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The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture

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The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture Dina M. Siegel CIH, CSP, CBSP Los Alamos National Laboratory – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture


1
The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety
Culture
  • Dina M. Siegel
  • CIH, CSP, CBSP
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory

2
Culture? Safety Culture?
  • Culture is (International Atomic Agency)
  • societal memory
  • what we have always done
  • how people look at their environment and
    themselves
  • assumptions
  • several levels
  • artifacts
  • values
  • basic assumptions
  • Safety culture is
  • understanding of catastrophic consequences when
    control is relinquished
  • recognition that attention to safety is essential
    to performing mission

3
Hey, what is our role anyway? The role of an IH
as defined by AIHA
  • Protecting People The goal of the industrial
    hygienist is to keep workers, their families, and
    the community healthy and safe. They play a vital
    part in ensuring that federal, state, and local
    laws and regulations are followed in the work
    environment.
  • Industrial Hygienists Work With the Issues That
    Concern Us All

4
Typical roles of the industrial hygienist (AIHA)
5
OSHAs view
  • Creating a Safety Culture is the single greatest
    impact on accident reduction of any process. It
    is for this single reason that developing these
    cultures should be top priority for all managers
    and supervisors.Safety cultures consist of
    shared beliefs, practices, and attitudes that
    exist at an establishment. Culture is the
    atmosphere created by those beliefs and attitudes
    which shape our behavior. An organizations safety
    culture is the result of a number of factors.

6
OSHAs view, cont.
  • Factors
  • Management and employee norms, assumptions,
    attitudes, beliefs
  • Values, myths, stories
  • Policies and procedures
  • Supervisor priorities, responsibilities and
    accountability
  • Production and bottom line pressures vs. quality
    issues
  • Actions or lack of action to correct unsafe
    behaviors
  • Employee training and motivation
  • Employee involvement or "buy-in"

7
OSHAs view, cont.
  • In a strong safety culture, everyone feels
    responsible for safety and pursues it on a daily
    basis.
  • A company with a strong safety culture typically
    experiences few at-risk behaviors.
  • Creating a safety culture takes time.
  • Top management support of a safety culture often
    results in acquiring a safety director, providing
    resources for accident investigations, and safety
    training.
  • Further progress toward a true safety culture
    uses accountability systems.
  • Any process that brings all levels within the
    organization together to work on a common goal
    that everyone holds in high value will strengthen
    the organizational culture.
  • .

8
OSHAs steps to developing a safety culture (1)
  • Define safety responsibilities for all levels of
    the organization
  • Develop upstream measures
  • Align management and supervisors
  • Implement a process that holds managers and
    supervisors accountable
  • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives
    disciplinary systems for safety and health
  • Ensure the safety committee is functioning
    appropriately
  • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring
    suggestions, concerns, or problems forward.
  • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the
    timeliness in hazard correction.
  • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and
    near misses.
  • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation
    system
  • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in
  • Continue Building "Buy-in
  • Build Trust
  • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking
  • Initial Training
  • Establish a Steering Committee
  • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals,
    measures, and strategic and operational plans.
  • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles
    and responsibilities Develop a System of
    Accountability
  • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and
    feedback system.
  • Define safety responsibilities for all levels of
    the organization.
  • Develop upstream measures.
  • Align management and supervisors.
  • Implement a process that holds managers and
    supervisors accountable.
  • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives
    disciplinary systems for safety and health.
  • Ensure the safety committee is functioning
    appropriately.
  • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring
    suggestions, concerns, or problems forward.
  • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the
    timeliness in hazard correction.

9
OSHAs steps to developing a safety culture (2)
  • Define safety responsibilities for all levels of
    the organization
  • Develop upstream measures
  • Align management and supervisors
  • Implement a process that holds managers and
    supervisors accountable
  • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives
    disciplinary systems for safety and health
  • Ensure the safety committee is functioning
    appropriately
  • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring
    suggestions, concerns, or problems forward.
  • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the
    timeliness in hazard correction.
  • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and
    near misses.
  • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation
    system
  • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in
  • Continue Building "Buy-in
  • Build Trust
  • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking
  • Initial Training
  • Establish a Steering Committee
  • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals,
    measures, and strategic and operational plans.
  • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles
    and responsibilities Develop a System of
    Accountability
  • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and
    feedback system.
  • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and
    near misses.
  • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation
    system.
  • Obtain top management buy-in.
  • Continue building buy-in.
  • Build trust.
  • Conduct self assessments/benchmarking.
  • Initial training.
  • Establish a Steering Committee.
  • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals,
    measures, and strategic and operational plans.
  • Align the organization.

10
OSHAs steps to developing a safety culture (3)
  • Define safety responsibilities for all levels of
    the organization
  • Develop upstream measures
  • Align management and supervisors
  • Implement a process that holds managers and
    supervisors accountable
  • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives
    disciplinary systems for safety and health
  • Ensure the safety committee is functioning
    appropriately
  • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring
    suggestions, concerns, or problems forward.
  • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the
    timeliness in hazard correction.
  • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and
    near misses.
  • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation
    system
  • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in
  • Continue Building "Buy-in
  • Build Trust
  • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking
  • Initial Training
  • Establish a Steering Committee
  • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals,
    measures, and strategic and operational plans.
  • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles
    and responsibilities Develop a System of
    Accountability
  • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and
    feedback system.
  • Define specific roles and responsibilities.
  • Develop a system of accountability.
  • Develop measures and an ongoing measurement and
    feedback system.
  • Develop policies for recognition, rewards,
    incentives, and ceremonies.
  • Awareness training and kick-off.
  • Implement process changes via involvement of
    management, union (if one is present), and
    employees using a "Plan To Act" process /Total
    Quality Management (TQM).
  • Continually measure performance, communicate
    results, and celebrate successes.
  • On-going support.

11
What does safety culture mean in DOE/NNSA?
  • DOE strives to provide an open culture that not
    only embraces, but also actively seeks out
    evidence of potential problems so that any
    problems can be corrected in a timely manner .
    (Glenn Podonsky, DNSFB, May 22, 2012)
  • December 5, 2011 DOE memo
  • Safety culture issues underline need for
    intensified effort
  • Broad assessment of safety culture within DOE
  • Responsibilities
  • DOE Central Technical Authorities (CTAs)
    Ultimate responsibility, provide authority to
    line managers for establishing achieving and
    maintaining stringent safety performance
    expectation and requirements
  • Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS)
    Collaboration with CTA for safety policy and
    identification of OFIs/best practices,
    independent oversight and regulatory enforcement
  • Defense Nuclear Facility safety Board
    recommendations and oversight
  • Integrated Safety Management System Guide 450.4-1
    C, Safety through Standards and Managing Risk

12
What does safety culture mean in DOE/NNSA for
contractors?
  • Carry out DOE/NNSA direction while fostering a
    work environment where every individual accepts
    responsibility for safe mission performance,
    demonstrates a questioning attitude and awareness
    of work conditions that may affect safety, and
    assists other employees and contractors in
    discouraging unsafe acts or practices.

13
Safety culture definitions
  • INSAG-4 Safety culture is that assembly of
    characteristics and attitudes in organizations
    and individuals which establishes that as an
    overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues
    receive the attention warranted by their
    significance. (created after the Chernobyl
    Accident)
  • ACSNI Human Factors Study Group (UK) Safety
    culture is the product of individual and group
    values, attitudes, competencies and patterns of
    behaviour that determine the commitment to, and
    the style and proficiency of an organizations
    health and safety programmes. Organizations with
    a positive safety culture are characterized by
    communications founded on mutual trust, by shared
    perceptions of the importance of safety and by
    confidence in the efficacy of preventive
    measures.
  • NRC A good safety culture in a nuclear
    installation is a reflection of the values, which
    are shared throughout all levels of the
    organization and which are based on the belief
    that safety is important and that it is
    everyone's responsibility.

International Nuclear Safety Advisory
Group Nuclear Regulatory Commission
14
You need Good to Great Operational Safety first!
  • Safety integrated into all aspects of an
    organizations activities
  • Strategic planning
  • Senior management involvement
  • Communication with employees
  • Risk Control
  • Risk assessments
  • Controls implemented
  • Documented
  • Safety Management Systems
  • Metrics
  • Training
  • Attitude
  • Employee Involvement

15
Safety Culture
  • Artifacts
  • Policies and procedures
  • Incident rates
  • Injury/illness rates
  • Awards and recognition
  • Using Personal Protective Equipment
  • Values
  • Safety is highest priority
  • No finger pointing
  • Lessons to be learned
  • Assumptions
  • Careless and clumsy people cause accidents
  • Some level of risk is always involved
  • Continuous improvement always possible

16
Artifacts
  • Management commitment to safety/Leadership
  • SAS (think SAT)
  • Self Assessments
  • Business drivers
  • No science/production vs. safety
  • Good relationship with stakeholders
  • Proactive
  • Change management
  • Quality
  • Compliance
  • Qualified/competent staff
  • R2/A2
  • Motivation/job satisfaction
  • Employee involvement
  • Working conditions
  • Measurements
  • Resource allocation
  • Collaboration/teamwork
  • Conflict resolution
  • Manager/employee relationship
  • housekeeping
  • Questioning attitude
  • Knowledge of man/operation interfaces

17
Values Assumptions
  • Safety is a high priority
  • Safety can always be improved
  • Open communication
  • Organization learning
  • Formal training
  • Lessons learned
  • Learning teams
  • View of mistakes
  • View of safety
  • View of people
  • Systems thinking
  • Manager role
  • Leadership
  • Coaching
  • Support for safety improvement

18
The three stages
  • Stage 1 Safety is based on rules and regulations
  • Stage 2 Safety is considered an organizational
    goal
  • Stage 3 Safety can always be improved
  • An organization can exhibit any or all
    characteristics of multiple stages

19
Stage 1
20
Stage 2
21
Stage 3
  • Problems anticipated and dealt with before they
    occur.
  • Good collaboration
  • No goal conflict between safety and production.
  • Almost all mistakes are viewed in terms of
    process variability with the emphasis placed on
    understanding what has happened, rather than
    finding someone to blame.
  • Management's role is seen as coaching people to
    improve performance.
  • Learning from others, both inside and outside the
    organization, is valued.
  • People are respected and valued for their
    contribution.
  • The relationship between management and employees
    is mutually supportive.
  • People are aware of the impact of cultural
    issues, and these are considered in decision
    making.
  • People are rewarded for improving processes, as
    well as results.
  • People are considered to be an important part of
    organizational systems with attention given to
    satisfying their needs, and not just to achieve
    technical efficiency.

22
So what is the IH/IS role in all of this?
  • As a professional
  • Risk assessment
  • Worksite analysis
  • Exposure assessment
  • Self assessment of programs
  • Recommendations for controls
  • Communication up and down and across (ESH
    management, Line managers, workers, regulators)
  • Integrated safety evaluations (MSAs, etc.)
  • Environmental, rad, other SMEs.
  • IH/S Programs
  • Performance indicators
  • Walk arounds
  • Annual assessments

23
So what is the IH/IS role in all of this?
  • As a worker
  • Do you have some control over the outcome of the
    events?
  • Treat errors as learning opportunities
  • Overexposures
  • Own personal safety

24
Safety cultures can weaken over time
  • Stage 1 Over-confidence
  • Good past performance leading to
    self-satisfaction.
  • Stage 2 Complacency
  • Occurrence of minor events that are subjected to
    minimum self-assessment, and delay in improvement
    programs.
  • Stage 3 Denial
  • Number of minor events increases, with possibly
    a more significant event. These are treated as
    isolated events. Findings from audits are
    considered invalid. Root cause analysis not used.
  • Stage 4 Danger
  • Several potentially serious events occur but
    management and employees reject criticism from
    audits or regulator, by considering their views
    biased. The oversight function is afraid to
    confront management.
  • Stage 5 Collapse
  • Regulator intervenes to implement special
    evaluations. Management is overwhelmed and may
    need to be replaced. Major and very costly
    improvement needs to be implemented.

25
What can you do?
  • Be creative and open to change
  • Work within teams, not individually
  • Listen
  • Coach
  • Take personal ownership for the change

26
What else can you do?
  • Do you have some sort of worker involvement
    teams? Get involved with them!
  • LANL-WSST
  • Others?

27
Integration of IH role with Safety culture
28
References
  • IAEA-TECDOC-1329 Safety culture in nuclear
    installations, Guidance for use in the
    enhancement of safety culture, December 2002
  • Recommendation 20111 to the Secretary of Energy,
    Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and
    Immobilization Plant, Pursuant to 42 U.S.C.
    2286a(a)(5), Atomic Energy Act of 1954, As
    Amended Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board
    Public Meeting, Statement of Glenn S. Podonsky,
    Chief Health Safety and Security Officer, Office
    of Health Safety and Security, US. Department of
    Energy, May 22, 2012.
  • Department of Energy's (DOE's) Implementation
    Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety
    Board (Board) Recommendation 2011-1, Safety
    Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization
    Plant (WTP).
  • AIHA.org
  • OSHA.gov

29
Safety Culture
  • Thank you!
  • Dina Siegel
  • 505 665 2977
  • dinas_at_lanl.gov
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