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Dairy%20Cattle

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Title: Dairy%20Cattle


1
Dairy Cattle
  • Introduction

2
Unit Map Set Up
  • Unit name Dairy Cattle Industry
  • Unit Essential Question How does the dairy
    industry operate?

3
Lesson Essential Question
  • What is the dairy industry?

4
Warm-up
  • What do you think of when you
  • see this?

5
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • Most difficult to manage
  • High producing dairy cows bred to give large
    amounts of milk that can overwhelm the animal
    without proper management
  • Value of dairy products exceeded 37 billion
    nationally
  • Most labor intensive
  • Milking 2-3 times a day, 7 days a week

6
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • Consumer demand lower fat diets
  • Food scientists respond with specialty items
  • Ex Fat-free yogurt, cream cheese, and frozen
    dairy deserts

7
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8
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • Rank in Production- top 5
  • California
  • Wisconsin
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania
  • Idaho

9
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10
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • Fewer dairy farms own more cows more milk per
    farm

11
Dairy Cattle Industry
12
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • 2008- 70,000 operational dairy farms
  • 40 years ago- 2 million dairy farms
  • of farm declines, but pounds of milk increased
    by 20,000 pounds per cow
  • What does this mean?
  • How is this possible?

13
Dairy Cattle Industry
  • 2009- 9.2 million dairy cows in the US produced
    over 185 billion pounds of milk worth over 37
    billion
  • US leads the world in milk production per cow and
    in total milk production

14
Exit Question
  • Why are there more cows on less farms now then in
    the past?

15
Learn about what you eat!
  • Read the articles and answer the questions in
    your packet on a separate sheet of paper. Staple
    it to the back when finished. Use complete
    sentences.
  • Return packets

16
Dairy Cattle
  • Breeds

17
Warm-up
  • What kind of milk do these cows make?

18
Lesson Essential Question
  • How do Dairy breeds differ?

19
Holstein
  • Dominate the industry
  • Well over 90 of the dairy cattle in the US
  • Officially known as Holstein-Fresians
  • From Netherlands and Northern Germany
  • Arrived in US in mid-1800s
  • Since 1970- genetic progress due to rigorous
    selection
  • Total solids are lower
  • Mature Holstein weighs 1500 to 1750 pounds

20
Holstein
21
Jersey
  • Weigh about 1000 pounds
  • Developed on the island of Jersey, off the coast
    of France
  • First imported early 1800s
  • Coat color ranges from light tan to almost black
  • 2008 registrations- 94,774 (2nd in popularity)
  • Ability to efficiently convert feed to milk
  • Lower body maintenance needs
  • Amount of milk lower
  • Total solids - highest of all breeds

22
Jersey
23
Brown Swiss
  • 3rd most popular
  • Registrations totaled 10,824 in 2008
  • Originated Switzerland
  • Came to US in mid-1800s
  • Normally brown to gray
  • Similar to Holsteins in size
  • Known for ability to produce milk in hot climates
  • 2nd in milk production
  • Total solids in middle of all breeds

24
Brown Swiss
25
Ayrshire
  • Smaller breeds (mature weight 1200 lbs)
  • 4,763 registrations in 2008
  • Red and white
  • Imported early 1800s
  • Milk production midway of all breeds
  • Total solids low
  • Originated Ayr district of Scotland

26
Ayrshire
27
Guernsey
  • Developed Island of Guernsey (coast of France)
  • Imported early 1800s
  • Medium sized red and white breed
  • Larger then Jerseys
  • Mature weight- 1100 lbs
  • Produce more milk than Jerseys
  • Golden Guernsey milk lower in total solids then
    Jersey milk
  • Deep yellow/golden milk due to beta carotene
    (precursor to vitamin A)
  • 5,101 registrations in 2008

28
Guernsey
29
Milking Shorthorn
  • 3,150 in 2008
  • Originated from base stock of beef shorthorns and
    may be red, white, red and white or roan.

30
Milking Shorthorn
31
Red and White
  • Open herd
  • Most genetically based in red mutation of the
    Holstein
  • 4,020 in 2008

32
Red and White
33
ID Quiz Piece of paper, Tell the breeds
  • 2.
  • 1.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 3.

34
Activity
  • Students will be given a packet on how to judge
    dairy cattle. They will answer the questions and
    then judge the pictures they are given.

35
Dairy Cattle
  • Milking

36
Warm-up
  • How much milk do we get from a cow per day?
  • 8-35 liters per day
  • 2.11 to 9.25 gallons

37
Lesson Essential Question
  • How do you milk a cow?

38
Milking Parlors
  • Read the article about common types.
  • Answer the questions in the Dairy packet about
    the types of milking parlors.

39
Milking
  • Cows are milked 2 times a day, some 3 times
  • Fill in organizer as we go

40
The Milking Process
  • 1. At milking time, wash the teats, wear gloves
  • Disinfecting the teats and triggers the release
    of oxytocin, which initiates milk let-down

41
The Milking Process
42
The Milking Process
  • 2. Teats are then dried with individual paper
    towels

43
The Milking Process
44
The Milking Process
  • 3. One inflation of the claw of the milking
    machine is placed on each teat or quarter

45
The Milking Process
46
The Milking Process
  • 4. Vacuum applied to inflation, which draws the
    milk from the udder

47
The Milking Process
48
The Milking Process
  • 5. When milk stops, vacuum is removed

49
The Milking Process
  • 6. Each teat is then dipped in Iodine to prevent
    bacterial invasion
  • Total time 7 minutes

50
The Milking Process
51
Video Milking a Cow
  • http//www.monkeysee.com/play/3276-how-to-milk-a-c
    ow-by-machine

52
The Milking Process
  • Now lets practice!!

53
Dairy Cattle
  • Parasites and Diseases

54
Warm-up
  • List the steps in the milking process.

55
Lesson Essential Question
  • What are the parasites and diseases for dairy
    cattle?

56
Mastitis
  • Infection and inflammation of the udder
  • Causes greatest economic loss to the industry
  • Acute-hot, swollen udder-drop in milk production
  • Treated with antibiotics

57
Ketosis
  • Metabolic disorder with a negative energy balance
  • Caused by underfeeding, stress, other infections
  • Treated by IV of glucose injections

58
Displaced Abomasum
  • twisted stomach
  • When abomasum moves to an abnormal position
  • Caused by feeding too much silage or concentrate
    before calving
  • Veterinarian consulted for treatment

59
Milk Fever
  • Imbalance of calcium
  • muscle paralysis and prevents cows from standing
  • calcium and phosphorus supplements to prevent
  • Treated with infusion of calcium salts

60
Retained Placenta
  • Placenta not expelled after birth
  • Quickly become infected
  • Vet remove or allow it to hang and it will
    release
  • Caused by heat stress, low vitamin E, and
    selenium in bloodstream

61
Metritis
  • Resulting infection of a retained placenta
  • Abnormal discharge from vulva, go off feed, and
    stand with backs arched
  • Antibiotics treat

62
Activity Staple to your Dairy Packet.
  • Students will be assigned a disease/parasite
  • They are to create a public service announcement
    on that disease. 30 minutes. On your own paper.
    Staple this to your packet.
  • Include Name, Cause, Symptoms, Prevention and
    Treatment
  • You are making an advertisement to educate local
    farmers about these diseases

63
Dairy Cattle
  • Housing

64
Warm-up
  • How must cattle be housed?

65
Lesson Essential Question
  • What is the proper housing for dairy cattle?

66
Newborn and Young Calves Housing
  • Individual stalls, inside or outside
  • Better ventilation outside
  • Less respiratory disease
  • Calf hutches popular after weaning

67
Newborn and Young Calves Housing
  • At 8 weeks, heifers normally grouped with other
    heifers of similar age
  • Separate heifer growing barn
  • Open front sheds are also popular

68
Traditional Housing
  • Tie-stall barns- tied to individual stalls during
    milking and the rest of the day released into
    pasture at night in summer

69
Traditional Housing
  • Free-stall housing- allow cows to enter and leave
    as they wish. Feed bunk at center. Milked in
    tie-stalls or a milking parlour

70
Traditional Milking
  • Parlour System- cows come to the milker.
  • Group enters at a time- udders at chest level for
    milker in a pit. All cows washed and milked at
    same time. Increase of cows a person can milk
    per hour

71
Traditional Milking
  • Robotic Milking system- reduce milking labor
    requirements. Allow cows access 24 hours a day.
    Sensors

72
Housing and Milking
  • Draw a picture that represents the different
    types of housing and the different types of
    milking. Create 4 different pictures and be sure
    to label each one. Staple to your dairy packet.

73
Dairy Cattle
  • Care/Nutrition

74
Warm-up
  • What are the different types of housing for
    cattle?

75
Lesson Essential Question
  • What is the proper care and nutrition needed for
    cattle?

76
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • Starts within 24 hours of birth
  • Calves are weaned immediately after receiving
    colostrum
  • Colostrum- first milk

77
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • Cows returned to the milking herd after
    parturition
  • Parturition- giving birth in cows
  • Calves raised by humans

78
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • 6 to 8 pints of milk replacer fed to calf for
    first 5 to 8 weeks
  • 1 week- access to small amounts of grain calf
    starter

79
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • Weaned from milk when calf starter consumption
    reaches 4 pounds a day
  • Replace milk with water gradually

80
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • Not born with developed Rumen
  • Develops during first 12 weeks

81
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • 12 weeks to 1 year- fed a grain mix containing a
    feed additive (monensin or lasalocid) and high
    quality hay or silage
  • Heifers should gain 1.5 to 1.8 pounds per day

82
Calf Care/Nutrition
  • Heifers reach breeding size and puberty at 11 to
    12 months

83
Heifer Feed
  • After breeding, heifers fed free-choice,
    high-quality forage
  • Grain mix may be added to ensure proper
    development and provide minerals and vitamins

84
Heifer Feed
  • Heifers should weigh 1200 pounds at 24 months of
    age, when they deliver their first calf
  • Do not allow heifers to become fat

85
Lactating Dairy Cows
  • Nutritional needs dependent on body size and milk
    production
  • Cows are dried off (milking stopped) about 60
    days before the next expected calf

86
Feeding Dairy Cattle
  • Most dairy producers employ a professional
    nutritional consultant, feed company
    nutritionist, veterinarian or extension person to
    balance dairy diets

87
Dry Dairy Cattle
  • Dry cows fed a diet of forages
  • Often fed grain to provide vitamins, minerals and
    salt

88
Activity!
  • Each student will use a Hoards Dairyman (pair if
    needed).
  • Flip through your magazine and answer the
    questions in your packet.

89
Dairy Cattle
  • Anatomy

90
Warm-up
  • How is a dairy cow able to produce so much milk?

91
Lesson Essential Question
  • What are the parts of a dairy cow?

92
Activity!
  • Fill in the pictures as we go.

93
Anatomy
94
Anatomy
  • Cows udders have four compartments with one teat
    hanging from each
  • Cells remove water and nutrients and convert it
    to milk
  • The milk drips into a cistern
  • When teat is squeezed, milk is released
  • Single Compartment / Teat

95
Anatomy Head and Jaw
  • Mouth is adapted for grazing on grass
  • Top part of mouth is a hard dental pad
  • Bottom part is a row of flat-topped teeth
  • Grind food between upper and lower molars in the
    back of the mouth

96
Anatomy
  • Ears can turn in any direction, they are used to
    hear signs of danger from any direction
  • Tails are used to shoo insects

97
Anatomy
  • Horns on Bulls
  • Female cows may have small horns too
  • Horns made of Keratin
  • Horns can be removed without discomfort

98
Anatomy
99
Stomach
  • 4 parts
  • Cows swallow their food and then regurgitate a
    cud which is then chewed well and swallowed

100
Stomach
  • Rumen- largest part, holds up to 50 gallons of
    partially digested food
  • Where cud comes from
  • Good bacteria here help soften and digest the
    cows food and provides protein

101
Stomach
  • Reticulum- if cow eats something it shouldnt
    have, it goes here
  • Grass softened and formed into cud here

102
Stomach
  • Omasum- the filter.
  • Filters through all the food the cow eats.
  • Cud is pressed and broken down further

103
Stomach
  • Abomasum- this part like the humans stomach
  • Food is finally digested here
  • Essential nutrients are passed to the bloodstream
  • Remainder passed to the intestines

104
Book Work
  • Page 50, True or False, Fill in the Blank, and
    the Discussion Questions
  • SHARE BOOKS!

105
Dairy Cattle
  • Breeding

106
Warm-up
  • How many parts are there in the stomach of a cow?
    Which one is the most like ours?

107
Lesson Essential Question
  • How do cattle breed?

108
Breeding
  • Crossbreeding not common in dairy cattle
  • Most dairy cows in the US are purebreds
  • First to adopt artificial insemination on a large
    scale

109
Breeding
  • Most dairy cows are a result of artificial
    insemination
  • Artificial insemination (AI)- placing of sperm in
    the reproductive tract of the female by means
    other than that of the natural breeding process

110
Breeding
  • Producers using AI release cows to watch for
    standing heat at least twice a day
  • Standing heat- standing still when another cow
    attempts to mount

111
Breeding
  • Standing heat is primary sign that a cow is ready
    to conceive

112
Breeding
  • Secondary signs include- nervous bawling,
    restlessness, attempts to mount other cows, clear
    mucous discharge from vulva, and a sharp drop in
    milk production

113
Breeding
  • Secondary signs include- nervous bawling,
    restlessness, attempts to mount other cows, clear
    mucous discharge from vulva, and a sharp drop in
    milk production

114
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