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Western Europe in the early Middle Ages

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Title: Western Europe in the early Middle Ages


1
Western Europe in the early Middle Ages
2
The End of the Roman Empire
  • The Germans lived in tribes led by chieftains in
    military system called the Comitatus
  • In 476 with a German as emperor the Western
    Empire ends, beginning the Middle Ages (Medieval
    in Latin)
  • With the end of the Western Roman Empire the
    people of Europe enter into a Dark Ages

The German chieftain, Odoacer, became emperor in
476
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Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages
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The Franks
  • Under Clovis the Franks conquer all of Gaul
  • Clovis will divide the land he conquerors into
    smaller parts that will be ruled by counts or
    dukes
  • He will combine German laws with the Roman legal
    system

8
EUROPE in 476 AD
(Jutes)
(Lombards)
(relative of former Roman Governor of Gaul)
(Land of German Emperor )
9
  • Clovis will defeat
  • The Romans in Gaul
  • The Alamanni
  • The Visigoths

10
Clovis and Catholicism
  • After winning a battle in which he almost lost,
    Clovis vowed to convert to Catholicism
  • Clovis will be baptized by the pope and will
    fight Arian Christian tribes
  • After his death, the Frankish Empire will be run
    by his relatives who lose power to Mayors of the
    Palace

11
The Carolingians
  • Charles Martel, The Hammer, stops the Muslim
    invasion of Europe at the Battle of Tours in
    Spain
  • He will support St. Bonifaces missionary work
    among the Germans
  • Under his leadership most Germans convert from
    Arianism to Catholicism

12
Pepin the Short
  • Pepin ended the rule of the Merovingian
  • With the popes support he will be crowned King
    of the Franks
  • In return he defends the pope from the Lombards
    and gives the pope land
  • The Donation of Pepin creates the Papal States

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Charlemagne
  • Expands the Frankish Empire to its greatest size
  • He fights wars against
  • The Lombards
  • The Saxons for over 30 years
  • The Muslims in Spain creating the Spanish March
    The Song of Roland comes from this campaign

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Ruling the Holy Roman Empire
  • To run the empire Charlemagne divides the land up
    into counties run by counts who are to protect
    the land from their manors
  • To ensure that his orders were being followed
    and that there was justice in his empire
    Charlemagne created the Missi Dominici (the
    Kings Messengers)
  • One nobleman and one bishop traveled the empire
    and made sure justice was met and the borders
    were safe from invasion

18
  • Charlemagne will be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by
    Pope Leo III
  • Charlemagne increases the power of the pope and
    demands that a tax be paid annually to the church
    (10 of ones income a tithe)

19
The Carolingian Renaissance
  • Charlemagne built churches and monasteries which
    will be centers of learning
  • Alcuin of York will be hired to run a school for
    the children of nobles at Aachen
  • Given many libraries had been destroyed due to
    war Charlemagne will order the monks to make
    copies of books, especially of the ancient Greeks
    and Romans

Alcuin of York
20
Charlemagne could not read or write, but did try
to learn. Unusual for a king of his time.
He also tried to write, and used to keep tablets
and blanks in bed under his pillow, that at
leisure hours he might accustom his hand to form
the letters however, as he did not begin his
efforts in due season, but late in life, they met
with ill success.from Einhardt (biographer of
Charlemagne)
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Charlemagnes Rise to Power
God himself has made me king.
I crown you Holy Roman Emperor
  • Germanic people
  • Conquered modern France and Germany
  • Clovis first King of all FRANKS, converted to
    Christianity in 481
  • Gave church 10 tax, called a tithe
  • Used Missi Dominici to kept order in his kingdom
  • Made Aachen a center of learning
  • Kingdom divided into three parts after
    Charlemagnes death
  • Division weakened empires unity
  • Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims invaded

Crowned HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR by the Pope
He prevented Muslims from expanding into Europe.
He brutally put down a Saxon revolt and forced
them to convert to Catholicism
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  • Lifestyle was based on the sea. Vikings were
    pirates. To go a-viking meant to go on an
    overseas adventure. Men and women wore long hair.
    Married women were respected.
  • Government tribal units ruled by jarls
  • Values Culture of war --gt blood feuds were
    common
  • Education was not important
  • Religion worshipped many gods by crop and animal
    sacrifices
  • Raided coastal villages throughout Europe,
    plundering, killing, burning and taking
    possessions.
  • Lack of FARMLAND so needed to move!
  • Europe was weak after Charlemagnes empire fell
    apart.
  • Viking longships and weaponry intimidated people
    of Europe.
  • Vikings were experienced sailors, traders and
    explorers.

NORWAY
DENMARK
We can not stop the Viking raids without a strong
central government
  • Viking power of intimidation kept Europe in a
    state of terror.
  • Europeans looked to local lords to protect them.
  • These raids contributed to the development of
    feudalism.
  • Viking culture influenced some aspects of life in
    Europe.

29
Flag of Iceland
Flag of Sweden
Flag of Norway
Flag of England
Flag of Denmark
Flag of Scotland
What religion do the Vikings eventually convert
to?
City flag of Philadelphia People of which country
founded Philadelphia?
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Suggested Routes of the Vikings 2005 CE
Believed Migration of Vikings in America
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Divided the empire among his three sons
Was Charlemagnes son
A wise and just ruler who issued many laws
Created a large empire
First Frankish king to be anointed by Pope
Helped the Pope become the ruler of the Italian
Peninsula
Known as the Hammer
Led the Franks to victory at the Battle of Tours
Eventually brought all Franks under one rule
Was a good general and able king
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35
In the Early Middle Ages
Franks Muslims Vikings Anglo-Saxons Papal
States Magyars
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