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Vitamin K Can be absorbed from dietary sources or synthesized by microbes in the large intestines of dogs and cats Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K plays a critical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins

  • Organic compounds necessary for normal
    physiologic function. Most cannot be synthesized
    in the body and must be present in the diet.

There are two categories of Vitamins
  1. Fat soluble (A, D, E, and K)
  2. Water soluble (B complex vitamins and vitamin C)

1. Fat Soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K)
  • Require bile salts and fat clusters for
    absorption through the wall of the duodenum and
  • Are stored in lipid deposits in all tissues and
    are therefore required in smaller daily doses.
  • Over supplementation may lead to toxic
    syndromes. More is not better and will not
    improve performance.

Vitamin A, D, E K Sources
  • A Cod liver oil, milk, liver, egg yolk
  • D Liver, some fish, egg yolk, sunlight
  • E Wheat germ, corn and soybean oils
  • K Green leafy plants, liver, some fish meals

This information is not in your book.
Vitamin A
  • Plant sources have carotenoids (provitamin A)
  • Dogs can convert this to the active form needed.
  • Cats do not have the enzymes necessary to convert
    this to the active form. (another reason cats
    should not be fed vegetarian diets)

Vitamin D
  • Dogs and cats cannot use sunlight to convert
    provitamin D to the active form.
  • The active form of vitamin D is a hormone that
    works with calcitonin (parathyroid hormone),
    calcium, and phosphorus.

Vitamin E
  • Main function is an antioxidant.
  • This makes it useful as a preservative in pet
  • Pansteatitis

  • Antioxidants function by stabilizing free radical
    molecules, which otherwise would have destructive
    interactions with surrounding tissues. They help
    to restore damaged tissues.

Vitamins C and E are Antioxidants
  • These vitamins help free the body of the damaging
    effects of free radicals.
  • Supplementation of these vitamins above the
    normal daily requirements can therefore be
    beneficial to the animal. In this case more means
    better. But dont go vitamin crazy.

Vitamin K
  • Can be absorbed from dietary sources or
    synthesized by microbes in the large intestines
    of dogs and cats

Vitamin K Deficiency
  • Vitamin K plays a critical role in blood clotting
  • This means that deficiencies hemorrhage
    (bleeding to death)
  • Warfarin is a rodent poison that when ingested by
    cats from eating a rat or mouse, causes fatal
    hemorrhage if emergency supplementation of
    vitamin K is not administered.

2. Water Soluble Vitamins (B complex vitamins and
vitamin C)
  • Are poorly stored in the body
  • Excesses are lost via the urinary tract
  • Frequent intake is critical
  • Depleted faster, so that toxic effects are less
    likely to occur than deficiencies

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
  • An important water soluble vitamin, but is not
    necessary in the diet of dogs and cats as
    metabolism of glucose produces adequate amounts
  • Serves as an antioxidant