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Title: University of Indianapolis


1
University of Indianapolis
  • Police Administration
  • CRIM 340-50
  • Thomas N. Davidson, J.D.
  • www.thinblueline.ws

2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Download and print the syllabus.
5
Means of Assessment 1 Minute Papers
  • At the end of each class, compose a one or two
    paragraph hand-written paper summarizing what was
    covered in class, a topic or question you would
    like discussed, or an expression of a concept or
    idea that relates to police administration that
    you would like to share. 1 minute papers are
    worth 30 of your semester grade amortized over
    the course of the semester.

6
Means of Assessment-Midterm
  • One 5 to 8 page research paper on a topic related
    to police administration of the students choice.
    The paper is due October 6, 2011 at the
    beginning of class. This paper will comprise
    your midterm score and is worth 30 of your total
    grade. One inch margins all around. Title page
    required (not included in page count.). Use at
    least 3 sources. Use the APA citation and
    reference style. Double space, indent paragraphs
    5 spaces (no double-double spacing), use 12 point
    font. Reference page is required.

7
Means of Assessment-Final
  • Final exam. Exam is due December 15, 2011 at the
    beginning of class. The exam is an open note
    open book research exam. It is worth 40 of your
    total grade. You can expect that the exam will
    multiple choice and true/false questions. Answer
    questions on the exams with respect to how the
    subject matter was covered in class or in the
    text. You will have one week to complete the exam.

8
Grading Scale
  • 95-100 A 77-79 C
  • 90-94 A- 73-76 C
  • 87-89 B 70-72 C-
  • 83-86 B 67-69 D
  • 80-82 B- 63-66 D

9
www.thinblueline.ws/studentsscroll down and
click on the FBI crest
10
Click file, print, drop down box Print what,
select outline view
11
Freedom from crime is not free.
  • The degree to which a society achieves public
    order depends in part on the price society is
    willing to pay to obtain it.
  • Resources committed to crime suppressions,
    detection, and prevention.
  • The extent to which people are willing to accept
    a reduction in civil liberties.

12
Government v. Liberty Tension
  • In a free society there is a constant tension
    between its governments legitimate police
    function and its citizens liberty interests. It
    has and will be with us and it will never go
    away. It is a source of conflict that must be
    understood by both the police and the population
    in order for it to be controlled.

13
Theories of Police Development
  • Disorder-control Need to suppress mob rule and
    violence.
  • Crime-control Threats to public order create a
    climate of fear.
  • Class-control Police reinforce class-based
    economic exploitation. Labor provided the fuel
    for capitalism, yet were perceived as dangerous.

14
A brief guide to police history
  • Ancient Era 3000BC to 400AD
  • Kin policing derived from the power and authority
    of kinship systems rule by elders. The family
    of the offended individual was expected to assume
    responsibility for justice by punishing the
    offender.
  • Egyptian rulers used elite units of the military
    as bodyguards.
  • In Mesopotamia, captured Nubian slaves were used
    as guards.

15
A brief guide to police history
  • The Greeks had a sort of highway patrol and
    trials.
  • The Hebrews developed the Mosaic Law.
  • The first organized police department is believed
    to be the Roman vigiles around 27 BC.

16
A brief guide to police history
  • Middle Ages 400 A.D. 1600 A.D.
  • Either no system or
  • Gendarme System in France were agents of the
    crown.
  • Pledge System in England by Alfred the Great
    each person is pledged to perform some kind of
    police work unless excused by the shire-reeve.

17
A brief guide to police history
  • Tithing system 1066 A.D. (frankpledge)
  • All the men over 12 in a village formed a
    tithing.
  • 10 tithings organized into a hundred supervised
    by a constable.
  • 10 hundreds were organized into a shire
    supervised by the shire-reeve.

18
A brief guide to police history
  • Statute of Winchester of 1285
  • Required every able-bodied man to possess a
    weapon (assize of arms).
  • Everyone in the countryside accountable in
    assisting with apprehension of criminals (hue and
    cry system).
  • Established a watch and ward night patrol to
    augment daytime constables (watch system).
  • Formalized the parish constable system
    (frankpledge system).

19
A brief guide to police history
  • Colonial Era 1600 A.D. 1800 A.D.
  • Adopted the watch system.
  • Shire-reeves became sheriffs.
  • Towns had constables who organized watchmen.
  • Like the English system, the American system was
    characterized by
  • Limited authority causing legitimacy problems.
  • Decentralization. Local control varation.
  • Fragmentation. One hand doesnt know . . .

20
A brief guide to police history
  • English Police Reform
  • Bow Street Runners (1st detectives 1750).
  • Creation of the 1st professional police
    department in 1829. Created by Sir Robert Peel,
    the officers were called Bobbies or Peelers.

21
A brief guide to police history
Sir Robert Peel Known as the father of modern
policing
22
A brief guide to police history
  • Peel established the Metropolitan Police Force
    for London based at Scotland Yard 1829. The 1,000
    constables employed were affectionately nicknamed
    'Bobbies' or, somewhat less affectionately,
    'Peelers.' Although at first unpopular, they
    proved very successful in cutting crime in
    London, and by 1835 all cities in the UK were
    being directed to form their own police forces.
    Known as the father of modern policing, Robert
    Peel developed the Peelain Principles which
    defined the ethical requirements police officers
    must follow in order to be effective. His most
    memorable principle was, "the police are the
    public, and the public are the police."

23
The 9 Peelian Principles 1-5
  • The basic mission for which the police exist is
    to prevent crime and disorder.
  • The ability of the police to perform their duties
    is dependent upon public approval of police
    actions.
  • Police must secure the willing co-operation of
    the public in voluntary observance of the law to
    be able to secure and maintain the respect of the
    public.
  • The degree of co-operation of the public that can
    be secured diminishes proportionately to the
    necessity of the use of physical force.
  • Police seek and preserve public favour not by
    catering to public opinion but by constantly
    demonstrating absolute impartial service to the
    law.

24
The 9 Peelian Principles 6-9
  • Police use physical force to the extent necessary
    to secure observance of the law or to restore
    order only when the exercise of persuasion,
    advice and warning is found to be insufficient.
  • Police, at all times, should maintain a
    relationship with the public that gives reality
    to the historic tradition that the police are the
    public and the public are the police the police
    being only members of the public who are paid to
    give full-time attention to duties which are
    incumbent on every citizen in the interests of
    community welfare and existence.
  • Police should always direct their action strictly
    towards their functions and never appear to usurp
    the powers of the judiciary.
  • The test of police efficiency is the absence of
    crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of
    police action in dealing with it.

25
A brief guide to police history
  • Spoils Era 1800 A.D. 1900 A.D.
  • Large scale social changes in America.
  • Politicians control the police.
  • Riot control function because of race and ethnic
    riots between 1835-1890s.
  • 1845 New York City paid professional policing.
  • Pre civil war Paddy-Roller slave catchers.
  • 1911 motorized.
  • 1845 saw beginning of state and federal agencies
    Texas rangers, Border Patrol, IRS.
  • Pendleton Act of 1883 sought to end the spoils
    system in the federal government.

26
A brief guide to police history
  • Progressive Era 1900 A.D. 1920 A.D.
  • Spoils system replaced by civil service.
  • 1902 formation of IACP.
  • Attempts to foster professionalism.
  • Chief Vollmer of Berkeley champions
    professionalism 1918.
  • FOP created in 1915.

27
A brief guide to police history
  • Gangster Era 1920 A.D. 1950 A.D.
  • 18th Amendment (Prohibition) 1919.
  • Great depression 1930s.
  • Vice control.
  • Wave of bank robberies, kidnappings, bootlegging.
  • Rise of the G-men.
  • Elliot Ness-Prohibition Bureau.
  • J. Edgar Hoover-FBI.

28
Elliot Ness
J. Edgar Hoover
29
A brief guide to police history
August Vollmer
30
August Vollmer
  • Vollmer earned the reputation as the "father of
    modern law enforcement. He was the first chief
    to require that police officers attain college
    degrees, and persuaded the University of
    California to teach criminal justice. In 1916,
    UC-Berkeley established a criminal justice
    program, headed by Vollmer. Vollmer was also the
    first police chief to create a motorized force,
    placing officers on motorcycles, and in cars so
    that they could patrol a broader area with
    greater efficiency. Radios were included in
    patrol cars. He was also the first to use the lie
    detector, developed at the University of
    California, in police work. Vollmer supported
    programs to assist disadvantaged children, and
    was often criticized for his leniency towards
    petty offenders such as drunks and loiterers. He
    also encouraged the training and employment of
    female and African American police officers.

31
Wickersham Report
  • The Wickersham Commission was established in May
    of 1929 when President Herbert Hoover appointed
    George W. Wickersham (1858-1936) to head the
    National Committee on Law Observation and
    Enforcement, popularly called the Wickersham
    Commission.
  • The Commission was an 11-member group charged
    with identifying the causes of criminal activity
    and to make recommendations for appropriate
    public policy. The emphasis was almost entirely
    on the widespread violations of national alcohol
    prohibition.
  • The report was almost entirely written by
    Vollmer. Among other things the report included
    various ideas for police reform including
  • Personnel standards (for cause removal only).
  • Communications and records.
  • Separate units for crimes of vice and juveniles.
  • State information bureaus.
  • Training academies.

32
A brief guide to police history
  • Revolutionary ERA 1960 A.D. 1970 A.D.
  • Civil rights struggle.
  • Assassinations, mass serial murders.
  • 100 officers killed a year ILOD. 300 citizens a
    year killed by police.
  • The process of Incorporation.
  • Miranda.
  • The exclusionary rule.
  • Law enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
    Law enforcement education prograam (LEEP)

33
A brief guide to police history
  • Current Era 1970 A.D Present
  • Police community relations.
  • Diversity in police departments.
  • MBO.
  • Knapp Commission
  • War on drugs.
  • War on terror.
  • Technology.

34
Some Important Dates in American Police History
  • 1631 Boston night watch.
  • Full-time paid police in Boston.
  • 9/24/1789 1st US Marshall.
  • 5/17/1792 1st US officer KILOD Isaac Smith of NYC
    SO.
  • 1835 Texas Rangers.
  • 1865 US Secret Service.
  • 11/11/1871 1st African-American KILOD.
  • 1878-1881 Billy the Kid killed 6 lawmen.
  • 10/26/1881 shoot out at OK coral involving lawman
    Wyatt Earp.
  • 1902 fingerprinting used in US.
  • 07/24/1916 1st female officer KILOD.
  • 11/24/1917 9 officers killed in Milwaukee after
    bomb explodes.
  • 1924 Hoover takes over at FBI.
  • 1929 Ness put in charge of the Untouchables.
  • 1932-1934 Bonnie Clyde kill 10 LEOs.
  • 1974 275 LEOs KILOD.
  • 1974 Soft body armor.
  • 1988 DNA used in America.
  • 9/11 72 LEOs KILOD.

35
Contemporary Law Enforcement
  • 18,000 different agencies ( UK with ¼ of US
    population has 43 agencies).
  • Fragmented (UK all agencies administered by the
    Home Office).
  • Federal agencies.
  • State agencies.
  • County sheriffs.
  • Local police agencies.
  • Special police.

36
Contemporary Law Enforcement
  • Nationally, sworn officers account for 69.5
    percent of PD personnel.
  • Nationally, police to population ratio rural and
    city is 2.4 per 1000.
  • Indiana has 146 local PDs.

37
Contemporary Law Enforcement
  • In the U.S. in 2005, the average number of
    full-time law enforcement employees in cities
    (both sworn officers and civilian) was 3.0 per
    1,000 inhabitants.
  • Within cities in the Northeast, the rate of
    full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000
    inhabitants was 3.5.
  • Within cities in the South, the rate of full-time
    law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants
    was 3.4.
  • Within cities in the Midwest, the rate of
    full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000
    inhabitants was 2.7.
  • Within cities in the West, the rate of full-time
    law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants
    was 2.4.

38
The Thin Blue Line
  • The "thin blue line" is the collective group of
    law enforcement officers (LEO), correctional
    officers, prosecutors and others in the criminal
    justice system that separate and protect society
    from anarchy. 

39
Community Policing
  • 1970 through the 80s police generally used the
    professional model.
  • Patrol from cars, aloof, impartial, everybody
    gets the same treatmetn.
  • Rising crime rates
  • Broken windows policing emerged

40
Broken Windows Policing
  • Clean up the community, people will take pride,
    criminals will be displaced.

41
Community Policing
  • Commitment to crime prevention
  • Public scrutiny of police
  • Accountability of police action to public
  • Customized police service
  • Community organization

42
Community Policing
  • Number of police does not lower crime rate or
    solve more crimes.
  • Random patrol neither lowers crime or increases
    chances of catching criminals.
  • 2 person patrol cars are not safer and do not
    lower crime rates.
  • Saturation patrols do not lower crime it
    displaces it.
  • Improving response time has little effect in
    solving crime.

43
Response Times
  • Police cannot control
  • The time it takes from when the crime occurs to
    when it is discovered
  • The time it takes from when it is discovered to
    when it is reported to police

44
Crime Prevention Deterrence
Crime Prevention
Crime Deterrence
Likelihood of being caught
Desire
Ability
Desire
Gravity of harm if caught
Opportunity
45
Community Policing
Scanning
Analysis
Each problem will likely not only involves crime,
but a wider community social issue.
Response
Assessment
46
Outcomes v. Outputs
  • Outputs are work product like the number of
    traffic tickets issued, crashes investigated, or
    the number of criminals arrested.
  • Outcomes are the results of outputs. Crime and
    accident rates for example.

47
Crime Analysis
  • Crime Specific Analysis-pattern of reported
    crime.
  • Link analysis-Associations among people.
  • Telephone Toll Analysis.
  • Visual Investigative Analysis (VIA) charting key
    criminal events in chronological order.
  • Case Analysis and Management System-computerized
    to clarify relationships calculate probability
    of associations.

48
Technology
  • Geographical Information Systems-mapping.
  • Global Positioning Systems-locating.
  • Artificial Intelligence Systems.
  • Natural language applications.
  • Robotic applications.
  • Computer science applications (brains).
  • Cognitive science applications (decision-making).

49
Problems with community policing
  • Lack of definition.
  • Lack of community.
  • Role confusion and low morale.
  • Expensive.
  • Lack of credible evaluation.
  • Conflict with accreditation standards.

50
External Influences
  • Politics
  • Economy
  • Competing agencies
  • Community groups
  • Governments federal, state, local
  • Unions and associations
  • Review boards
  • Judicial review

51
Incorporation
  • Prior to the 60s the Bill of Rights restricted
    and regulated only the federal government.
  • Through a series of cases in the 60s, the Warren
    Court began incorporating USC protections to the
    states through the due process clause of the 14th
    Amendment.

52
14th Amendment
  • Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in
    the United States and subject to the jurisdiction
    thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
    the State wherein they reside. No State shall
    make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
    privileges or immunities of citizens of the
    United States nor shall any State deprive any
    person of life, liberty, or property, without due
    process of law nor deny to any person within its
    jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

53
Due Process
  • Procedural Due Process can be boiled down to
    notice of the charges and an opportunity to be
    heard.
  • Substantive Due Process means the procedures must
    be in content and conducted fairly.

54
Criminal Procedure-Sources of Law
  • Constitutions
  • Federal
  • States
  • Legislated
  • Federal
  • State
  • Local
  • Common law (Case law)
  • Federal
  • State
  • Administrative law

55
Criminal Procedure-Separation of Powers
  • Judicial interprete laws
  • Executive execute and enforce laws
  • Legislative create and pass laws

56
Criminal Procedure- Administrative Law
  • Congress or legislature delegates authority to
    the administrative agency through an enabling
    statute.
  • Laws must be tailored to the mission of the
    agency.
  • Must be properly promulgated.

57
Criminal Procedure - Warrant Requirement
  • The right of the people to be secure in their
    persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
    unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
    violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon
    probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation,
    and particularly describing the place to be
    searched, and the persons or things to be seized
    .
  • Any search conducted without a warrant is per se
    illegal unless an exception exists.

58
Criminal Procedure Exceptions to the Warrant
Requirement
  • Search incident to a lawful, custodial arrest
  • Voluntary consent and waiver
  • Search of a vehicle with probable cause
  • Inventory after lawful impoundment of a vehicle
  • Stop and frisk searches (Investigatory Detention)
  • Plain view, smell touch
  • Open fields
  • Exigent circumstances - hot pursuit
  • Abandoned property
  • Protective sweep

59
Criminal Procedure 5th Amendment
  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital,
    or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
    presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except
    in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or
    in the Militia, when in actual service in time of
    War or public danger nor shall any person be
    subject for the same offence to be twice put in
    jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled
    in any criminal case to be a witness against
    himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
    property, without due process of law nor shall
    private property be taken for public use, without
    just compensation.

60
Criminal Procedure Miranda Rule
  • Custodial Interrogation.
  • The person in custody must, prior to
    interrogation, be clearly informed that he or she
    has the right to remain silent, and that anything
    the person says may be used against that person
    in court the person must be clearly informed
    that he or she has the right to consult with an
    attorney and to have that attorney present during
    questioning, and that, if he or she is indigent,
    an attorney will be provided at no cost to
    represent him or her. Additionally, the officer
    must ask whether the person understands their
    right and will consent to questioning.

61
Criminal Procedure Exclusionary Rule
  • Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914).
    First used in federal case.
  • Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961) Made applicable
    to the states.
  • Rationale
  • Dirty Hands
  • Deterrence
  • Way to enforce constitution

62
Criminal Procedure Double Jeopardy Clause of
the 5th Amendment
  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital,
    or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
    presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except
    in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or
    in the Militia, when in actual service in time of
    War or public danger nor shall any person be
    subject for the same offence to be twice put in
    jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled
    in any criminal case to be a witness against
    himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
    property, without due process of law nor shall
    private property be taken for public use, without
    just compensation.

63
Double Jeopardy
  • Prohibition from being tried twice for crimes
    arising out of the same set of facts.
  • Prohibition from increasing a penalty ex-post
    facto.
  • Dual sovereignty.

64
Criminal Procedure Presumption of Innocence
Bail
  • 8th Amendment Excessive bail shall not be
    required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
    and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • Guarantee defendants appearance.
  • Public safety.
  • Presumed innocent means that the defendant is not
    judged guilty of a crime and punished unless
    convicted BRD or he pleads guilty to it in the
    criminal courts.

65
Criminal Procedure Burden of Proof
  • Beyond a reasonable doubt.
  • Clear and convincing evidence.
  • Preponderance of the evidence.
  • Probable cause.
  • Articulable suspicion.
  • Good faith belief.

66
Criminal Procedure - Evidence
  • There are four traditional types of evidence
    real evidence (tangible things like a weapon),
    demonstrative (a model or photograph),
    documentary (a writing or other document), and
    testimonial (testimony by witnesses).
  • Circumstantial Evidence - Testimony not based on
    actual personal knowledge or observation of the
    facts in controversy, but of other facts from
    which deductions are drawn, showing indirectly
    the facts to be proved.

67
Police Ethics and Misconduct
  • Police Ethical Models
  • Law.
  • Code of conduct.
  • Rules, regulations, standard operating
    procedures.

68
Police Ethics and Misconduct
  • Police have a property interest in their jobs.
  • Cannot be terminated or disciplined without due
    process.

69
Police Ethics and Misconduct
  • Internal Investigation
  • Founded
  • Unfounded
  • Exonerated
  • Not determined.
  • We will discuss police misconduct and liability
    in more detail later in the course.

70
News Media
  • The First Amendment of the federal constitution
    provides the news media and all citizens certain
    rights of free speech and press. The media,
    however, does not have an unlimited right to
    engage in the collection of news material.
    Newsmen have no constitutional right of special
    access to the scenes of crime or disaster when
    the general public is excluded . . . Brandzburg
    v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665, 684-685 (1972). However,
    once the news media has acquired information from
    a critical incident or other source, it will be
    difficult to prevent its publication. Bantam
    Books, Inc. v. Sullivan, 372 U.S. 58 (1963).

71
Prosecutors
  • Federal US Attorney may bring a charge only
    through a GJ Indictment.
  • State Prosecutor may bring a charge either by
    filing an Information or by GJ Indictment.
  • Prosecutor has absolute discretion on whether to
    bring a charge, but must have PC if he decides to
    bring a charge.

72
Terrorism
  • The FBI defines terrorism as the unlawful use of
    force or violence against persons or property to
    intimidate or coerce a government, civilian
    population, or any segment thereof in furtherance
    of political or social goals. It is widely
    acknowledged that a variety of definitions exist
    for terrorism. Most definitions contain the
    following elements 1) use of violence or threat
    of violence, 2) coercion of a target group 3)
    achievement of goals of a political, a religious,
    or an ideological nature.

73
Domestic Right Wing Terrorism
  • Generally, there are four elements necessary to
    precipitate violence by domestic hate groups
    1) the group is based on a false premise, such as
    there is no hope for the future 2) the group
    must have a charismatic leader 3) the leader
    will pin-point all trouble as being caused by a
    particular group, such as the Jewish society
    and, 4) some event to rally and excite the group,
    such as a confrontation between police and some
    other right-wing extremist.

74
Psychological Hostage Takers
  • Suicidal personality. Does not care if he/she is
    killed, and may cause someone else to fulfill his
    death wish.
  • Vengeance Seeker. Driven by an irrational
    purpose. His hostage taking scheme is normally
    well-planned. Incidents involving this type of
    hostage taker pose a high probability that it
    will require a police assault to resolve. The
    vengeance seeker often falls in the category of
    homicide to be.
  • Disturbed individual. This persons hostage
    taking motives and methods may be illogical and
    improvised. There are two common psychotic
    disorders associated with many hostage takers 1)
    paranoid schizophrenia, and 2) manic-depressive
    Illness.

75
Criminal Hostage Takers
  • Cornered perpetrator. A bank robbery suspect,
    for example, unexpectedly is confronted by the
    police, retreats back into the bank, and has no
    escape.
  • Aggrieved Inmate(s). These incidents may be well
    planned or spontaneous.
  • Extortionist. The kidnapper is usually motivated
    by greed. The kidnappers location is usually
    not known to police, he usually is not
    contained, and usually only communicates with the
    victims family, even if the police are present.
    Police negotiators seldom talk to the kidnappers
    directly because they usually require the family
    to not call the police as a prerequisite for not
    killing the kidnap victim.

76
Political Hostage Takers
  • Social protester. This person is likely to be a
    young educated person. This hostage taker wants
    to eliminate social injustice. Normally, this
    hostage taker will take the hostage in a group at
    the location of the unwanted entity or event or
    where the protest is most visible.
  • Fanatic. This person believes in a cause and is
    usually willing to kill and die for the cause.
    This hostage taker can be characterized as an
    Ideological Zealot.

77
Political Hostage Takers
  • Terrorist Extremist. Hostage taking by terrorist
    groups are well planned, probably brutal, and the
    hostage takers are willing to kill and die. The
    intent of political hostage takers is to get as
    much publicity as possible for their cause. The
    incidents are well planned and organized. In
    political terrorism, the hostage takers attempt
    to demonstrate to the public that the government
    is unable to protect its own citizens. Often the
    demands of the hostage takers go beyond the
    authority of local police. It is the hope of the
    terrorists, who are virtually guaranteed of media
    coverage, that after several hostage incidents,
    that the government will overreact and become
    excessively restrictive with its own citizens,
    thus causing civil discontent.

78
School Violence
Paducah, Kentucky 12/1/97 Jonesboro, Arkansas
3/24/98 Edinboro, Pennsylvania 4/24/98 Fayettevill
e, Tennessee 5/19/98 Springfield, Oklahoma 5/21/98
Olivehurst, California 5/1/92 Grayson, Kentucky
1/18/93 Moses Lake, Washington 2/2/96 Bethel,
Alaska 2/19/97 Pearl, Mississippi 10/1/97
Littleton, Colorado 4/20/99 Nickel Mines,
Pennsylvania 10/2/06 Tacoma, Washington 1/3/07
79
School Violence
  • Its not your fathers high school was the
    reply when a young man was asked why there seems
    to be more violence in schools today. He
    explained that his high school was large, there
    was very little individual attention (unless you
    were popular, a scholar or an athlete) from
    staff, there was a double standard and open,
    tolerated prejudice against those who were
    somehow different. One group picks on
    another, no one will help you, sometimes your
    thoughts turn to revenge and how easy it would be
    to get even. Dont get me wrong, I dont think
    what they did was right, but I understand why
    they did it.
  • Reference to Dylan Kiebold and Eric Harris
    regarding the Littleton, Colorado school
    shootings, April 20, 1999.

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School Violence Prevention
  • Gun-free zone legislation.
  • Develop safe routes to and from school (police,
    business parent volunteers).
  • Campaign to break the student code-of-silence
    with respect to weapons, et cetera.
  • Metal detectors.
  • Plastic see-through book bags.
  • Standardized school incident report forms.

81
School Violence Prevention
  • Pre-arranged safe area for evacuated students.
  • School floor plan readily available.
  • Establish a parent staging area.
  • Prohibit book-bags in classrooms. (Leave them in
    lockers.) Weapons are easily concealed in
    book-bags.
  • Cellular or digital telephone in the classroom
    for emergency calls.
  • If practical, leave doors to hallways open during
    class so that a passerby could notice and alert
    someone of trouble in the classroom.
  • If trouble or gunfire erupts somewhere else in
    the school, shut the classroom door if evacuation
    is not a safe option. Do not send a student to
    investigate.
  • Effective discipline policy and Alternative
    Dispute Resolution (ADR).

82
School Violence Prevention
  • Personal-level intervention. Discussions with
    bullies and victims.
  • Establish a method for persons to report
    (anonymously) suspicious activity.
  • Whenever possible, eliminate dark, secluded and
    unsupervised areas.
  • Be aware of who is in the school and why.
  • No one should be able to walk right into the
    office or roam the halls.
  • Set up reception areas for visitors.
  • Install door sensors and cameras (target
    hardening).
  • Establish a safe room. A safe room is a room
    where faculty, staff, students, et cetera can go
    for assistance. This room should have doors that
    will lock, more than one way out and a telephone.

83
School Violence Prevention
  • Social skills, anger management techniques
    training for students.
  • Establish a zero tolerance policy for violence,
    threatening behavior, guns, drugs and alcohol.
  • Institute an Anti-Bullying Program. Bullying is
    the repeated, negative acts committed by one or
    more children against another. The acts may be
    physical or verbal. Studies suggest that there
    are both short and enduring consequences of
    bullying for both the victims and bullies.
    Chronically victimized students may, as adults,
    be at increased risk for depression, poor
    self-esteem and other mental difficulties.
    Bullies have been found to have a greater drop
    out rate and increased risk for violence and
    delinquency.
  • School level intervention. Increase supervision
    and school-wide anti-bullying awareness and
    training.

84
School Violence Prevention
  • Awareness. School officials must be sensitive to
    mutterings of a potential confrontation. (Dont
    explain things away or rationalize!)
  • Gangs.
  • Drug-related.
  • Personal animosity.
  • Scheduled fights.
  • Disgruntled parents or students.
  • Disturbed students.
  • Parent, Teacher, Public Safety and Student
    Quorums. Establish periodic meetings to discuss
    issues and concerns.
  • Classroom level intervention. Class meetings and
    discussions.

85
September 11, 2001
  • Homeland Security Act of 2002-Encourages
    cooperation between local, state and federal
    agencies including technology.
  • Patriot Act of 2001-Allows for intelligence
    sharing and grants to local and state agencies.

86
Organizational Theory
  • Mutual benefit associations (labor unions).
  • Business concerns (corporations).
  • Service organizations (community centers).
  • Commonweal organizations (police, fire, defense
    departments.

87
Mutual Benefit Associations
  • Faced with maintaining internal democratic
    processes, providing for participation and
    control by their membership.

88
Business
  • Main issue is to maximize profits and creating
    and maintaing a competitive advantage.

89
Service
  • Faced with the conflict between administrative
    regulations and providing the services judged by
    the professional to be the most effective.

90
Commonweal
  • Key issue is to find a way to accommodate
    pressures from two different sources, external
    and internal.

91
Organizational Theories
  1. Traditional (most police departments).
  2. Open systems (counterpoint to traditional
    theory).
  3. Bridging theory (blend both).

92
Four Functions of Management
93
Planning
  • Planning is the process used by managers to
    identify and select appropriate goals and courses
    of action for an organization.
  • 3 steps to good planning
  • 1. Which goals should be pursued?
  • 2. How should the goal be attained?
  • 3. How should resources be allocated?
  • The planning function determines how effective
    and efficient the organization is and determines
    the strategy of the organization.

94
Organizing
  • In organizing, managers create the structure of
    working relationships between organizational
    members that best allows them to work together
    and achieve goals.
  • Managers will group people into departments
    according to the tasks performed.
  • Managers will also lay out lines of authority and
    responsibility for members.
  • An organizational structure is the outcome of
    organizing. This structure coordinates and
    motivates employees so that they work together to
    achieve goals.

95
Leading
  • In leading, managers determine direction, state a
    clear vision for employees to follow, and help
    employees understand the role they play in
    attaining goals.
  • Leadership involves a manager using power,
    influence, vision, persuasion, and communication
    skills.
  • The outcome of the leading function is a high
    level of motivation and commitment from employees
    to the organization.

96
Controlling
  • In controlling, managers evaluate how well the
    organization is achieving its goals and takes
    corrective action to improve performance.
  • Managers will monitor individuals, departments,
    and the organization to determine if desired
    performance has been reached.
  • Managers will also take action to increase
    performance as required.
  • The outcome of the controlling function is the
    accurate measurement of performance and
    regulation of efficiency and effectiveness.

97
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98
Managerial Skills
  • There are three skill sets that managers need to
    perform effectively.
  • 1. Conceptual skills the ability to analyze and
    diagnose a situation and find the cause and
    effect.
  • 2. Human skills the ability to understand,
    alter, lead, and control peoples behavior.
  • 3. Technical skills the job-specific knowledge
    required to perform a task. Common examples
    include marketing, accounting, and manufacturing.
  • All three skills are enhanced through formal
    training, reading, and practice.

99
Scientific Management
  • Defined by Frederick Taylor, late 1800s.
  • The systematic study of the relationships between
    people and tasks to redesign the work for higher
    efficiency.
  • Taylor sought to reduce the time a worker spent
    on each task by optimizing the way the task was
    done.

100
Management Science
Uses rigorous quantitative techniques to maximize
resources. Quantitative management utilizes
linear programming, modeling, simulation
systems. Operations management techniques to
analyze all aspects of the production
system. Total Quality Management (TQM) focuses
on improved quality. Management Information
Systems (MIS) provides information about the
organization.
101
4 principles of scientific management
Four Principles to increase efficiency 1. Study
the way the job is performed now determine new
ways to do it. Gather detailed, time and motion
information. Try different methods to see which
is best. 2. Codify the new method into
rules. Teach to all workers. 3. Select workers
whose skills match the rules set in Step 2. 4.
Establish a fair level of performance and pay for
higher performance. Workers should benefit from
higher output.
102
Problems with scientific management
  • Managers often implemented only the increased
    output side of Taylors plan.
  • They did not allow workers to share in increased
    output.
  • Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.
  • Workers ended up distrusting Scientific
    Management.
  • Workers could purposely under-perform
  • Management responded with increased use of
    machines.

103
Gilbreths refinement of SM
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth refined Taylors
methods. Made many improvements to time and
motion studies. Time and motion studies 1. Break
down each action into components. 2. Find better
ways to perform it. 3. Reorganize each action to
be more efficient. Gilbreths also studied fatigue
problems, lighting, heating and other worker
issues.
104
Bureaucratic Model
Seeks to create an organization that leads to
both efficiency and effectiveness. Max Weber
developed the concept of bureaucracy. A formal
system of organization and administration to
ensure effectiveness and efficiency.
105
5 Principles of Bureaucracy
106
Key points to bureaucracy
  • Authority is the power to hold people accountable
    for their actions.
  • Positions in the firm should be held based on
    performance not social contacts.
  • Position duties are clearly identified. People
    should know what is expected of them.
  • Lines of authority should be clearly identified.
    Workers know who reports to who.
  • Rules, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs),
    Norms used to determine how the firm operates.
  • Sometimes, these lead to red-tape and other
    problems.

107
Administrative Management
  • Seeks to create an organization that leads to
    both efficiency and effectiveness.

108
Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles
1. Division of Labor allows for job
specialization. Fayol noted firms can have too
much specialization leading to poor quality and
worker involvement. 2. Authority and
Responsibility Fayol included both formal and
informal authority resulting from special
expertise. 3. Unity of Command Employees should
have only one boss. 4. Line of Authority a clear
chain from top to bottom of the firm. 5.
Centralization the degree to which authority
rests at the very top
109
Fayols Principles
6. Unity of Direction One plan of action to
guide the organization. 7. Equity Treat all
employees fairly in justice and respect. 8.
Order Each employee is put where they have the
most value. 9. Initiative Encourage
innovation. 10. Discipline obedient, applied,
respectful employees needed.
110
Fayols Principles
11. Remuneration of Personnel The payment system
contributes to success. 12. Stability of Tenure
Long-term employment is important. 13. General
interest over individual interest The
organization takes precedence over the
individual. 14. Esprit de corps Share enthusiasm
or devotion to the organization.
111
Open Systems Theory
  • Focuses on the way a manager should personally
    manage to motivate employees.
  • Mary Parker Follett an influential leader in
    early managerial theory suggested
  • That workers help in analyzing their jobs for
    improvements.
  • The worker knows the best way to improve the
    job.
  • If workers have the knowledge of the task, then
    they should control the task.

112
Open System
An open system interacts with the environment. A
closed system is self-contained. Closed systems
often undergo entropy and lose the ability to
control itself, and fails. Synergy performance
gains of the whole surpass the components. Synergy
is only possible in a coordinated system.
113
Mayo The Hawthorne Studies
Study of worker efficiency at the Hawthorne Works
of the Western Electric Co. during
1924-1932. Worker productivity was measured at
various levels of light illumination. Researchers
found that regardless of whether the light levels
were raised or lowered, productivity
rose. Actually, it appears that the workers
enjoyed the attention they received as part of
the study and were more productive.
114
Theory X Y
Douglas McGregor proposed the two different sets
of worker assumptions. Theory X Assumes the
average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do
as little as possible. Managers must closely
supervise and control through reward and
punishment. Theory Y Assumes workers are not
lazy, want to do a good job and the job itself
will determine if the worker likes the
work. Managers should allow the worker great
latitude, and create an organization to stimulate
the worker.
115
Maslow The Need Theory
Need What it means
Example
116
Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Focuses on outcomes that can lead to high
motivation, job satisfaction, those that can
prevent dissatisfaction. Motivator needs related
to nature of the work and how challenging it
is. Outcomes are autonomy, responsibility,
interesting work. Hygiene needs relate to the
physical psychological context of the
work. Refers to a good work environment, pay, job
security. When hygiene needs not met, workers are
dissatisfied. Note when met, they will NOT lead
to higher motivation, just will prevent low
motivation.
117
Equity Theory
118
The organization as an open system
119
Bridging Theories Contingency Theory
Assumes there is no one best way to manage. The
environment impacts the organization and managers
must be flexible to react to environmental
changes. The way the organization is designed,
control systems selected, depend on the
environment. Technological environments change
rapidly, so must managers.
120
Bridging Theories Theory Z
William Ouchi researched the cultural differences
between Japan and USA. USA culture emphasizes the
individual, and managers tend to feel workers
follow the Theory X model. Japan culture expects
worker committed to the organization first and
thus behave differently than USA workers. Theory
Z combines parts of both the USA and Japan
structure. Managers stress long-term employment,
work-group, and organizational focus.
121
Varying Traditional and Open Systems
122
Management Development
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