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Lincoln Faces a Crisis Section 1


Lincoln Faces a Crisis Section 1 478-482 By the time Lincoln took office in 1861, seven states had already left the Union. Lincoln claimed: He would not try to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lincoln Faces a Crisis Section 1

Lincoln Faces a Crisis Section 1 478-482
  • By the time Lincoln took office in 1861, seven
    states had already left the Union.
  • Lincoln claimed
  • He would not try to end slavery.
  • The federal government would not attack the
  • There would only be conflict if the South
    attacked the North.
  • He wished to preserve the Union.

Lincoln Faces a Crisis
  • By early 1861, the South (Confederacy) decided
    that unity with the North (Union) would not be in
    their best interest.
  • The Confederates were taking over many federal
    installations including
  • Mints, Armories, Forts
  • Fort Sumter - Charleston, South Carolina

Lincoln Faces a Crisis
  • Fort Sumter, located in South Carolinas
    Charleston Harbor was a key Union outpost b/c it
    controlled shipping traffic into Charleston.
  • The first battle of the Civil War
  • On April 12, 1861 Confederate officers demanded
    that the Union garrison leave the fort.
  • The Union garrisons commander refused the
    demand, and Confederate cannons opened fire.
  • Fort Sumter held out for 34 hours, but eventually
    the garrison surrendered.

Choosing Sides
  • Union Free states in the North.
  • Capital Washington D.C.
  • President Abraham Lincoln
  • Confederacy Slave states in the South.
  • Capital Richmond, VA
  • President Jefferson Davis
  • Union/Confederacy Border states that were both
    free and slave
  • Kentucky and Missouri
  • Troops served on each side during the war.

The Volunteer Spirit
  • Neither the Union nor the Confederacy was
    prepared for war.
  • At the beginning, each side depended on
    volunteers to begin filling its ranks.
  • In the border states often times members of the
    same family fought on opposite sides
  • President Lincolns wife was from Kentucky and
    she had four brothers who fought for the

The Volunteer Spirit
  • Civilians on both sides volunteered their time
    and resources to the war effort.
  • They were responsible for
  • Raising Money
  • Providing aid for soldiers and their families
  • Running hospitals
  • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (The first woman to earn
    a medical license), established the U.S. Sanitary
  • The Sanitary had tens of thousands of volunteers
    who sent bandages, medicine, and food to Union
    army camps and hospitals.
  • Many volunteers also worked in the camps and the

The North vs. The South
  • At the beginning of the war, each side held
  • North
  • Larger population more soldiers
  • More factories and shipyards
  • Better railroad network more efficient
  • The ability to raise more money
  • South
  • Had a military tradition that provided a skilled
    officer corps
  • Had to defend itself until the North tired of the
  • The North had to capture and then occupy large
    areas of enemy territory.

The North vs. The South
  • The Union and the Confederacy based their early
    military strategies on their individual
  • Union Two parts under General Winfield Scott
  • 1. Destroy the Souths economy through a naval
    blockade of southern seaports.
  • 2. Gain control of the Miss. River to divide the
    Confederacy and cut its communications
  • Confederacy Two parts under Pres. Jefferson
  • 1. Defend its territory and wear down the Unions
    will to fight.
  • 2. Capture and occupy Washington D.C.

The North vs. The South
  • The South also tried a different strategy for
    winning the war.
  • Confederate leaders believed they could win
    foreign allies with Cotton Diplomacy.
  • This idea was based on the belief that the
    British government would support the South
    because cotton was important to the British
    textile industry.
  • Unfortunately for the South
  • Britain had a large surplus supply of cotton when
    the war began.
  • Britain was able to get cotton from India and
    Egypt to make up for the dwindling supply from
    the Confederacy.

The War in the East Section 2 483-487
  • After the fall of Fort Sumter, northerners
    demanded action.
  • Pres. Lincoln responded by ordering a Union force
    of 35k troops to march from Washington D.C. to
    Richmond VA.
  • Their orders were Capture Richmond and prevent
    the Confederate Congress from meeting.
  • In July 1861, 35k Union and 35k Confederate
    troops fought the first major battle of the war
    about 30 miles outside of Washington D.C.
  • Neither side was prepared for the horror that lay

The War in the East
  • The First Battle of Bull Run
  • At first, the Union gained the upper hand, but
    quickly lost it when Confederate troops rallied
    around General Thomas Stonewall Jackson.
  • Fresh Confederate troops arrived overnight and
    the next day, the Union began a general retreat
    towards Washington D.C.
  • If the Confederates had pressed the attack, they
    might have captured Washington D.C., but they
    were too exhausted to continue.
  • The Confederate victory at this battle ended the
    Unions hopes for a quick and easy victory.

More Battles in Virginia
  • Lincoln continued to pursue the strategy of
    capturing Richmond.
  • Lincoln appointed General George B. McClellan as
    the overall Union commander.
  • McClellan felt that his force was outnumbered and
    chose to wait to attack Richmond.
  • This inaction gave the Confederates time to
    strengthen the defenses around Richmond.
  • Jefferson Davis appointed Robert E. Lee as
    commander of the Confederate forces in VA.

More Battles in Virginia
  • During the summer of 1862, the war raged in
  • Seven Days Battle and the Second Battle of Bull
  • The Union army was not successful in capturing
    Richmond during either of these battles.
  • By the fall of 1862, the Union army had been
    driven out of Virginia, and General Lee decided
    to take the war into northern territory.

The Battle of Antietam
  • In September 1862, 40K Confederate troops entered
  • Their goal was to take the fight to the Union.
    The South believed that their attack on Union
    soil would
  • Break the Union spirit to fight.
  • Convince European powers to give aid to the
  • The two armies met and fought the Battle of
  • Prior to the battle, Union soldiers found a copy
    of Lees battle plan and McClellan used it to
    plan a counterattack.
  • The Union won the battle but suffered 12k
  • The Confederacy suffered 13k casualties.
  • This was the bloodiest single-day battle of the

The War at Sea
  • The Union had the most ships and had the industry
    to build more.
  • They used their ships to create a blockade along
    the Southeast coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Blockade Virginia to Texas
  • The Confederacy had small, fast ships called
    Blockade Runners that could outrun the Unions
    larger warships, but there werent enough of them
    to make up for the Souths overall trade loss.

The War at Sea
  • As a result of the Union blockade, the
    Confederacy started to build a new type of
    warship with the intent of breaking through the
  • Ironclad heavily armored ship
  • Both sides eventually built ironclads, and since
    the Union also had them, the blockade remained
  • The CSS Virginia attacking a Union wooden sailing

Western Strategy Section 3 488-491
  • The Unions strategy in the West focused on
    controlling the Mississippi River. The reasons
    for doing this were
  • The eastern states of the Confederacy would be
    cut off from their western food-producing allies.
  • Union army bases on the Miss. R. could send
    troops to attack the Confederacys communication
    and transportation lines.
  • Ulysses S. Grant was the overall Union commander
    during the western war.
  • By February, 1862 the Union controlled Kentucky
    and most of Tennessee.
  • In April, 1862 Grant was pushing toward

Western Strategy
  • Following orders, Grant halted his troops at
    Shiloh, TN
  • As he was awaiting more troops, the Confederate
    troops attacked.
  • Initially, the Battle of Shiloh was a victory
    until, Union reinforcements arrived and the Union
  • By the end of the second day, the Confederate
    troops retreated and the Union had won greater
    control of the Mississippi River Valley.

Fighting for the Mississippi River
  • After the victory at Shiloh, the Union pressed
    its attack.
  • The Union next set its sights on New Orleans.
  • From New Orleans, the Union forces could march
    north as Grants forces marched south.
  • In late April 1862, the Union Navy and Army had
    captured New Orleans.
  • From there the two Union armies advanced, one
    north and the other south.
  • They met at Vicksburg, MS in May of 1863.

Fighting for the Mississippi River
  • In the Spring of 1863, Grant surrounded Vicksburg
    and cut off all resupply and reinforcements from
    helping the dug-in Confederate defenders and the
    citys residents.
  • The Siege of Vicksburg lasted for six weeks.
  • The Confederate forces and residents within the
    citys defenses eventually ran out of food and
    had to eat horses, dogs, and rats just to
  • In July, 1863 the Confederate commanding officer
    at Vicksburg surrendered his army and the city to
    the Union.

Freeing the Slaves Section 4 492-497
  • Lincoln supported freeing slaves if it would help
    the North win the war.
  • Emancipation the freeing of slaves.
  • Lincoln had three concerns regarding
  • Northern prejudice against African Americans
    might weaken northern support for the war.
  • Some northerners might consider that slaves were
    still property that southerners had the right to
  • The Constitution did not give Lincoln the
    president the power to end slavery.
  • Lincoln decided to issue an order freeing all
    slaves in Confederate controlled areas.
  • This order didnt outlaw slavery, just that all
    current slaves were to be released.

Freeing the Slaves
  • Lincoln waited for a northern victory in the east
    before announcing his plans.
  • Immediately following the Unions September 1862
    victory at Antietam Lincoln issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation (EP).
  • The EP was scheduled to go into effect on
    January, 1 1863
  • When news of the EP reached southern states,
    slaves began to escape in large numbers,
    especially when they heard that Union forces were

African Americans and the War
  • As slaves escaped to the North, many wished to
    serve in the Unions armed services.
  • The Union navy had already been accepting African
    American volunteers.
  • Northern abolitionists wanted the Army to accept
    African American volunteers as well.
  • Since the Union needed soldiers, Congress allowed
    African Americans to sign up as laborers in July,
  • The War Department allowed contrabands (escaped
    slaves) the right to join the Union army in SC,
    LA, and KS.

African Americans and the War
  • By the spring of 1863, African American units
    were fighting with the Union army.
  • The 54th Massachusetts Infantry played a key role
    in the July, 1863 attack on SCs Fort Wagner.

African Americans and the War
  • About 180K African Americans bravely served in
    the Union Army. For most of the war they
  • Faced discrimination and were paid less than
    white soldiers.
  • Were led by white officers.
  • If captured they were often killed or sold into

Problems in the North
  • Northerners were growing upset by the length of
    the war and the increasing number of casualties.
  • A group of northern Democrats began to speak out
    against the war and were labeled by war
    sympathizers as copperheads.
  • Some northern copperheads sympathized with the
    Souths struggle, were opposed to abolition, and
    wanted the war to end.

Problems in the North
  • Because of the copperheads actions and the
    potential threat they posed to the war effort,
    Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus
  • HC the constitutional protection against
    unlawful imprisonment.
  • Union officials began to put their enemies in
    jail w/o evidence or trial.
  • In 1863 Congress passed a law allowing men to be
    drafted into military service.
  • Wealthy people legally bought their way out of
    the draft.
  • Often poor immigrants were drafted immediately
    upon arrival in the U.S.

Southern Struggles
  • The Norths naval blockade took a heavy toll on
    the Souths ability to trade.
  • Shortages of food, ammunition, tools, cloth,
    medicine, etc.
  • By the spring of 1863, food riots took place in
    several southern cities.
  • Conf. Pres. Jefferson Davis ordered that local
    newspapers not print the riots so that the North
    wouldnt find out about them.
  • In 1862 the South passed a draft for men to enter
    military service.
  • Men who held slaves didnt have to serve in the
  • This also caused riots b/c only poor southerners
    had to serve in the military.

Life on the Home Front
  • In the North and the South, most people were
    involved in the war effort in some way.
  • They worked in factories, farms, plantations,
    medicine, etc.
  • Women were very important in providing medical
    care for soldiers.
  • Dorothea Dix headed 3k women who worked as
    paid nurses in the Union army
  • Clara Barton organized volunteer efforts to
    collect and deliver medicine and supplies to
    Union troops on the battlefield.
  • Her worked formed the basis of the American Red
  • Sally Louisa Tompkins established a hospital in
    Richmond, VA for wounded Confederate soldiers.

Life on the Home Front
  • Military prisoners on both sides suffered
  • There was usually a shortage of food, medicine.
  • Often they were treated harshly and abused by
    their captors.

The Battle of Gettysburg Section 5 498-503
  • Because of recent Confederate victories, Lee
    decided to move offensively into Union territory.
    His goals were
  • To break the Unions will to fight.
  • To capture supplies from the Union army.
  • Lee marched his forces into southern PA near
  • The Confederates sent a raiding party into town
    to get supplies, and were fired on by Union
  • Eventually, 75k Confederate troops faced 90k
    Union Troops.

The Battle of Gettysburg
  • The Battle of Gettysburg (BoG) July 1 3,
  • Union and Confederate troops squared off at sites
    like Little Round Top, the Peach Orchard, Culps
    Hill and Devils Den.
  • Both sides one individual fights while the
    casualty lists increased.
  • By the evening of July 2nd, General Lee knew that
    a decisive attack on the Unions center would
    make the difference in the outcome of the battle.

The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Late on the afternoon of July 3rd, General Lee
    ordered a frontal assault on the Unions line
    that was positioned on Cemetery Ridge.
  • The attack started by 150 Confederate artillery
    pieces firing on the Union line.
  • The Union responded with counter battery fire and
    eventually 300 guns were in the battle.
  • The artillery duel lasted about 2 hours.
  • After the artillery fire had lifted,
    approximately 12,500 Confederate infantry under
    the command of General George Pickett set off on
    a 1 mile long front.

The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Picketts infantry came under intense cannon fire
    as they marched across ¾ of a mile of open
  • By the time the infantry was within 400 yards of
    the Union line, they came under intense rifle
    fire and artillery canister rounds.
  • The union line was behind a low stone wall.
  • Several hundred Confederate soldiers did breach
    the stone wall, but after a brief period of
    fierce hand-to-hand combat all were either killed
    or captured.
  • The Confederates began a retreat in which only
    6,500 of the original 12,500 returned.

A Turning Point
  • Gettysburg marked a turning point in the war.
  • Lees troops would never again launch an attack
    into Northern territory.
  • In November, 1863 Lincoln delivered the
    Gettysburg Address (GA) at the battle site where
    51k men became casualties.
  • GA Lincoln spoke of the importance of liberty,
    equality, and democratic ideals and that the war
    was being fought to protect those principles.

Grants Drive to Richmond
  • Because of Grants earlier successes, Lincoln
    gave him overall command of the Union army.
  • Lincoln ordered Grant to capture the Confederate
    capital at Richmond, VA.
  • From early 1864 through June of 1864, the two
    armies fought a series of battles in Virginia
    the Wilderness Campaign.
  • These battles stretched the Confederate armys
    soldiers and supplies to their limits.
  • The Union army suffered twice as many casualties
    as the Confederates.
  • The Union could rebuild its losses, the
    Confederacy couldnt.

Sherman Strikes South
  • Lincoln was up for re-election in 1864 and needed
    a key victory on the battlefield to secure his
    second term.
  • Under orders from Grant, General William Tecumseh
    Sherman marched south from TN in the spring of
    1864 with 100k troops.
  • Shermans mission destroy southern railroads and
    industries and capture Atlanta, GA.
  • By July 1864, Shermans army was within cannon
    shot of Atlanta.
  • The Confederate forces trapped in Atlanta held
    out until early September when the city was

Sherman Strikes South
  • Atlanta was destroyed and its remaining residents
    were ordered to leave.
  • The Confederacy had lost its most important rail
    hub and center of industry.
  • Shermans victory showed northerners that
    progress was being made and they re-elected
    Lincoln in a landslide.

Sherman Strikes South
  • In mid November, 1864 Sherman took 60k troops and
    began his next attack.
  • Shermans mission capture the port city of
    Savannah, GA.
  • This mission has come to be known as Shermans
    March to the Sea.
  • Shermans army waged total war destruction of
    both military and civilian resources.
  • Sherman felt that total war would ruin the
    Souths ability to fight.

Sherman Strikes South
  • The Union army destroyed railways, bridges,
    crops, livestock and anything else that could
    benefit the Souths war effort.
  • Plantations were burned and slaves were freed.
  • Shermans army reached and captured Savannah, GA
    in December, 1864
  • Shermans March left a path of destruction 50
    miles wide and 250 miles long.

The South Surrenders
  • In early April 1865, Sherman defeated the last of
    the Confederate forces in North Carolina and
    Grant was able to force Lee to retreat from
  • The Union army had captured the Confederate
    capital at Richmond.
  • In mid-April 1865, Grants army surrounded Lees
    remaining force just west of Richmond in the
    small town of Appomattox Courthouse, VA.
  • On April 9, 1865 (Palm Sunday), General Lee
    signed the surrender documents.
  • 620k Americans died fighting in the Civil War.

  • All information from Holt Call to Freedom 2004