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Chapter 12: Reproduction

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Chapter 12: Reproduction 12.1 12.2 12.1 Asexual Reproduction Process of reproduction by a single parent produces GENETICALLY IDENTICAL OFFSPRING Clones ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12: Reproduction


1
Chapter 12 Reproduction
  • 12.1 12.2

2
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Process of reproduction by a single parent ?
    produces GENETICALLY IDENTICAL OFFSPRING
  • Clones the offspring of asexual reproduction
    (genetically identical)

3
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Examples
  • Binary fission occurs in Prokaryotes produces
    2 identical cells (cell divides into 2 after its
    DNA has been
  • copied)

4
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Mitotic division Happens in Unicellular
    eukaryotes, such as a Paramecium, which creates 2
    new identical organisms by dividing through
    mitosis

5
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Budding In Hydra a bud breaks away from
    parent to live independently

6
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Fragmentation In Planeria (flat worms), an
    organism breaks into pieces and each fragment
    turns into a new organism

7
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Vegetative Reproduction (Propagation) In certain
    plants, like grasses, runners are used to help
    them spread quickly
  • This can be done artificially as well.

8
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Artificial Vegetative Reproduction
  • Horticulturalists farmers will use cuttings
    from a parent plant to create identical plants

9
12.1 Asexual Reproduction
  • Artificial Vegetative Reproduction
  • In grafting, 2 plants are used to develop a new
    plant that has the desired characteristics

10
Asexual Reproduction
  • Advantages
  • Happens quickly
  • Requires less energy
  • No need to find a mate
  • Offspring usually well-adapted because parents
    are able to reproduce
  • Disadvantages
  • NO genetic variation (susceptible to diseases,
    environmental changes, predators)
  • Only 1 parent for offspring (sometimes parent
    disappears completely binary fission)

11
Chromosomes
  • What are chromosomes?
  • What do living things need them for?

12
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • Every species has a characteristic number of
    chromosomes
  • Examples
  • Prokaryotes 1 major chromosome
  • Humans 46 chromosomes
  • Turkeys 82 chromosomes

13
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • In sexually reproducing organisms
  • The typical chromosome number occurs in pairs
  • Ex humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs of
    chromosomes
  • Source of pairs each parent provides one
    chromosome of the pair

14
12.2 Chromosome Number
15
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • Diploid (2n) a cell with the double set of
    chromosomes
  • Diploid human cell 46 chromosomes
  • Haploid (n) a cell with one set of chromosomes
  • Haploid human cell 23 chromosomes
  • What kind of cells would only have ½ the number
    of chromosomes?

16
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • In Organisms that reproduce sexually
  • Sex cells (gametes) must be haploid
  • Why?
  • Two gametes fuse together during fertilization,
    each must be haploid so that the resulting zygote
    is diploid

17
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • Gametes Reproduction
  • Males sperm
  • Females ovum (egg)
  • Fertilization sperm egg (haploid) nuclei
    fuse, resulting in a zygote (diploid)
  • Zygote the diploid cell that results from
    fertilization

18
12.2 Chromosome Number
  • Meiosis process that produces haploid gametes
    (sperm eggs)
  • It can also produce spores haploid cells that
    can produce haploid organisms
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