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Title: Entartete%20Kunst%20-%20Degenerate%20art


1
"????? ??????"
Entartete Kunst - Degenerate art
????? ?????? ??????
2
??????? ????? "????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????
???-???"...
???? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????
?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????
?????????. ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????
?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??????
?????? ???? ???? 1937?????? ?"????? ???????".
??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????
?????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?????, ?????
?????? ?????. ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??
?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????
?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???
?? ???????, ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??
?????. ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?????, ??
??????? ????? ?10 ???? 1933. ?????? ?????? ???
?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????, ???? ?????
?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????.
3
????? ??????, ????? ??????
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium)
praises students and members of the SA for their
efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German"
during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz.
Germany, May 10, 1933.
Joseph Goebbels, German propaganda minister,
speaks on the night of book burning. Berlin,
Germany, May 10, 1933.
4
The scripted rituals of the book burnings called
for high Nazi officials, professors, university
rectors, and student leaders to address the
participants and spectators. This program lists
the order of events in the "celebration" at
Munich Beethoven's Egmont Overture an address
by the rector of the university two movements
from a composition by Richard Trunk an address
by the leader of the German Students Association
three songs performed by a State Opera singer an
address by the Culture Minister the first verse
of the German anthem and the first verse of the
Nazi anthem, "Horst Wessel Song" readings and a
concluding performance of Beethoven's "The Glory
of God is in Nature." Munich, Germany, May 10,
1933.
5
The book burning ceremonies were planned with
meticulous attention to detail. This invitation
to the book burning in Munich outlines the order
of events invitees "must arrive at the
designated area at precisely 11 p.m. At 11 p.m.
the torchlight procession of the entire Munich
Students Association will be arriving. 1. The
united bands will play parade music 2. The
festivities will begin at 11 with the song
"Brothers, Forward!" 3. Speech by the leader of
the German Students Association Kurt Ellersiek 4.
Burning of the nation-corrupting books and
journals 5. Group sing-along of ... songs".
6
German men and women! The age of arrogant Jewish
intellectualism is now at an end! . . . You are
doing the right thing at this midnight hourto
consign to the flames the unclean spirit of the
past. This is a great, powerful, and symbolic
act. . . . Out of these ashes the phoenix of a
new age will arise. . . . Oh Century! Oh Science!
It is a joy to be alive Joseph Goebbels, Reich
Minister for Public Enlightenment and and
Propaganda, speaking at the Berlin book burning,
May 10, 1933
7
?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?10
????, 1933.
Henri Barbusse
Georg Grosz
Otto Dix
Georg Bernhard
Marc Chagall
Bertolt Brecht
Max Brod
Vicki Baum
Sholem Asch
John Dos Passos
8
Erich Kästner
Anna Seghers
H.G. Wells
Jakob Wassermann
Louis Fischer
Ernst Glaeser
Josef Stalin
Benjamin Barr Lindsey
Sigrid Undset
9
Klaus Mann
Rudolf Hilferding
Erich Maria Remarque
Karl Marx
Werner Hegemann
Lion Feuchtwanger
Morris Hillquit
Carl von Ossietzky
Thomas Mann
Franz Oppenheimer
10
????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???
????? ????? ????? ??????, ?????, ??????, ??????
????????. ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????
?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????
?? ???????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????? ???????
???? ?? ???????? ???? 1518. ???? ???? ?- 19
??????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ??
?????. ?????? ???? ?- 20 ????? ???? ??? ?????
??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????, ?????? ??????
????? ?????? ????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??????
????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????
????? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ??? ?????? (Nordau)
???? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????
?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????.
?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????
??????, ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????,
????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????
???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????
???? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????. ????? ?????
????????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????
?????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????. ?????
???? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????
??????, ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???
?????????? ?? ?????.
11
"????? ??????" ( Entartete Kunst-Degenerate
art) ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??????
?????? ???? 1937, ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????
?????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ????? ??
?? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????
?????? ????????. ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????
?-20. ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??,
????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ?? ??????
???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????. ?????? ?????
????? ??????, ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??. ??????
?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????, ???? ?????
???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????. ????? ???
??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????, ??
?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????, ???
?????? ????????? ??????? ????.
Cover of the exhibition program Degenerate Art
exhibition, 1937. Note the word "Kunst", meaning
art,
12
Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the
Degenerate Art exhibition, 1937.
13
Hitler, Goebbels, and Adolf Ziegler view exhibit
of degenerate art .
14
Adolf Ziegler (1892 1959) was a German painter
and politician. He was tasked by the Nazi Party
to oversee the purging of "Degenerate art", made
by most of the German modern artists. He was the
favoured painter of Hitler. Hitler commented that
Ziegler's work was akin to that of perfection.
Letter from Adolf Ziegler to Schmitt-Rottluff
about the Nazi seizure of work In
connection with the task, entrusted to me by the
Fuehrer, of eradicating the works of degenerate
art from our museums, no fewer than 608 paintings
of yours had to be seized. A number of these
paintings were displayed at the exhibits of
Degenerate Art in Munich, Dortmund, and Berlin.
This fact could leave no doubt in your mind that
your paintings did not contribute to the
advancement of German culture in its
responsibility toward people and nation. Although
you must also have been aware of the
policy-setting speech of the Fuehrer at the
opening of the Great German Art Exhibit in
Munich, the recent paintings of yours which you
have now submitted to us indicate that even at
this date, you are still far removed from the
cultural foundations of the National Socialist
state. On the basis of these facts, I am unable
to grant that you possess the necessary
reliability for belonging to my Chamber. On the
basis of Paragraph 10 of the first executive
Order implementing the Law Concerning the
National Chambers of Culture of November 1, 1933
(Official Gazette, I, 797) I hereby expel you
from the National Chamber of Fine Arts and forbid
you, effective immediately, any activity -
professional or amateur - in the field of graphic
arts. MEMBERSHIP BOOK NO. M 756 issued in your
name is no longer valid, and you are requested to
send it back to me by return mail. s.
ZIEGLER. Certified DOEMLING (Rubber Stamp
National Chamber of Culture Chamber of Fine Arts)





15
?????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????. ??? ???
????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????
??????? ?????? (NSDAP) ???? ?????? ????. ???
?????? ????? ???? ?- 1933 ???? ?????? ??????
??????. ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????. "?????? ?????
????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????
??????". ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ?????????????. ?? ????? ????
?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????.
Nazi officials view the Entartete Kunst
exhibition.
16
(No Transcript)
17
???? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????. ???
???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ????,
????, ????, ????. ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?-
16000 ?????? ?? ?????? ?????. ?????? ??????
?????? ???? ???? ????? ???? 1938. ?? ?????? ?????
????? ?"? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ??
??????, ??? ????? ???????, ???? ????? ?? ?????.
??? ???????? ???? ???"? ?????? ????? ??? ??
????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??????. ??
????? ????? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???????
?????? ??? ???????. 
A confiscated self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh
is auctioned at Gallerie Fisher, Lucerne, in
1939. The winning bid was US 40.000 by Dr.
Frankfurter.
18
  ???'???? ???? "?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?- 20
????? ?????? ???? , ?????? ??????, ?????? ???????
???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????, ???
??????? ???? ???? ?- 19,???? ?? ???????, ??????
?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ,
????? ????????, ???? ????? ????? ???? ????
???????,,."  
19
????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? "????? ??????"
??????. ????? ?????? "????????? ?????", ????
???-?????????.
20
"????? ??????" ????? ?????? "????????? ?????",
???? ???-?????????.
21
Memorial plaque, Entartete Kunst, Köpenicker
Straße 24, Berlin-Kreuzberg, Germany
22
???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????
????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????
?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???.
(Main Artists on the The Nazi List singled out
for special condemnation) Otto Dix German
1862-1942 Expressionist  Vincent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890 Post-Impressionist Max Beckmann
German, 1884-1950 Expressionist  Edvard Munch
Norwegian, 1863-1944 Symbolist/Expressionist Emil
e Nolde German, 1867-1956 Expressionist
Painter Oskar Kokoschka Austrian, 1886-1980
Expressionist Painter Ernst Kirchner German,
1880-1938 Expressionist Painter. Wassily
Kandinsky  Russian, 1866-1944 Expressionist
Painter Paul Klee  Swiss 1879-1940 Swiss
Expressionist Painter  Pablo Picasso Spanish,
1881-1973 Cubist/Abstract/Symbolist Max Ernst
German, 1891-1976 Surrealist Painter Marc
Chagall Russian, 1887-1985 Surrealist
Painter Franz Marc German, 1880-1916
 Expressionist / Fauvist
23
???? ???? (Otto Dix), ???? ???? ????? ????? ???
???? ??? 1914 , ??? ?????? ??????? ??????.
??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????
??????? ???????? ??????. ???? ?????? ??? ????
???? ???? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? The
Seven Cardinal Sins ???? ???? ?????.
The Seven Cardinal Sins, 1933
24
Two hundred sixty of Dix's paintings were removed
from German museums in 1937.
Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden,
1926- Paris Musée National d'Art Moderne
25
Portrait of the Dancer Anita Berber - 1925
Otto Dix
26
?????? ???? ?- 20, ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????
???????.   ??? ???, ????? ?"???" ,(Die Brucke)
????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? (Kirchner).
?????? ????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ????
?????????????, ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
??????. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??
???????? ????? ???? ???. ?????? ?????? "???? "
???????????????,  ???? ????? "???? ?????" ????
????? ????? ?????? ????? ????. ??? ?????? ???? ??
?????? ???? ??????????? ???, ????? ??????? ?????
?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????
???. ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????
??????. ???? ???? ???????, ????? ????? ???????
?????? ????? ????. ????? ????? ??????? ???????
???? ??????? . ?????? ???? ?'?????? ????? ?????'
???? ???? ?????? ?- 1917. ????? ?? ????? ???
???????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????
????? ?????? ???????????????, ???? ????? ??
?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ????? 1938 ??? ?????.
27
?? ????? ???? ???? (?????? ????? ???????) ???????
??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??. ????? ??????
?????? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??????,
?????, ????? ?????? ????? ??, ???? ?? ??? ?????
?????. ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????
????. ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????
?????? ??????. (??? ?? ???? ????? ??????).
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Self-portrait as a Soldier
28
Kirchner, Ernst LudwigSelf-Portrait with
Model1910/1926
29
Kirchner Erich Heckel an der Staffelei
30
Erich HECKEL(1883 - 1970) (Siblings) 1913
Mann in der Ebene
31
In the Blue, 1925Dusseldorf, Germany
Born in Moscow in 1866, Wassily Kandinsky played
the piano and cello at an early age. The
influence of music in his art was profound many
of his paintings had musical connotations
"Improvisations," "Impressions," and
"Compositions." In 1895 Kandinsky attended a
French Impressionist exhibition where he saw
Monet's "Haystacks at Giverny." He was upset he
had not recognized it as a haystack, and also
thought the painter had no right to paint in such
an vague way. Yet he was intrigued by the
picture. A short time later he left Moscow for
Germany to study sketching and drawing. He is
considered to be one of the founders of abstract
art.
32
Paul Klee is ranked as one of the most original
masters of contemporary art. He was born in Bern,
Switzerland and lived for many years in Germany.
He was one of the instructors at the Bauhaus. In
1931 he began teaching at Dusseldorf Academy.
Small Rhythmic Landscape, 1920
33
A Young Lady's AdventurePaul Klee, 1922
34
Franz Marc died before Hitler's rise to power,
but his work influenced and helped lay the
foundations for the abstract art movement. He
volunteered for military service during W.W.I.
and died near Verdun, France, on March 4, 1916.
Franz Marc - Little Blue Horses
1911
35
Edvard Munch is probably best known for his
painting The Scream. His preoccupation with the
more sorrowful aspects of life was perhaps a
result of loosing both parents, a brother, and a
sister when he was young. Munch was a painter and
printmaker.
The Scream (or The Cry) 1893 National Gallery,
Oslo
36
The Sick Child touches on the fragility of life.
It draws upon Munchs personal memories,
including the trauma of his sisters death. He
described the 1885 painting as a breakthrough in
my art and made several versions, of which this
is the fourth.
Edvard Munch The Sick Child  1907
37

Marc Chagall was born in Russia in 1887. His life
was deeply rooted in Jewish tradition and
religion. His paintings are filled with a
child-like glee, using crayon colors and joyous
renderings, which appear to be seen through the
eyes of a child. He believed that the
spirituality of Art had to be universal and
timeless. "It always seemed to me, and it still
does, that the Bible is the greatest source of
poetry that has ever existed. Since that time, I
have been seeking to express this philosophy in
life and art."
The Poet with the Birds - 1911Minneapolis
Institute of Arts, Minnesota
38
The Gramineous Bicycle Garnished with Bells the
Dappled Fire Damps and the Echinoderms Bending
the Spine to Look for Caresses - 1920/21
The German painter-poet Max Ernst was a member
of the dada movement and a founder of surrealism.
He was a self-taught artist. He pioneered a
method called frottage, in which a sheet of paper
is placed on the surface of an object and then
penciled over until the texture of the surface is
transferred. In 1925, he showed his work at the
first surrealist painting exhibition in Paris.
39
??? ?????, ?????, 1976-1891 ???? ?????,
1929????-??? ?? ??
40
??? ???? (Max Beckmann) ,??? ???????????? ??????
???????? ??????  ????? ?? ????? ????? ?-1, ?????
?????????. ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????
???????, ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????
???? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????. ???????
"?????? ?? ????" (Descent from the Cross) ?????
???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???.
Max Beckmann -????? ?????
41
Max Beckman was influenced by Edvard Munch.
Beckman served in the medical corps during World
War I, an experience that led to extreme
pessimism in his artwork. Many of his paintings
were sold by the Third Reich after the Entartete
Kunst exhibition. Beckman was able to escape to
Amsterdam and then eventually made his way to the
United States.
The Beach (Strand) 1922
42
View Paul Fuhrmann's Kriegsgewinnler (War
Profiteer), an oil painting from 1932. Two of
Fuhrmann's works were included in the Entartete
Kunst exhibition.
43
Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) was an Austrian
artist, poet and playwright best known for his
intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes.
The Tempest, a self-portrait expressing his
unrequited love for Alma Mahler, widow of
composer Gustav Mahler, 1914
44
Heinrich Campendonk (3 November 1889 9 May
1957) was a German expressionist painter and
printmaker.
The Sixth Day 1914
45
Lyonel Charles Feininger (1871-1956) was a
German-American painter and caricaturist.
400 of his works were seized by the Ministry of
Propaganda and some 17 were included in various
exhibitions of Degenerate Art held in 1936 and
1937.
Lyonel Feininger's-Jesuiten III 1915
46
Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters
(1887-1948) was a German painter who was born in
Hanover, Germany.
Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
47
Pharisees 1912 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (German,
1884-1976)
48
Otto Mueller. In 1937 the Nazis seized 357 of his
works from German museums. .
Two Girls in the Wood, 1920-25, Pinakothek der
Moderne
49
ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (1874-1951)The artistic work
of the founder of modern classical music is a
surprise although Schoenberg only painted for a
few years, he nonetheless created a lot of
pictures and drawings that are worthy of notice.
50
Fritz Burger-Mühlfeld.
 Abstrakte  1923
51
Emile Nolde was an expressionist painter and
graphic artist known for his religious works. His
distortion and violent use of color attracted the
attention of Die Brücke resulting in an
invitation in 1906 to join the group. Nolde's
temperament was not suited for collective work
and he left Die Brücke in 1907 after learning the
technique of woodcut. Nolde was able to remain in
Germany during the Nazi regime, but over one
thousand of his works were confiscated.
Membership in the Nazi Party did not protect Emil
Nolde whose 1912 woodcut The Prophet is shown
here from being proscribed by Hitler. 1052 of
Nolde's paintings were removed from German
museums, more than any other artist
52
Excited People - 1913Nolde-Stiftung Seebull
53
Nolde, EmilWildly Dancing Children1909
54
??????? ?????, ???? ?????? " ???? ?????"??????
????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??
?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? . ?? ????
?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????????
?????? ???? ??????. ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?-
Lenbachhaus Städtische Galerie
'Blue Mountain' Gabriele Münter 1909
55
Murnau-Gabriele Münter
56
Not every artist considered by the Nazis to be
degenerate was included in the Entarte Kunst
exhibit. One such artist was Käthe Kollwitz whose
paintings, drawings, and sculptures were
commentaries on social conditions. She was much
loved by the German people, with streets and
parks being named after her. Käthe Kollwitz
became the first woman elected to the Prussian
Academy of Art in Berlin. But because her work
was critical of the Nazi regime, she became
persona non grata, and she was expelled from the
academy in 1933. Where do all the women who have
watched so carefully over their loved ones get
the heroism to send them to face the cannon? I
toy with the thought (of) . . . mothers standing
in a circle defending their children, as a
sculpture in the round. --Kollwitz Kollwitz
believed that art should reflect social
conditions in one's time. The Nazis forbade her
work to be displayed, and banished her work to
the cellar of the Crown Prince Palace, declaring
"In the Third Reich mothers have no need to
defend their children. The State does that."
Pietá (1938) by Käthe Kollwitz, located in the
Neue Wache in Berlin.
57






Artistic movements condemned as
degenerate Bauhaus Cubism Dada
Expressionism Impressionism New Objectivity
Surrealism Fauvism
Foyer of the Bauhaus University in Weimar
Cover of Anna Blume Dichtungen, 1919
58
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1974-020-13A, Salzburg,
Ausstellung "Entartete Kunst", Werbung
59
???? ?????? ???????
60
(No Transcript)
61
(No Transcript)
62
"I have at last learned the lesson that has been
forced upon me during this year, and I shall not
ever forget it. It is that I am not a German, not
a European, indeed perhaps scarcely a human being
(at least the Europeans prefer the worst of their
race to me) but I am a Jew."- Arnold Schoenberg
Cover of the exhibition program Degenerate music
exhibition, Düsseldorf, 1938
63
Walter Braunfels Hanns Eisler Veniamin
Fleishman Hans Gal Berthold Goldschmidt Pavel
Haas Karl Amadeus Hartmann Jaroslav
Jezek Vitezslava Kapralova Gideon Klein Erich
Wolfgang Korngold Hans Krasa Ernst
Krenek Bohuslav Martinu Franz Reizenstein Franz
Schreker Erwin Schulhoff Marcel Tyberg Viktor
Ullmann Kurt Weill Mieczyslaw Weinberg Jaromir
Weinberger Eric Zeisl Alexander Zemlinsky
The Music Suppressed by the Third Reich
64
Berthold Goldschmidt (1903-1996) was a prominent
Jewish composer and conductor who had experienced
harassment as a Jew even before Hitler came to
power. He escaped to England in 1935. He stayed
in obscurity until the 1980s when his work was
again recognized internationally. Otto Klemperer
(1885-1973) emerged as one of the leading German
conductors of his generation. After conducting
Tannhäser in 1933 on the 50th anniversary of
Wagner's death, Klemperer fled to the United
States to escape Nazi persecution. He became
conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic
Orchestra in 1937. By 1955, after years of health
problems, he was appointed the principal
conductor of the London Philharmonic. Ernst
Krenek (1900-1991) was considered a respectable
German Catholic until he wrote a modern opera
called Jonny Spielt Auf. The storyline of the
opera featured a black man as the main character.
The opera was a musical mix of jazz, spiritual,
and classical. He employed special sound effects
to depict traffic noise, trains, and sirens
within the music. Erik Korngold (1897-1957) was
a Jewish child prodigy. By the age of ten, he
composed "Der Schneemann" which was orchestrated
and conducted by his teacher Zemlinksy. In 1934
he began writing musical arrangements for
Hollywood films. While working in the United
States in 1938, the Nazis seized his Austrian
home and property. Korngold never returned to lve
again in Austria. His lengthy Hollywood career
produced two Academy Awards for film scores. He
was a popular composer for films, generating
music for more than 20 movies.
65
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) Though Schoenberg
emigrated to the United States just after Hitler
came to power in 1933, he understood what it
meant to be persecuted and what lay ahead for the
Jews who did not leave Germany. He foresaw the
decimation of the Jews, and tried to get the
public's attention. His agenda stated 1)
antisemitism must be stopped 2) a united Jewish
party must be created 3) unanimity in Jewry must
be priority 4) an independent Jewish state must
be created. It is no wonder he drew the hatred of
Hitler and the Nazis. He was telling the world
that Hitler was dangerous before Hitler had a
stranglehold on the German people. Bruno Walter
(1876-1962) was born Bruno Walter Schlesinger.
Walter was the conductor of the Leipzig Orchestra
and frequent guest conductor of the Berlin
Orchestra prior to the Third Reich. In 1933 the
Nazi government canceled his concerts due to the
"threat to public order." They could no longer
guarantee his personal safety. Walter fled to
Austria and then to the United States where he
became a well know conductor and music advisor.
Anton Webern (1883-1945) was a staunch follower
of Hitler, though not a member of the Nazi party.
He agreed with Hitler's writings, and felt that
Hitler would moderate his policies concerning the
Jews after the first display of power. He was
friends with Schoenberg, an exiled German Jew
whose music had been classified as degenerate and
thereby banned. This friendship along with his
advocacy of atonality in music got his works
listed as degenerate. The Nazis burned his
writings and forbade performances of his music
after Hitler took over Austria. He retired to a
life in the country toward the end of the war. He
was accidentally shot to death by an American
soldier in 1945 while smoking a cigarette outside
his daughter's home in Mittersill.
66
Goebbels views the Degenerate Art exhibition
67
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?????? http//www.tate.org.uk/modern http//en.wi
kipedia.org/wiki/Degenerate_art http//www.youtube
.com/watch?vrL-3aCehcSk http//www.youtube.com/wa
tch?viDejjelKCvY http//www.moma.org/collection/t
heme.php?theme_id10077 ?? ????
????? http//liatde.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-pos
t.html Faksimile "Ausstellungsführer Entartete
Kunst" http//kunst.gymszbad.de/nationalsozialis
mus/entartet The Third Reich's Pillage of
European Art and Treasures http//www.trutv.com/l
ibrary/crime/gangsters ??????? ???? ?????
?????? http//www.tapuz.co.il/blog/ViewEntry.asp
http//art.holocaust-education.net/explore.
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?????? http//cla.calpoly./History437/Art/Entart
ete http//fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/artDe
gen.htm Defining Degenerate Music in Nazi
Germany http//orelfoundation.org/index.phdegener
ate_music_in_nazi_germany/ http//www.imj.org.il/e
xhibitions/2008/MNR/index.html ?????? ??????????
????? ?1933 http//www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/o
nline/bookburning/author.php http//www.ushmm.org/
research/library/ United States Holocaust
Memorial Museumhttp//www.ushmm1933 http//fcit
.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/musDegen.htm ?? ??
??????? ???? http//orelfoundation.org/index.

?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????
???? www.clarita-efraim.com ???? ???????
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