INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7a3b16-NThkY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS

Description:

INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS * ROOTS AND PREDECESSORS Ancient time: Rhetoric - the art of creating speeches and Poetics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:57
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: orgu1298
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS


1
INTRODUCTION TO STYLISTICIS THE SUBJECT AND MAIN
OBJECTIVES OF STYLITICS
2
ROOTS AND PREDECESSORS
  • Ancient time Rhetoric - the art of creating
    speeches and Poetics (process of artistic
    creation)
  • Aristotle Poetics 320 B.C. epic drama and
    lyrics,
  • Socrates - Dialectics ( the art of creating a
    dialogue)
  • Poetics developed into Literary Criticism
    Rhetoric and Dialectics into Stylistics
  • In ancient Rome

CAESAR and analogists CICERO and anomalists
Stressed regularity and system rules Focused on facts and data Their aim was to create simple clear and straightforward speeches Seneca and Tacituts Aimed at creation of flowery language Used unnatural syntactic patterns, artificial sentence structures Created anomalies on all language levels Their true message was secondary to the form of presentation


3
MIDDLE AGES AND THE NEW AGE
  • Anomalistic rhetoric of Cicero (aesthetically
    attractive) became a model way of public speaking
  • Influence of ancient India brevity of speech
  • Distinction between FORM and CONTENT
  • The language of science, culture, administration
    (Latin) was different from the language of common
    people
  • Romanticism style referred to written form of
    language Nicolas Boileau LArt poetique (1674)
    language and parole
  • 1. stylus altus (works of art)
  • 2. stylus mediocris (the style of high society)
  • 3. stylus humilis (the style of low society and
    comedies)
  • 19 century W.von Humboldt Uber die
    Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues..
    functional styles Prague Linguistic
    Circle (1926)

4
PLAN
  1. The Object, Objectives and Units of Stylistics,
    its Methodological Basis. Structural and
    Functional Approaches.
  2. Stylistics and Other Sciences. Theory of
    Information. Major Scholars and Landmarks of
    Stylistics Development as a Science.
  3. The Main Terms, Categories and Notions of
    Stylistics.
  4. Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices.
    Expressiveness and Emotiveness.
  5. Types of Meaning. Meaning and Sense. Meaning from
    a Stylistic Point of View
  6. Functional styles and varieties of a language

5
LITERATURE
  1. ???????? ?.?. ???????????????? ??????????. ?.
    ???, 2012
  2. Galperin I.R. Stylistics.- M. Higher School,
    1977, p.1
  3. ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????????
    ?????.-???? ???? ?????,1991
  4. ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
    ?????.- ?. ???????????, 1990
  5. ??????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?????????? ???????????
    ?? ??????????? ???. ??????? ???? ?????, 2005
  6. ?????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ????.
    ??????? ???? ?????, 2004

6
Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics.
  • 2 objectives
  • Investigation of special language media which
    secure the desirable effect of the utterance
    they are called stylistic devices(SD) and
    expressive means(EM). Stylistics studies the
    nature, functions and structure of SDs and EMs
  • The second field of investigation is concerned
    with certain types of texts which due to the
    choice and arrangement of language means are
    distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of
    communication. These types are called functional
    styles of language.

7
DEFINITION
  • stylistics - is a science, a branch of
    linguistics, investigating principles and the
    results of selection and use of lexical,
    grammatical, phonetic and other language means
    for the transfer of thoughts and emotions under
    di
  • Lat - stylus - a stick made of material for
    writing.
  • Stylistics - from French " Stylistique "
    -instrument for Writing.fferent circumstances of
    communication

8
Landmarks
  • The first discussion on the problems of style
    Issues of linguistics in 1954
  • Conference on Style - Indiana University , 1958
    publication of its materials in 1960 under the
    editorship of Thomas Sebeok
  • Conference on Style , Moscow State Pedagogical
    Institute of Foreign Languages in 1969
  • Symposium , Italy , Proceedings under the
    editorship of Prof. Chatman in 1971.
  • American journals , Illinois University Style
    and Language and Style.

9
XX century
  • Germany New Idealists B.Croce, K.Vossler etc.
    developed individualistic and psychoanalytical
    approach to language
  • French School of Charles Bally and F. de Saussure
    (Geneva) expressive stylistics
    STRUCTURALISM
  • The Prague Linguistic Circle Jakobson,
    Trubetskoi, Mathesius and Copenhagen
    Structuralistic school Hjelmslev, in the US
    Sapir and Blooomfield
  • 1920s Russia FORMALISM the focus of the text
    analysis was on the form (HOW) not content (WHAT)
    Roman Jakobson, Tynianov and Vinogradov

10
Main representatives
  • Michael Riffatere - theory of information
  • Denotative and Connotative Meaning
  • Decoding stylistics - I.V.Arnold
  • Zhirmunsky(1921), Vinogradov (1923), Tynianov
    (1924) - literary trend of formalism
  • Galperin, Lotman, Kukharenko, Morokhovsky
  • Darbyshire 1971 A Grammar of Style
  • Enkvist Linguistic Stylistics 1973

11
Main Terms, Categories and Notions
  • STYLE
  • The correspondence between thought and language
    expression
  • An individual manner of making use of language
  • The set of rules how to write a composition
  • The aesthetic function of language
  • Expressive means in language
  • Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same
    idea
  • Emotional coloring in language
  • A system of special devices called stylistic
    devices
  • The splitting of the literary language into
    separate systems called styles
  • The individual manner of an author in making use
    of language

12
STYLE
  • style is the man himself (Buffon 18thc.)
  • Style is depth Darbyshire
  • style is deviation Enkvist
  • style is the result of an authors success in
    compelling language to conform to his mode of
    experience (Middleton Murry)
  • Style is a contextually restricted linguistic
    variation (Enkvist)
  • Style is a selection of non-distinctive features
    of language(Bloomfield)
  • Style is simply synonymous with form or
    expression(Benedetto Croce)
  • structures, sequences and patterns which extend
    beyond the boundaries of individual sentences -
    style (Archibald Hill )

13
Individual style and idiolect
  • Individual style implies the peculiarities of a
    writers individual manner of using language
    means to achieve the effect he desires
    components of individual style -
  • composition of phrasal units
  • rhythm and melody of utterances
  • system of imagery
  • preference for definite stylistic devices and
    their correlation with neutral language media
  • interdependence of the language means employed by
    the author and those characteristic to his
    personages.
  • The speech of any individual, which is
    characterized by particular elements, is called
    an idiolect that reveals his breeding and
    education

14
"A VERY SHORT STORY by Ernest Hemingway
  • One hot evening in Padua they carried him up onto
    the roof and he could look out over the top of
    the town. There were chimney swifts in the sky.
    After a while it got dark and the searchlights
    came out. The others went down and took the
    bottles with them. He and Luz could hear them
    below on the balcony. Luz sat on the bed. She was
    cool and fresh in the hot night.
  • She loved him as always, but she realized now it
    was only a boy and girl love. She hoped he would
    have a great career, and believed in him
    absolutely. She knew it was for the best. The
    major did not marry her in the spring, or any
    other time. Luz never got an answer to the letter
    to Chicago about it. A short time after he
    contracted gonorrhea from a sales girl in a loop
    department store while riding in a taxicab
    through Lincoln Park.

15
James Joyce Ulysses
  • INELUCTABLE MODALITY OF THE VISIBLE AT LEAST
    THAT IF NO MORE, thought through my eyes.
    Signatures of all things I am here to read,
    seaspawn and seawrack, the nearing tide, that
    rusty boot. Snotgreen, bluesilver, rust
  • coloured signs. Limits of the diaphane. But he
    adds in bodies. Then he was
  • aware of them bodies before of them coloured.
    How? By knocking his sconce
  • against them, sure. Go easy. Bald he was and a
    millionaire, maestro di color
  • che sanno. Limit of the diaphane in. Why in?
    Diaphane, adiaphane. If you can
  • put your five fingers through it, it is a
    gate, if not a door. Shut your eyes and see.
  • Stephen closed his eyes to hear his boots
    crush crackling wrack and
  • shells. You are walking through it howsomever. I
    am, a stride at a time. A
  • very short space of time through very short
    times of space. Five, six the
  • nacheinander. Exactly and that is the
    ineluctable modality of the audible.
  • Open your eyes. No. Jesus! If I fell over a
    cliff that beetles o'er his
  • base, fell through the nebeneinander
    ineluctably. I am getting on nicely in
  • the dark. My ash sword hangs at my side. Tap
    with it they do. My two feet
  • in his boots are at the end of his legs,
    nebeneinander. Sounds solid made
  • by the mallet of Los Demiurgos. Am I walking into
    eternity along Sandymount
  • strand? Crush, crack, crick, crick.

16
NORM, expressiveness and emotiveness
  • Norm is an invariant, which should embrace all
    variable phonemic, morphological, lexical, and
    syntactic patterns with their typical properties
    circulating in the language at a definite period
    of time.
  • language-as-a-system and language-in-action,
    language and speech (discourse), lange and
    parole.
  • Expressiveness in etymological sense is a kind
    of intensification of the utterance (or a part of
    it).
  • Emotiveness - reveals emotions of the writer or a
    speaker by not directly manifesting their
    emotions but by echoing real feelings, designed
    to awaken co-experience on the part of the reader

17
Emotional synonyms
  • BIG enormous, huge, large, gigantic, great,
    immense, monstrous, macroscopic, mammoth,
    tremendous
  • SMALL little, tiny, minute, miniature,
    miniscule, undersized, diminutive, lilliputian,
    midget, petite
  • BEAUTIFUL - fair, fine, good-looking, handsome,
    splendid, gorgeous, lovely, picturesque, pretty,
    scenic, stunning
  • UGLY disfigured, evil-looking, grotesque,
    monstrous, hideous, repulsive, unsightly
  • INTERESTING - absorbing, engrossing, fascinating,
    gripping, riveting, entertaining, amusing,
    intriguing
  • BORING - boring, deadening, dull, irksome, slow,
    tedious, tiresome, wearisome, uninteresting

18
Expressiveness vs emotiveness
19
Expressive means
  • Expressive means are those phonetic,
    morphological, word-building, lexical,
    phraseological, syntactical forms, which exist in
    language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical
    or emotional intensification of the utterance.
  • Phonetic EM - pitch, melody, stress, pausation,
    drawling out, whispering and sing-song manner
  • Morphological EM - number, Historical Present,
    shall in the 2 or 3 person, demonstrative
    pronouns, verbals
  • Lexical EM - different affixes e.g. diminutive
    suffixes dearie, sonny, auntie, streamlet. At
    the lexical level expressiveness can also be
    rendered by the words possessing inner expressive
    charge - interjections, epithets, slang and
    vulgar, poetic or archaic words, set phrases,
    idioms, catchwords, proverbs and sayings

20
If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or being hated don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise If you can dream - and not make dreams your master If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools R.KIPLING IF If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them "Hold on! If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings - nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And - which is more - you'll be a Man, my son!
21
Harvey Keitel recites IF by R.Kipling
22
Stylistic devices
  • Stylistic device is a conscious and intentional
    intensification of some typical structural and/or
    semantic property of a language unit (neutral or
    expressive) promoted to a generalized status thus
    becoming a generative model.
  • SDs display an application of 2 meanings the
    ordinary one (already established in
    language-as-a-system) and a special imposed on
    the unit by the author (or content), a meaning,
    which appears in language-in-action
  • Stylistic devices (tropes, figures of speech)
    unlike expressive means are not language
    phenomena. They are formed in speech and most of
    them do not exist out of context. According to
    principles of their formation, stylistic devices
    are grouped into phonetic, lexico-semantic and
    syntactic types. Stylistic devices are the result
    of revaluation of neutral words,
    word-combinations and syntactic structures.
    Stylistic devices are studied by stylistic
    semasiology.

23
Types of context
  • Linguistic context is the encirclement of a
    language unit by other language units in speech.
    Such encirclement makes the meaning of the unit
    clear and unambiguous. It is especially important
    in case with polysemantic words. Microcontext is
    the context of a single utterance (sentence).
    Macrocontext is the context of a paragraph in a
    text. Megacontext is the context of a book
    chapter, a story or the whole book.
  • An extralingual (situational) context is formed
    by extralingual conditions in which communication
    takes place physical context and abstract
    context. Temporal or chronological context ,
    psychological context

24
Linguistic micro context
25
Extralinguistic context
26
Speech and writing (oral and written language
varieties)
  • Speech is normally a continuous stream of sound.
    Conversations are often accompanied by other sign
    systems which aid understanding. These might be
    physical gestures, facial expressions, even
    bodily posture. Meaning in speech is commonly
    conveyed by tone and other non-verbal means such
    as irony. Speech quite commonly includes false
    starts, repetition, hesitation
  • Writing is the use of visual symbols which act as
    a code for communication between individuals or
    groups. The code of written language consists of
    letter-forms (the alphabet) used to form a visual
    image of spoken words. Words are formed in
    accordance with the conventions of spelling, then
    combined according to the rules of syntax to form
    meaningful statements.

27
Types of Meaning
  • primary (denotative) meaning and additional
    (connotative) meaning/ objective and emotive
    planes
  • Connotative meaning may be of 4 types
  • 1.functional (reflecting the sphere of usage of
    the word) formal/informal dear Sir/ Hey, dude
  • 2.evaluative (positive, negative or neutral)
    ambitious/pushy/goal-oriented
  • 3.emotive (rendering the attitude of the speaker)
    Its fabulous! Disgusting! Oh boy! Tut tut!
  • 4.expressive (containing an image of pragmatic
    value) to express what is really meant
  • stylistic meaning as distinguished from lexical
    one, which is representing primary information,
    is based on the secondary (additional)
    information.

28
Types of Meaning
  • Lexical meaning is given explicitly while
    stylistic meaning is always implied. Lexical
    meaning is relatively stable, and stylistic
    meaning is liable to change
  • Grammatical meaning reflects the relations
    between words or some forms of words or
    constructions, it can also be called structural
    meaning. All the words have grammatical meaning
    simply because they belong to some language and
    have their place in it
  • Logical, emotive and nominal meaning
  • Logical meaning (synonymously called referential
    or direct) is the precise naming of a feature, an
    idea, a phenomenon or an object. There can be
    primary and secondary logical meanings. All the
    meanings fixed by the dictionaries comprise what
    is called the semantic structure of a word

29
Types of Meaning
  • Emotive meaning also materializes the concept of
    a word but it has reference to the feelings and
    emotions of a speaker towards the thing. It names
    the object by evaluating it.
  • Usually we deal with contextual emotive meaning.
    But some classes of words interjections,
    exclamations, and swearwords are direct
    carriers of emotive meaning. Interjections have
    even lost completely their logical meaning e.g.
    alas, oh, ah, pooh, darn, gosh.
  • Nominal meaning steps in when we deal with the
    words serving the purpose of singling out one
    definite and singular object of a whole class of
    similar objects. These words are classified by
    grammarians as proper nouns as different from
    common nouns

30
Functional styles of language
  • The object of linguostylistics as the study of
    the nature, functions and structure of SDs and
    EMs and the study of the functional styles of
    language.
  • Functional style (FS) may be defined as a system
    of interrelated language means which serves a
    definite aim of communication
  • FSs are sometimes called registers or discourses
  • the language of belles-lettres
  • the language of publicistic literature
  • the language of press/media
  • the language of scientific prose
  • the language of official documents
  • I.V. Arnold mentions four styles poetic style,
    scientific style, newspaper style, colloquial
    style.

31
Linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics
  • The old man is dead. ?????? ????.
  • The gentleman well advanced in years attained the
    termination of his terrestrial existence. ??????
    ?????????
  • The ole bean kicked the bucket. ?????? ???? ?????
  • Linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics are
    two separate and at the same time interconnected
    branches of stylistics
  • Linguistic stylistics studies functional styles
    of a language and the elements of language from
    the point of view of their ability to express and
    cause emotions
  • Literary stylistics studies expressive means and
    stylistic devices characteristic for a definite
    work of art, man of letter, literary movement,
    trend or epoch, and factors influencing the
    expressiveness of language.
  •  


32
Structure of Stylistics
  • Phoneme
  • Morpheme
  • Lexeme
  • Sentence
  • Paragraph
  • Text
  • Stylistic phonetics
  • Stylistic morphology
  • Stylistic lexicology
  • Stylistic syntax

Connection of stylistics with other branches of
linguistics Stylistics and phonetics Phonetics
studies sounds, articulation, rhythmics and
intonation. Stylistics concentrates on expressive
sound combinations, intonational and rhythmic
patterns. Stylistics and lexicology Lexicology
describes words, their origin, development,
semantic and structural features. Stylistics also
deals with words, but only those which are
expressive in language or in speech. Stylistics
and grammar Grammar describes regularities of
building words, word-combinations, sentences and
texts. Stylistics restricts itself to those
grammar regularities, which make language units
expressive.
About PowerShow.com