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Urbanization, Centripetal and Centrifugal Movements

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Urbanization, Centripetal and Centrifugal Movements AP HUG Exurbanization Exurbanization refers to the process in the 1990s when upper class city dwellers moved out ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urbanization, Centripetal and Centrifugal Movements


1
Urbanization, Centripetal and Centrifugal
Movements
  • AP HUG

2
PART 1 URBANIZATION
3
What is a City Bell Ringer
  • The article talks about the idea that cities have
    both positive and negative characteristics.
  • In your notebook, make a list of the following
  • The positive aspects of Chicago
  • The negative aspects of Chicago

4
Bell Ringer Make a list of 5 valid claims
relating to patterns of urbanization you can see
in the map
5
The Process of Urbanization
  • Urbanization the process by which an increasing
    percentage of a countrys population comes to
    live in towns and cities. It may involve both
    rural-urban migration and natural increase.

6
Causes of urbanization
  • Rural to urban migration
  • Natural Increase

7
Rural urban migration
  • Rural to urban migration result of push and
    pull factors

8
Push and pull factors
Push factors Pull factors
Difficult/harsh climate eg. droughts Chance of a better life
Struggle to provide food for family Better housing and amenities
Very low income Chance of good jobs higher wages, more varied employment
High rates of population growth have put pressure on natural resources such as water/energy/land Better medical/health care
Cant afford to fertilizers to increase yields Children able to go to school
Mechanization of farming favors rich farmer and leads to unemployment or underemployment of poor farmer.
9
Natural increase
  • The people that migrate into towns and cities
    tend to be young resulting in high levels of
    natural increase
  • high of young adults high levels of births
  • Falling death rates due to improved medical care
    means more babies are born than people dying,
    further increasing the urban population

10
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11
urban population
12
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13
World Urban Population
14
Elbow Partner Discussions
  • Using the last two data slides, discuss this
    question
  • Why are there higher rates of urbanization in
    developing nations compared to developed nations?

15
Urbanization and Wealth Data Analysis Activity
16
Graphing Global Urbanization Activity
  • Step 1 Take 5 minutes to read/annotate data set.
    Be sure to read definition of agglomerations for
    notecards!
  • Step 2 In elbow partners, answer the following
    questions
  • How many urban agglomerations had a population
    greater than 10 million in 1950? Where were these
    urban areas?
  • Describe the changes in the number and location
    of urban agglomerations in 1975, 2000, and 2010.
  • What changes does the UN project for 2025?

17
Graphing Global Urbanization Activity
  • Step 3 Graph the Data.
  • Create a comparative bar graph showing bars for
    each of the following continents (N. America, S.
    America, Europe, Asia, Africa) and different
    colors for each time period in the handout
  • Y axis will be number of urban areas in each time
    period in each continent

18
Graphing Global Urbanization Activity
  • Step 4 Analyze the data. In one paragraph,
    answer the following prompt using data from your
    graph as your evidence.
  • Describe the changing patterns of urbanization
    from 1950-2025.

19
PART 2 CENTRIPETAL MOVEMENTS
20
Centripetal Movements involve the migration of
people into towns and cities
21
Urban Processes can be seen as inward and outward
movements
Inward Movement (Centripetal) Rural to urban
migration, gentrification, re-urbanization, urban
renewal
Outward Movement (Centrifugal) Suburbanization,
urban sprawl, counter-urbanization
22
Rural Push Factors
  • High rates of population growth have put pressure
    on natural resource such as water and energy and
    reduced the size of land holdings
  • New farming technology favors the rich farmer,
    but for others it leads to unemployment or
    underemployment
  • Migration for work is often the only option
  • (See complete list of rural push factors in
    yesterdays notes)

23
Urban Pull Factors
  • Higher wages
  • More varied employment
  • Educational opportunities
  • (See complete list in earlier notes)

24
The Consequences of Urbanization
  • Economic Growth
  • Urban economies are almost always more productive
    than rural ones
  • Industrial productivity is higher in cities.
  • Cities are usually responsible for a greater
    percentage of total GDP

25
The Consequences of Urbanization
  • Gentrification
  • The Reinvestment of capital into inner-city
    areas.
  • Improvement in residential areas
  • It is a type of filtering that may lead to the
    social displacement of poor people (as a place
    becomes gentrified, housing prices rise and the
    poor are unable to afford it often times
    minorities)

26
The Consequences of Urbanization
  • Re-urbanization (urban renewal) the development
    of activities to increase residential population
    densities within the existing built-up area of a
    city.
  • This may include the redevelopment of vacant land
    and the refurbishment of housing and the
    development of new businesses.

27
The Consequences of Urbanization
  • Brownfield Sites abandoned or underused
    industrial buildings and land, which may be
    contaminated but have potential for redevelopment

28
Centrifugal Movements
29
Centrifugal Movements
  • Also known as Decentralization
  • The outward movements of a population from the
    center of a city towards its edge or periphery,
    resulting in the expansion of a city.

30
Suburbanization
  • Suburb a residential area just outside the
    boundaries of a city.
  • Suburbanization the outward growth of towns and
    cities to engulf surrounding villages and rural
    areas. This may result from the out-migration of
    population from the inner urban areas to the
    suburbs.

31
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32
Urban Sprawl
  • The unplanned and uncontrolled physical expansion
    of an urban area into the surrounding
    countryside. It is closely linked with the
    process of suburbanization.
  • Good examples of Urban Sprawl include Mexico City
  • http//www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2401975/Am
    azing-aerial-photos-Mexico-City-natural-boundaries
    -stand-way.html

33
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34
Exurbanization
  • Exurbanization refers to the process in the 1990s
    when upper class city dwellers moved out of the
    city, beyond the suburbs, to live in high-end
    housing in the countryside.

35
Counter-Urbanization
  • A process involving the movement of populations
    away from inner urban areas to a new town, new
    estate, commuter town or village on the edge or
    just beyond the city limits or rural-urban
    fringe.
  • Characteristic of wealthy cities in MEDCs
  • It is a response to increasing stress of
    overcrowding, congestion, pollution and crime.

36
Reasons for counter-urbanization
  • Increased car ownership
  • Increased wealth
  • De-industrialization
  • Relocation of industry/employment to rural urban
    fringe
  • Desire for safe, pleasant environment, the rural
    ideal/utopia
  • Perception of urban areas as dangerous, high
    levels of crime, racial/ethnic problems white
    flight
  • Change in tenure from public/renting to private
    ownership. Sell property and move out.

37
The Consequences of Centrifugal Movements
  • Centrifugal movements involve a shift of
    population and economic activity from the center
    of the urban area to its periphery and beyond,
    which is detrimental to the center.
  • Construction of roads and buildings destroy open
    space and increases air pollution

38
Response to Consequences
  • Urban Planners have focused on ways of reviving
    the urban center(urban renewal/gentrification)
    and restricting new construction in urban
    hinterlands
  • Hinterlands the zone surrounding a city
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