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A%20Brief%20History%20of%20the%20Study%20of%20Human%20Anatomy

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Harvey was the first person to describe the heart as a pump for blood and he also described arteries and veins as blood vessels that carry blood throughout the body. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A%20Brief%20History%20of%20the%20Study%20of%20Human%20Anatomy


1
A Brief History of the Study of Human Anatomy
2
Early Egyptians
  • Perfected the science of mummification.
  • Major organs were removed and placed in jars.
  • Body cavity was filled with a sawdust-like
    material.
  • Body was wrapped in linen cloth shrouds.

3
Alexandria, Egypt
  • The study of anatomy flourished in Alexandria
    between 300-150 B.C.
  • Only criminals were allowed to be dissected
    because these early cultures were very
    superstitious and believed that an intact body
    was necessary for a successful afterlife.

4
Roman Influence
  • In 30 B.C. Alexandria was conquered by the Roman
    Empire.
  • The Romans were interested in power, wealth and
    military strength, not in anatomical studies.
  • Romans outlawed anatomical studies and human
    dissections.

5
Roman Empire
6
Galen of Pergamen
  • Perhaps one of the brightest spots in the early
    history of anatomy was the work of a Greek
    physician named Galen (120-300 A.D.).
  • Galen had been trained in the Alexandrian
    tradition and wanted to further the scientific
    study of the human body.

7
Galen of Pergamen 120-300 A.D.
8
Galens Work
  • Because human dissections were outlawed by the
    Romans, Galen wrote an anatomy textbook based on
    his dissections of the Barbary ape, a primate
    similar to man.
  • While the text was helpful it had many
    inaccuracies.

9
The Barbary Ape
10
Title Page of Galens Anatomy Text
11
Illustration from Galens Text
12
Galens Influence
  • Galens anatomy textbook, based on the dissection
    of the Barbary ape, became the accepted authority
    on human anatomy for 1300 years!
  • How could this be?

13
The Dark Ages (400 1100 A.D.)
  • Barbarians from Asia, such as Attila and the
    Huns, overran and destroyed the Roman Empire.
  • Many of the scientific writings were destroyed.

14
Dark Ages
  • Fortunately some of these documents were salvaged
    by the Moslems and translated into their
    language, Arabic.

15
Rediscovery
  • About 1100 A.D., Christian scholars discovered
    these Arabic translations and began the slow
    process of translating them into Latin.
  • This exposed a wealth of lost and forgotten
    information.
  • Not until the 16th century were these works
    finally translated.

16
First Autopsy
  • In the year 1286 we have reference to a human
    dissection being performed to determine the cause
    of death.
  • Today, this procedure is called an autopsy.

17
Rise of Medical Schools
  • By the early 1300s anatomical studies were again
    becoming fashionable.
  • In the medical schools in Italy anatomy
    professors were highly respected figures and so
    they would sit in large throne-like chairs, wear
    academic robes, and read from the re-translated
    text of Galen.

18
Rise of Medical Schools
  • Barbers actually performed the dissections on
    human subjects while students stood and observed.
  • Students were not allowed to participate in the
    dissections.

19
A Major Contribution
  • During the early Renaissance years, artists,
    sculptors and painters strove to make their
    artwork as human and life-like as possible.
  • To do this, they had to study human anatomy on a
    first-hand basis that is, they had to perform
    their own human dissections.

20
A Major Contribution
  • One of the most famous of these Renaissance
    artists was Leonardo DaVinci.
  • His anatomically accurate drawings gave to
    anatomists for the first time illustrations with
    correct anatomical proportions and great
    attention to detail.

21
DaVincis Last Supper
22
Mona Lisa
23
Leonardos Anatomy Drawings
24
Leonardos Anatomy Drawings
25
Andreas Vesalius
  • The man who revolutionized the study of anatomy
    was Andreas Vesalius.
  • He realized that to learn anatomy students needed
    to be involved with the dissections.
  • He also realized that Galens textbook was
    severely flawed and must be replaced.

26
Andreas Vesalius
  • Vesalius revolutionized the study of anatomy by
    doing away with the barbers, instead doing human
    dissections himself and having students assist
    instead of just observe.
  • He also published his own anatomy textbook which
    contained many anatomically accurate drawings
    based on human dissections.

27
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543)
28
De Humani Corporis Fabrica
29
De Humani Corporis Fabrica
30
De Humani Corporis Fabrica
31
Killing Sacred Cows
  • Vesalius introduced the idea of killing sacred
    cows, that is, challenging accepted authority
    for the purpose of improving it.
  • Because of his revolutionary work at the
    University of Padua, Andreas Vesalius is
    considered to be the Father of Modern Anatomy

32
Fabricius
  • Vesalius was replaced at the University of Padua
    by a man named Fabricius.
  • Fabricius discovered the presence of one-way
    valves in veins, he called them the little
    doors.

33
Little Doors
34
William Harvey
  • The English physician, William Harvey, a student
    of Fabricius, became interested in the
    circulation of the blood.
  • Harvey was the first person to describe the heart
    as a pump for blood and he also described
    arteries and veins as blood vessels that carry
    blood throughout the body.

35
William Harvey
  • Harvey showed that function can be inferred from
    structure and thus became known as the Father
    of Physiology.

36
Marcello Malpighi
  • With the development of the microscope, the
    Italian anatomist, Marcello Malpighi was able to
    see the tiny blood vessels that Harvey could not
    see but had predicted their presence.
  • These tiny vessels Malpighi named capillaries,
    which means hair-like in Latin.

37
The End (Does this look familiar?)
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