves
    essentially the same purpose but operates in a
    very different way (eg mechanical systems
    replaced by electrical/electronic systems).
    Typical examples are steer-by-wire or LED lamps

48
WP.29 (ITS)
  • Recognise the challenge to identify an
    appropriate regulatory response
  • Need for global systems
  • Identify that ITS is not just about vehicle
    engineering with a need to consider the
    interaction between the driver and the technology
    through Human Machine Interface (HMI) factors

49
ITS Information Collection
Positives Negatives Issues
Assists driver with information / entertainment Provide information to support infrastructure Passive safety devices Potential for driver distraction (visual and cognitive) Issues of remote location of vehicles (privacy control) Format of information collection Electromagnetic Compatibility Link between vehicles and infrastructure (eg. protocols)
50
ITS Information Collection
  • Existing Regulations/Standards
  • Visual Display Units
  • ADR 42 and ECE RE3E (Annex 16) Guidelines
  • Electro-magnetic Compatibility (EMC)
  • ECE 10
  • On Board Diagnostics
  • ADR 79/.. and 80/..
  • Electronic Identification
  • ISO CD 24534 Automatic vehicle and equipment
    identification - Electronic Registration
    Identification (ERI) for vehicles
  • Adaptive Cruise Control
  • ADR 65 and ECE 89 Speed Limiter (unable to use
    brakes)
  • Lane Keep Support
  • ECE 79 (Draft) Control of driver and safety mode

51
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
Positives Negatives Issues
Provides useful navigation information to the driver Enhances the quality of information to the driver (i.e. visual) Warn the driver of potentially dangerous situations to allow the driver to avoid/mitigate Avoiding high-risk areas (toll-booths, crash etc) Better response in crash Driver distraction through increased demand on attention or information overload Driver over-confidence on warning systems altering safe driving behaviour Reduced situation awareness from consistent false-alarms/too sensitive systems Command effect Warning devices for when system non-operational/impaired Reliability of systems Control safeguards for driver to wrest control Infrastructure/vehicle compatibility Effect on other drivers Format of warnings (visual/audio)
52
ITS Driving Assistance - Information Support
  • Existing Regulations/Standards
  • Visibility Assistance
  • ECE 48 Lighting
  • Navigation Systems
  • ADR 42 Visual display units
  • ECE RE3E (Annex 16) Guidelines
  • ISO/TC22/SC13/WG8 Human Machine Interface
  • Lane Change Systems
  • ISO/CD 17387 Intelligent Transport Systems - Lane
    Change Decision Aid Systems Performance
    requirements and tests procedure

53
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
Positives Negatives Issues
Improves driver comfort through automatic control of driving functions (eg. ACC) Increased safety through reduced number of accidents (ESC research) Reduction in probability/severity of injury in crash Driver over-trust/over-confidence altering from normal safe driving patterns Driver confusion when emergency control taken Liability System causing excessive brake wearing Ability/reliability/ease of driver to over-ride automatic control Discrimination of a potential crash (worst-case) Warning devices for when system non-operational/impaired Reliability of automatic control (e.g. LKS in the rain, 2nd gen. airbags) Failure mode
54
ITS Driving Assistance - Assistance for Control
  • Existing Regulations/Standards
  • Electronic Stability Control and Emergency Brake
    Assist
  • ECE 13H (Annex 8) Complex Electronic Controls
  • Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS)
  • ADR 31/01 (ECE 13H Annex 6) Tests for ABS
  • ECE 13 (Annex 13) Warning systems for ABS
  • Adaptive Cruise Control
  • ADR 65 ECE 89 Speed Limiter (unable to use
    brakes)
  • Lane Keep Support
  • ECE 79 (draft) Control of driver and safety mode

55
ITS Automatic Drive
Positives Negatives Issues
Increase efficiency of route selection, engine management, emissions, etc. Legal Responsibility of the driver is replaced by the automatic drive system Currently specifically excluded in regulation Warning devices for when system non-operational/impaired Reliability of systems Failure mode
56
ITS Automatic Drive
  • Existing Regulations/Standards
  • ECE 79 (draft) Control of driver and safety
    mode
  • specifically excludes systems in which control of
    the vehicle is taken away from the driver

57
Alternative Control
Positives Negatives Issues
Advances in vehicle performance, safety, comfort, weight, cost Allows for greater system integration Dramatic change to interior design possibilities Driver unfamiliarity Perceived risk of transferring from a direct mechanical linkage Warning devices for when system non-operational/impaired Reliability of systems Failure mode
58
Alternative ControlExisting Regulations/Standards
  • Alternative Steering Mechanisms
  • ECE 35 Uniform Provisions Concerning The Approval
    Of Vehicles With Regard To The Arrangement Of
    Foot Controls
  • Steer-by-wire
  • ECE 79 (draft)
  • Brake-by-wire
  • ECE 13H

59
Other Innovations
Positives Negatives Issues
Advances in vehicle performance, safety, comfort, weight, efficiency, cost Driver unfamiliarity (where applicable) Performance Warning devices for when system non-operational/impaired Reliability of systems Failure mode
60
Other Innovations Existing Regulations/Standards
  • Alternative Fuel Systems
  • FMVSS 305 Electric-Powered Vehicles Electrolyte
    Spillage and Electrical Shock Protection
  • ADR 31/01 and ECE 13H Provision for electrical
    regenerative braking

61
Summary
  • Evolution of safety technology
  • New technologies
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
  • Alternative Control
  • Other Innovations
  • Impact of new technologies
  • WP.29
  • Positives, negatives, issues and existing
    regulation

62
  • Discussion

63
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